Croatia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia’s economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6%, led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Croatia...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2016 Q4 53,860 48,034 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2016 Q4 16,883 16,265 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Private Consumption 2016 Q4 50,694 46,135 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 Q4 16,982 17,881 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2016 Q4 17,241 16,801 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Investment 2016 Q4 18,156 6,726 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 82,958 90,406 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2016 Q4 17,793 6,625 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 86,276 94,517 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 Q4 16,664 17,542 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Oct 2018 102.5 101.9 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Apr 2018 106.41 105.87 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force Employment 2018 Q2 1,671 1,616 Ths. #, NSA Quarterly
Unemployment Rate 2018 Q2 7.5 10.3 %, NSA Quarterly
Labor Force 2018 Q2 1,808 1,802 Ths. #, NSA Quarterly
Unemployment 2018 Q2 136 186 Ths. #, NSA Quarterly
Agriculture Employment 2017 136,204 139,365 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods Aug 2018 13,789,975 15,533,641 Ths. HRK, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods Aug 2018 8,687,798 9,506,248 Ths. HRK, NSA Monthly
Balance of Goods Aug 2018 -5,102,177 -6,027,393 Ths. HRK, NSA Monthly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 244,465,426 -2,470,522,741 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 41,140 40,309 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 41,115 65,230 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 38,442 60,335 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 43,734 42,175 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt 2018 Q2 38,461 37,789 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Gross External Debt 2018 Q2 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Stock Market Index Nov 2018 65.08 65.95 Index Jan2010=100, NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Oct 2018 2.09 2.14 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate Mar 2014 0.61 0.45 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Mar 2013 7 7 % Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Residential Building Permits Sep 2018 422 354 #, NSA Monthly
Non-residential Building Permits Sep 2018 116 103 #, NSA Monthly
Building Permits Sep 2018 750 634 #, NSA Monthly
House Price Index 2018 Q2 109.26 109.44 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence Oct 2018 -11.6 -12.1 SA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q4 75.6 75.9 %, SA Quarterly
Change in Inventories 2016 Q4 1,129 -10,916 Mil. HRK, NSA Quarterly
Real Change in Inventories 2016 Q4 1,028 -9,910 Mil. 2010 HRK, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -40,000 # Annual
Population 2017 4,189,353 4,213,265 # Annual
Death Rate 2016 12.3 12.9 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2014 9.3 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Deaths 2012 51,710 51,019 #, NSA Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal Josip Broz, aka TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 56,594 sq km
land: 55,974 sq km
water: 620 sq km
country comparison to the world: 128
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 2,237 km
border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
Coastline:
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation:
mean elevation: 331 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 23.7%
arable land 16%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 6.2%
forest: 34.4%
other: 41.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
240 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
air pollution improving but still a concern in urban settings and in emissions arriving from neighboring countries; surface water pollution in the Danube River Basin
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People & Society

Population:
4,292,095 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Nationality:
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
Languages:
Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.21% (male 314,287/female 295,520)
15-24 years: 11.24% (male 247,394/female 235,166)
25-54 years: 40.43% (male 867,978/female 867,125)
55-64 years: 14.82% (male 309,794/female 326,102)
65 years and over: 19.31% (male 330,406/female 498,323) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 50.9
youth dependency ratio: 22.4
elderly dependency ratio: 28.5
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 43 years
male: 41.1 years
female: 45 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Population growth rate:
-0.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 222
Birth rate:
8.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Death rate:
12.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Net migration rate:
-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Population distribution:
more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 59.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
ZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
28 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Infant mortality rate:
total: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.1 years
male: 72.9 years
female: 79.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Health expenditures:
7.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 58
Physicians density:
3.13 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
5.6 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.7% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.3% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 95.8% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 4.2% of population
total: 3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,500 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<100 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 59
Education expenditures:
4.6% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 99
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 43%
male: 41.9%
female: 44.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum, and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Damir KRSTICEVIC (since 19 October 2016), Predrag STROMAR (since 9 June 2017), and Marija Pejcinovic BURIC (since 19 June 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 December 2014 and 11 January 2015 (next to be held in 2019); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms
elections: last held on 11 September 2016 (next to be held by December 2020) - Assembly voted on 20 June 2016 to dissolve on 15 July 2016, resulting in snap elections
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; number of seats by party/coalition - HDZ coalition 61, People's Coalition 54, Most-NL 13, Only Option 8, minorities 8 (includes SDSS 3), other 7
note: as of August 2017, seats by party - HDZ 55, SDP 37, MOST-NL 12, HNS 5, HSS 5, GLAS 4, IDS 3, SDSS 3, Human Blockade 3, HDS 2, PH 2, other 7, independent 13
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system
Political parties and leaders:
Bloc of Pensioners Together or BUZ [Milivoj SPIKA]
Bridge of Independent Lists or Most-NL [Bozo PETROV]
Civic Liberal Alliance or GLAS [Ankar Mrak TARITAS]
Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Laborists - Labor Party or HL [David BREGOVAC]
Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Hrvoje NICE]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]
Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance [Ivo JOSIPOVIC]
Human Blockade ("Living Wall") [Ivan SINCIC]
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Milorad PUPOVAC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
Let's Change Croatia or PH [Ivan LOVRINOVIC]
Milan Bandic 365 - Party of Labor and Solidarity or BM365-SRS [Milan BANDIC]
Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
People's Party - Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]
Smart Party or PAMETNO [Marijana PULJAK]
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Davor BERNARDIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
human rights groups
International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pjer SIMUNOVIC (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Julieta Valls NOYES (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National symbol(s):
red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem:
name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

