Brunei Darussalam - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Brunei is an energy-rich sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei boasts a well-educated, largely English-speaking population; excellent infrastructure; and a stable government intent on attracting foreign investment. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the world, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic hydrocarbon production. Bruneian citizens pay no personal income taxes,...

Continue reading View Factbook for Brunei Darussalam

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2017 6,159,849,749 5,704,652,433 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 5,792,614,532 5,412,252,447 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 6,122,381,476 5,664,050,985 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 3,330,701,288 3,517,484,653 BND Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 15,747,723,046 17,778,007,375 BND Annual
Investment 2016 5,412,252,447 6,227,277,779 BND Annual
Government Consumption 2016 4,129 4,455 Mil. BND Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 97.15 99.6 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) May 2018 99.19 99.09 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 1,151 1,272 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 217,846 215,384 # Annual
Unemployment 2015 13 14.08 Ths. Annual
Labor Force Employment 2014 189.57 Ths. Annual
Unemployment Rate 2014 6.9 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 10,018,580,365 10,297,094,635 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 6,125,545,291 6,047,762,020 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 776,871,647 838,255,445 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 679,059,936 321,312,745 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 759,629,949 438,035,559 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,536,501,597 1,276,291,005 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 7,250,733,701 9,282,433,000 BND Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 5,887,161,999 5,811,358,000 BND Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 428,697 423,196 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 15.87 16.14 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 3.58 3.51 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 2,030 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. In 2017, Brunei celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Sultan Hassanal BOLKIAH’s accession to the throne.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates:
4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km
country comparison to the world: 173
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
total: 266 km
border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation:
mean elevation: 478 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
agricultural land: 2.5%
arable land 0.8%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 0.6%
forest: 71.8%
other: 25.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
10 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards:
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Environment - current issues:
seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia

People & Society

Population:
443,593 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups:
Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other 24% (2016 est.)
Languages:
Malay (Bahasa Melayu) (official), English, Chinese dialects
Religions:
Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 23.12% (male 52,862/female 49,717)
15-24 years: 17.05% (male 37,637/female 38,005)
25-54 years: 46.75% (male 99,203/female 108,198)
55-64 years: 8.23% (male 18,537/female 17,974)
65 years and over: 4.84% (male 10,440/female 11,020) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 38.4
youth dependency ratio: 32.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.6 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 30.2 years
male: 29.7 years
female: 30.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Population growth rate:
1.57% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Death rate:
3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Net migration rate:
2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Urbanization:
urban population: 77.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.52% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000
note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Infant mortality rate:
total: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.3 years
male: 75 years
female: 79.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Health expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 186
Physicians density:
1.75 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
2.7 beds/1,000 population (2015)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
14.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 129
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
9.6% (2009)
Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 126
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97.5%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
etymology: derivation of the name is unclear; according to legend, MUHAMMAD SHAH, who would become the first sultan of Brunei, upon discovering what would become Brunei exclaimed "Baru nah," which roughly translates as "there" or "that's it"
Government type:
absolute monarchy or sultanate
Capital:
name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
1 January 1984 (from the UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection; The Sultan's Birthday, 15 June
Constitution:
history: drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others suspended since independence in 1984
amendments: proposed by the monarch; passage requires submission to the Privy Council for Legislative Council review and finalization takes place by proclamation; the monarch can accept or reject changes to the original proposal provided by the Legislative Council; amended 1984, 2004, 2011 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in May 2014, the first of three phases of sharia-based penal codes was instituted, which applies to Muslims and non-Muslims and exists in parallel to the existing common law-based code
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Brunei
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age for village elections; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council
elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary
Legislative branch:
description: Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (36 seats; members appointed by the sultan including 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries; members appointed for 5-year terms)
elections/appointments: appointed by the sultan
Judicial branch:
highest resident court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch for life
subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts
Political parties and leaders:
National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Serbini ALI (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Craig B. ALLEN (since 9 March 2015)
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Datu, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
Flag description:
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"
National symbol(s):
royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black
National anthem:
name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951

