Afghanistan - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Afghanistan is gradually recovering from decades of conflict. Before 2014, the economy had sustained nearly a decade of strong growth, largely because of international assistance. Since 2014, however, the economy has slowed, in large part because of the withdrawal of nearly 100,000 foreign troops that had artificially inflated the country’s economic growth. Despite improvements in life expectancy, incomes, and literacy since 2001, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of...

Continue reading View Factbook for Afghanistan

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Private Consumption 2016 24,067,413,456 21,120,924,482 2010 USD Annual
Private Consumption 2016 1,110,676,509,256 1,035,392,070,668 NCU Annual
Government Consumption 2016 162,986,430,135 150,999,552,745 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 1,321,418,997,396 1,227,955,128,597 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 233,978,629,088 237,848,145,542 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 19,469,022,207 19,215,562,178 USD Annual
Investment 2016 233,978,629,088 237,848,145,542 NCU Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force 2017 10,937,017 10,551,762 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 8.5 8.6 % of total labor force Annual
Wage & Salaries 2013 138,204,000,000 125,459,289,713 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 91,128,351,841 85,982,853,829 NCU Annual
Net Exports 2016 -556,697,011,513 -513,279,080,742 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 647,825,363,354 599,261,934,572 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate Aug 2017 3.18 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Jul 2017 15 13.83 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2008 78.5 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Birth Rate 2015 33.98 34.84 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 6.92 7.12 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 448,007 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Usama BIN LADIN.
A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan, and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was reelected in August 2009 for a second term. The 2014 presidential election was the country's first to include a runoff, which featured the top two vote-getters from the first round, Abdullah ABDULLAH and Ashraf GHANI. Throughout the summer of 2014, their campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps. In September 2014, GHANI and ABDULLAH agreed to form the Government of National Unity, with GHANI inaugurated as president and ABDULLAH elevated to the newly-created position of chief executive officer. The day after the inauguration, the GHANI administration signed the US-Afghan Bilateral Security Agreement and NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which provide the legal basis for the post-2014 international military presence in Afghanistan.
Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Geographic coordinates:
33 00 N, 65 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 652,230 sq km
land: 652,230 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 42
Area - comparative:
almost six times the size of Virginia; slightly smaller than Texas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 5,987 km
border countries (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan 1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Uzbekistan 144 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,884 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
highest point: Noshak 7,492 m
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 58.07%
arable land 20.5%; permanent crops 0.37%; permanent pasture 79%
forest: 2.07%
other: 39.86% (2014 est.)
Irrigated land:
32,080 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated
Natural hazards:
damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)

People & Society

Population:
34,124,811 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Nationality:
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
Ethnic groups:
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)
note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
Languages:
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca
note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them
Religions:
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.92% (male 7,093,980/female 6,869,737)
15-24 years: 22.22% (male 3,859,696/female 3,723,679)
25-54 years: 30.35% (male 5,273,969/female 5,082,972)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 659,635/female 678,942)
65 years and over: 2.59% (male 407,437/female 474,764) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 88.8
youth dependency ratio: 84.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.8 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 18.9 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Population growth rate:
2.36% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Birth rate:
37.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Death rate:
13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Net migration rate:
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Population distribution:
populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 27.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.77% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
KABUL (capital) 4.635 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Infant mortality rate:
total: 110.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 118 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 102.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.7 years
male: 50.3 years
female: 53.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 222
Total fertility rate:
5.12 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
22.5% (2015/16)
Health expenditures:
8.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 52
Physicians density:
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 78.2% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 55.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.8% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 45.1% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 31.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 54.9% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
7,500 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<500 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5.5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 177
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
25% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 8
Education expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.2%
male: 52%
female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2014)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
local short form: Afghanistan
former: Republic of Afghanistan
etymology: the name "Afghan" originally referred to the Pashtun people (today it is understood to include all the country's ethnic groups), while the suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country"; so Afghanistan literally means the "Land of the Afghans"
Government type:
presidential Islamic republic
Capital:
name: Kabul
geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E
time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul
Independence:
19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004
amendments: proposed by a commission formed by presidential decree followed by the convention of a Grand Council (Loya Jirga) decreed by the president; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Loya Jirga membership and endorsement by the president (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014 ); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 26 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 5 April and 14 June 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote in first round - Abdullah ABDULLAH (National Coalition of Afghanistan) 45%, Ashraf GHANI (independent) 31.6%, Zalmai RASSOUL 11.4%, other 12%; percent of vote in second round - Ashraf GHANI 56.4%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 43.6%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats; 34 members indirectly elected by district councils to serve 3-year terms, 34 indirectly elected by provincial councils to serve 4-year terms, and 34 nominated by the president of which 17 must be women, 2 must represent the disabled, and 2 must be Kuchi nomads; members serve 5-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (249 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it consists of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no constitutional Loya Jirga has ever been held, and district councils have never been elected; the president appointed 34 members of the Meshrano Jirga that the district councils should have indirectly elected
elections: Meshrano Jirga - last held 10 January 2015 (next to be held in 2018); Wolesi Jirga - last held on 18 September 2010 (next originally scheduled on 15 October 2016 but postponed to 7 July 2018)
election results: Meshrano Jirga - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Meshrano Jirga - percent of vote by party NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the supreme court chief and 8 justices organized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)
judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles
Political parties and leaders:
note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 57 political parties as of September 2016
Political pressure groups and leaders:
religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
International organization participation:
ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNAMA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hamdullah MOHIB (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Special Charge d'Affaires Hugo LLORENS (since December 2016)
embassy: Bibi Mahru, Kabul
mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806
telephone: [00 93] 0700 108 001
FAX: [00 93] 0700 108 564
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other 2 bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great"), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies the past, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future, agricultural prosperity, or Islam
note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century - 19 by one count - than any other country; the colors black, red, and green appeared on most of them
National symbol(s):
lion; national colors: red, green, black
National anthem:
name: "Milli Surood" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA
note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new national anthem should be written containing the phrase "Allahu Akbar" (God is Greatest) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan's ethnic groups