Economy

Economy - overview:
Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia’s economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6%, led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.
Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and is slowly recovering; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year between 2009 and 2014, but has picked up since 2015. Difficult problems still remain including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. Its stubbornly high unemployment rate is slowly coming down. In 2016 Croatia demonstrated a commitment to improving the business climate, simplifying its tax code to stimulate growth from domestic consumption and foreign investment. Even before 2016, Croatia has worked to become a regional energy player and plans to import liquefied natural gas through a prospective import terminal and re-export it to European consumers.
On 1 July 2013, Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, with its currency effectively pegged to the euro, until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt and as a result Zagreb has cut spending and has raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the value-added tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success. Croatia’s economic recovery is still somewhat fragile, though, as one of the country’s largest companies almost collapsed in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$100.2 billion (2017 est.)
$97.32 billion (2016 est.)
$94.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 85
GDP (official exchange rate):
$53.48 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.9% (2017 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$24,100 (2017 est.)
$23,300 (2016 est.)
$22,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 82
Gross national saving:
24.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 58.1%
government consumption: 19.1%
investment in fixed capital: 20.7%
investment in inventories: -0.4%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -48.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 26.5%
services: 69.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
Industries:
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Labor force:
1.552 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.9%
industry: 27.6%
services: 70.4% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13.9% (2017 est.)
15% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Population below poverty line:
19.5% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.5% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32 (2014 est.)
29 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Budget:
revenues: $25.79 billion
expenditures: $26.92 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
48.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Public debt:
81.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
83.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.1% (2017 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Central bank discount rate:
7% (31 December 2016 est.)
7% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.85% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Stock of narrow money:
$14.75 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Stock of broad money:
$50.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Stock of domestic credit:
$46.95 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$36.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$33.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$33.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Current account balance:
$2.038 billion (2017 est.)
$1.326 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Exports:
$12.35 billion (2017 est.)
$11.63 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Exports - commodities:
transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Italy 13.5%, Slovenia 12.3%, Germany 11.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2%, Austria 6.3%, Serbia 4.2% (2016)
Imports:
$21.2 billion (2017 est.)
$19.76 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Imports - commodities:
machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Germany 16.1%, Italy 12.6%, Slovenia 10.9%, Austria 7.9%, Hungary 7.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$15.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Debt - external:
$44.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$45.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$43.25 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$8.204 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.757 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Exchange rates:
kuna (HRK) per US dollar -
6.57 (2017 est.)
6.81 (2016 est.)
6.81 (2015 est.)
6.86 (2014 est.)
5.75 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
10.82 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Electricity - consumption:
15.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Electricity - exports:
1.858 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Electricity - imports:
8.64 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
4.915 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
43.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
39% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
12% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Crude oil - production:
13,580 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Crude oil - imports:
47,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Crude oil - proved reserves:
71 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Refined petroleum products - production:
65,860 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
69,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Refined petroleum products - exports:
33,660 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Refined petroleum products - imports:
31,840 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Natural gas - production:
1.829 billion cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Natural gas - consumption:
3.59 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Natural gas - exports:
422 million cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Natural gas - imports:
1.072 billion cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Natural gas - proved reserves:
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
19 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,435,977
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 4,414,347
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has dropped somewhat to about 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions now even with the population
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2016)
Broadcast media:
the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012)
Internet country code:
.hr
Internet users:
total: 3,135,949
percent of population: 72.7% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 46
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,782,666
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 775,320 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
9A (2016)
Airports:
69 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 72
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)
Railways:
total: 2,722 km
standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 64
Roadways:
total: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)
country comparison to the world: 98
Waterways:
785 km (2009)
country comparison to the world: 73
Merchant marine:
total: 288
by type: bulk carrier 17, general cargo 39, oil tanker 18, other 214 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 54
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
oil terminal(s): Omisalj

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.27% of GDP (2017)
1.38% of GDP (2016)
1.55% of GDP (2015)
1.59% of GDP (2014)
1.66% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 91
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM, includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,873 (2016)
note: 659,105 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016); flows have slowed considerably in 2017; Croatia is predominantly a transit country and hosts about 430 migrants and asylum seekers as of March 2018
Illicit drugs:
primarily a transit country along the Balkan route for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe and other illicit drugs and chemical precursors to and from Western Europe; no significant domestic production of illicit drugs

Economic Indicators for Croatia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Croatia economy.