Economy

Economy - overview:
Brunei is an energy-rich sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei boasts a well-educated, largely English-speaking population; excellent infrastructure; and a stable government intent on attracting foreign investment. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market.
Per capita GDP is among the highest in the world, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic hydrocarbon production. Bruneian citizens pay no personal income taxes, and the government provides free medical services and free education through the university level.
The Bruneian Government wants to diversify its economy away from hydrocarbon exports to other industries such as information and communications technology and halal manufacturing, permissible under Islamic law. Brunei’s trade increased in 2016 and 2017, following its regional economic integration in the ASEAN Economic Community, and the expected ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$32.91 billion (2017 est.)
$33.33 billion (2016 est.)
$34.18 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 129
GDP (official exchange rate):
$11.96 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
-1.3% (2017 est.)
-2.5% (2016 est.)
-0.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$76,700 (2017 est.)
$78,800 (2016 est.)
$82,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 10
Gross national saving:
48.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
51.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 23%
government consumption: 26.7%
investment in fixed capital: 36.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 54.9%
imports of goods and services: -40.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.2%
industry: 56.5%
services: 42.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
Industries:
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, aquaculture, transportation
Industrial production growth rate:
0.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Labor force:
203,600 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.9% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $1.435 billion
expenditures: $4.017 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
12% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-21.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
Public debt:
3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.2% (2017 est.)
-0.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Stock of narrow money:
$3.359 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.232 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Stock of broad money:
$10.49 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Stock of domestic credit:
$4.701 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.066 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$580 million (2017 est.)
$1.091 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Exports:
$5.776 billion (2017 est.)
$5.023 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Exports - commodities:
mineral fuels, organic chemicals
Exports - partners:
Japan 36.5%, South Korea 16.8%, Thailand 10.6%, India 9.8%, Malaysia 6.6%, China 4.6% (2016)
Imports:
$3.275 billion (2017 est.)
$3.119 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Imports - commodities:
machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery
Imports - partners:
US 28.4%, Malaysia 24%, Singapore 7.1%, Indonesia 5.7%, Japan 5.3%, China 4.9%, Australia 4.3% (2016)
Debt - external:
$0 (2014 est.)
$0 (2013)
note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
country comparison to the world: 204
Exchange rates:
Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.39 (2017 est.)
1.38 (2016 est.)
1.38 (2015 est.)
1.37 (2014 est.)
1.27 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 104,788
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 79%
electrification - rural areas: 67% (2012)
Electricity - production:
3.948 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - consumption:
3.679 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
841,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Crude oil - production:
109,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Crude oil - exports:
119,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Crude oil - imports:
160 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Crude oil - proved reserves:
1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Refined petroleum products - production:
8,345 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
18,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Refined petroleum products - exports:
314.3 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Refined petroleum products - imports:
8,313 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Natural gas - production:
12 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Natural gas - consumption:
4.545 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Natural gas - exports:
8.52 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Natural gas - proved reserves:
311.5 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
8.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 74,213
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 523,453
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Telephone system:
general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; the South-East Asia Japan Cable System linking Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Philipines and Thailand; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2017)
Broadcast media:
state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2017)
Internet country code:
.bn
Internet users:
total: 306,000
percent of population: 71.2% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,150,003
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 115.147 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
V8 (2016)
Airports:
1 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 214
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Heliports:
3 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 2,976 km
paved: 2,559 km
unpaved: 417 km (2014)
country comparison to the world: 166
Waterways:
209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong Rivers are major transport links) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 96
Merchant marine:
total: 106
by type: general cargo 20, oil tanker 2, other 84 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 85
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Muara
oil terminal(s): Lumut, Seria
LNG terminal(s) (export): Lumut

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
3.54% of GDP (2016)
3.28% of GDP (2015)
3.08% of GDP (2014)
2.28% of GDP (2013)
2.16% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 20
Military branches:
Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 20,524 (2016); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land
Illicit drugs:
drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

Economic Indicators for Brunei Darussalam including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Brunei Darussalam economy.