Economy

Economy - overview:
Afghanistan is gradually recovering from decades of conflict. Before 2014, the economy had sustained nearly a decade of strong growth, largely because of international assistance. Since 2014, however, the economy has slowed, in large part because of the withdrawal of nearly 100,000 foreign troops that had artificially inflated the country’s economic growth. Despite improvements in life expectancy, incomes, and literacy since 2001, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Corruption, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government's difficulty in extending rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world.
The international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development, pledging over $83 billion at ten donors' conferences between 2003 and 2016. In October 2016, the donors at the Brussels conference pledged an additional $3.8 billion in development aid annually from 2017 to 2020. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic job creation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure.
In 2016 Afghanistan's growth rate was only marginally above that of 2014 and 2015. The drawdown of international security forces that started in 2012 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especially in the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. Afghan President Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improving revenue collection and fighting corruption. However, the reforms will take time to implement and Afghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$66.65 billion (2016 est.)
$64.29 billion (2015 est.)
$62.78 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 103
GDP (official exchange rate):
$19.45 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.4% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
2.7% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 207
Gross national saving:
25.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 108.6%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 6.6%
imports of goods and services: -46.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 22%
services: 56%
note: data exclude opium production (2015 est.)
Agriculture - products:
opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins, poppies
Industries:
small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Industrial production growth rate:
2.4% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Labor force:
7.983 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 78.6%
industry: 5.7%
services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)
Unemployment rate:
35% (2008 est.)
40% (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Population below poverty line:
35.8% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 24% (2008)
Budget:
revenues: $1.992 billion
expenditures: $6.636 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-24.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
Public debt:
8.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Fiscal year:
21 December - 20 December
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (2016 est.)
-2.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15% (31 December 2016 est.)
15% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Stock of narrow money:
$6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Stock of broad money:
$6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Stock of domestic credit:
$-240.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$-70.18 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$1.372 billion (2016 est.)
$-4.721 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Exports:
$619.2 million (2016 est.)
$580 million (2015 est.)
note: not including illicit exports or reexports
country comparison to the world: 169
Exports - commodities:
opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Exports - partners:
Pakistan 46.3%, India 37.6% (2016)
Imports:
$6.16 billion (2016 est.)
$7.034 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Imports - commodities:
machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Iran 19.3%, Pakistan 18.3%, China 16.7%, Kazakhstan 9.5%, Uzbekistan 6.1%, Turkmenistan 5.4%, Malaysia 4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$6.477 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Debt - external:
$1.28 billion (FY10/11)
$2.7 billion (FY08/09)
country comparison to the world: 163
Exchange rates:
afghanis (AFA) per US dollar -
61.14 (2016 est.)
61.14 (2015 est.)
61.14 (2014 est.)
57.25 (2013 est.)
46.45 (2010)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 18,999,254
electrification - total population: 43%
electrification - urban areas: 83%
electrification - rural areas: 32% (2012)
Electricity - production:
1.034 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Electricity - consumption:
4.741 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Electricity - imports:
3.779 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
599,100 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
44.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
55.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 104
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
130,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Refined petroleum products - imports:
127,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Natural gas - production:
189 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Natural gas - consumption:
816 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Natural gas - proved reserves:
49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 64
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 114,192
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 21,602,982
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 65 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Telephone system:
general assessment: limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellular services
international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.af
Internet users:
total: 3,531,770
percent of population: 10.6% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 20
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,929,907
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 33,102,038 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
YA (2016)
Airports:
43 (2016)
country comparison to the world: 91
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2016)
Heliports:
9 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 466 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 42,150 km
paved: 12,350 km
unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)
country comparison to the world: 86
Waterways:
1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 60
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.89% of GDP (2016)
0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2013)
1.14% of GDP (2012)
Military branches:
Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF): Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force), Afghan National Police, Afghan Local Police (2016)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2016)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 59,737 (Pakistan) (2016)
IDPs: 1.553 million (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to natural disasters and political instability) (2016)
Illicit drugs:
world's largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 10 percent, to 201,000 hectares in 2016, while eradication declined significantly; the 2016 crop yielded an estimated 4,800 mt of raw opium, a 43% increase over 2015; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; a 2015 national drug use survey found that roughly 11% of the population tested positive for one or more illicit drugs; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish

Economic Indicators for Afghanistan including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Afghanistan economy.