Nigeria - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Nigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; however, over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2016 12,247,372,608,482 14,112,180,000,000 NGN Annual
Real Investment 2015 10,949,730,370,000 11,120,361,370,000 NCU Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 21,548,449 20,818,367 # Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2013 Q1 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Stock Market Index Jul 2018 171.04 174.08 Index Jan2010=100, NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Birth Rate 2015 39.37 39.84 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 12.77 13.07 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -300,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.

Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 33
Area - comparative:
about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain:
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation:
mean elevation: 380 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 78%
arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
forest: 9.5%
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,930 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues:
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

People & Society

Population:
190,632,261
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Nationality:
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups:
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Languages:
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Religions:
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Demographic profile:
Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.54% (male 41,506,288/female 39,595,720)
15-24 years: 19.61% (male 19,094,899/female 18,289,513)
25-54 years: 30.74% (male 30,066,196/female 28,537,846)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 3,699,947/female 3,870,080)
65 years and over: 3.13% (male 2,825,134/female 3,146,638) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 88.2
youth dependency ratio: 83
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.4 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Population growth rate:
2.43% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Birth rate:
36.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Death rate:
12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Net migration rate:
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Population distribution:
largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest
Urbanization:
urban population: 49.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Lagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Infant mortality rate:
total: 69.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.8 years
male: 52.8 years
female: 55 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Total fertility rate:
5.07 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
20.4% (2016)
Health expenditures:
3.7% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 167
Physicians density:
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 25.4% of population
total: 29% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 74.6% of population
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
2.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
3.2 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
160,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 145
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
19.4% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 12
Education expenditures:
NA
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 7.7%
male: NA
female: NA (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
Government type:
federal presidential republic
Capital:
name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence:
1 October 1960 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two-thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two-thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two-thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2012 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president, but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states
elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 16 February 2019)
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 54%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 45%, other 1%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats, proportionally represented; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 16 February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 16 February 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10
note: Senate - seats by party as of April 2017 - APC 66, PDP 43
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
Political parties and leaders:
Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Ali Modu SHERIFF]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: media
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere NSOFOR (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
consulate(s): Lagos
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
National symbol(s):
eagle; national colors: green, white
National anthem:
name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest

Economy

Economy - overview:
Nigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; however, over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.
Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017.
President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but his reliance on the Central Bank governor has led to overwhelmingly protectionist policies aimed at defending the naira from further devaluation. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as an implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources. The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.
Partly because of lower oil prices, Nigeria entered a recession in 2016. However, GDP growth turned positive, with oil prices recovering and output stabilizing in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.118 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.109 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.127 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 24
GDP (official exchange rate):
$394.8 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.8% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,900 (2017 est.)
$6,000 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 163
Gross national saving:
14.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 79%
government consumption: 6.8%
investment in fixed capital: 14.4%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 12.5%
imports of goods and services: -13.5% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 21.6%
industry: 18.3%
services: 60.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industries:
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate:
0.7% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Labor force:
60.08 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13.4% (2017 est.)
13.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Population below poverty line:
70% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
48.8 (2013 est.)
50.6 (1997 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Budget:
revenues: $13.97 billion
expenditures: $22.15 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
3.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Public debt:
15.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
16.3% (2017 est.)
15.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
6% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
17.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Stock of narrow money:
$32.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Stock of broad money:
$67.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$77.91 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Stock of domestic credit:
$79.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$89.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Current account balance:
$7.667 billion (2017 est.)
$2.722 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Exports:
$40.81 billion (2017 est.)
$34.7 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
Exports - partners:
India 34%, US 9%, Spain 5.9%, France 5.8%, South Africa 5.5%, Canada 5.1% (2016)
Imports:
$35.24 billion (2017 est.)
$35.24 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
China 20.3%, US 8.3%, Belgium 7.6%, UK 4.4%, Netherlands 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$31.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Debt - external:
$35.23 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$118 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$17.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Exchange rates:
nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
323.5 (2017 est.)
253 (2016 est.)
253 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 95,500,000
electrification - total population: 45%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 37% (2013)
Electricity - production:
29.83 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Electricity - consumption:
24.57 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
10.48 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
80.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
19.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Crude oil - production:
1.871 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Crude oil - exports:
2.279 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Crude oil - proved reserves:
37.06 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Refined petroleum products - production:
70,140 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
316,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Refined petroleum products - exports:
11,010 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Refined petroleum products - imports:
180,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Natural gas - production:
45.15 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Natural gas - consumption:
26.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Natural gas - exports:
26.33 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.284 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
97 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 154,513
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 154,342,168
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Telephone system:
general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.ng
Internet users:
total: 47,759,904
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 16
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,223,459
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 22,400,657 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
5N (2016)
Airports:
54 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 88
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports:
5 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 3,798 km
standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 51
Roadways:
total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
country comparison to the world: 29
Waterways:
8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 15
Merchant marine:
total: 583
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 83, other 486 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 36
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.43% of GDP (2016)
0.42% of GDP (2015)
0.41% of GDP (2014)
0.47% of GDP (2013)
0.5% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 146
Military branches:
Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Maritime threats:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2016, 36 commercial vessels were boarded or attacked compared with 14 attacks in 2015; in the first half of 2017, 31 crew members were abducted in five reported incidents; half of all reports of vessels being fired upon occur in Nigerian waters; Nigerian pirates have extended the range of their attacks to as far away as Cote d'Ivoire and as far as 100 nm offshore

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 1,881,198 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2018)
Illicit drugs:
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF

Economic Indicators for Nigeria including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Nigeria economy.