Jamaica - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services, which accounts for more than 70% of GDP. The country continues to derive most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Earnings from remittances and tourism each account for about 15% of GDP, while bauxite/alumina exports have declined to less than 5% of GDP. Jamaica's economy has grown on average less than 1% a year for the last three decades and many impediments remain to growth: a bloated public sector which crowds out spending on important projects; high crime and corruption; red-tape;...

Continue reading View Factbook for Jamaica

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 409,526,310,700 373,327,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 182,640,000,000 181,867,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 181,582,000,000 180,849,000,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 1,419,083,476,825 1,346,283,328,078 JMD Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 454,089,192,836 432,459,402,124 JMD, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2016 321,183,672,854 345,265,063,683 JMD Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q3 104.83 103.89 Index 2005=100 Quarterly
Government Consumption 2015 229,448 223,858 Mil. JMD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Sep 2018 159.08 157.32 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 279,595 273,951 # Annual
Labor Force Employment 2017 Q1 1,185 1,180 Ths. Quarterly
Labor Force 2016 1,487,500 1,469,165 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 179,068,193,400 168,787,372,500 NCU Annual
Unemployment Rate Oct 2003 10.9 %, NSA Monthly
Unemployment Oct 2003 128,900 #, NSA Monthly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2018 Q2 407,626,540 392,575,871 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q2 -878,962,818 -909,907,191 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 -89,113,543 -103,847,112 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q2 1,286,589,359 1,302,483,062 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 294,544,000,000 290,169,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 378,949,000,000 386,410,000,000 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 833,884,543,655 752,995,366,443 JMD Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 556,955,120,451 496,915,166,474 JMD Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Aug 2018 1.88 2.07 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Jun 2017 5 5 % - End of period Monthly
Money Market Rate Apr 2016 3 3 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Apr 1998 26.86 26.82 % Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2017 2,175,814,200 2,052,000,000 NCU Annual
Industrial Production 1990 Q4 96.22 98.1 1990=100, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -93,000 # Annual
Population 2017 2,890,299 2,881,355 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 16.63 16.81 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.98 6.93 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The native Taino, who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually increased its independence from Britain. In 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica withdrew from the Federation in 1961 and gained full independence in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Geographic coordinates:
18 15 N, 77 30 W
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total: 10,991 sq km
land: 10,831 sq km
water: 160 sq km
country comparison to the world: 167
Area - comparative:
about half the size of New Jersey; slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
1,022 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain:
mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation:
mean elevation: 18 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use:
agricultural land: 41.4%
arable land 11.1%; permanent crops 9.2%; permanent pasture 21.1%
forest: 31.1%
other: 27.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
250 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
population density is high throughout, but increases in and around Kingston, Montego Bay, and Port Esquivel
Natural hazards:
hurricanes (especially July to November)
Environment - current issues:
heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston from vehicle emissions; land erosion
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
third largest island in the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola); strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal

People & Society

Population:
2,990,561 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Nationality:
noun: Jamaican(s)
adjective: Jamaican
Ethnic groups:
black 92.1%, mixed 6.1%, East Indian 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2011 est.)
Languages:
English, English patois
Religions:
Protestant 64.8% (includes Seventh Day Adventist 12.0%, Pentecostal 11.0%, Other Church of God 9.2%, New Testament Church of God 7.2%, Baptist 6.7%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.5%, Anglican 2.8%, United Church 2.1%, Methodist 1.6%, Revived 1.4%, Brethren 0.9%, and Moravian 0.7%), Roman Catholic 2.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.9%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.5%, none 21.3%, unspecified 2.3% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.17% (male 413,325/female 399,190)
15-24 years: 20.79% (male 312,400/female 309,477)
25-54 years: 38.17% (male 564,414/female 577,059)
55-64 years: 5.85% (male 84,271/female 90,612)
65 years and over: 8.02% (male 107,310/female 132,503) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 34.9
elderly dependency ratio: 13.8
potential support ratio: 7.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 26 years
male: 25.5 years
female: 26.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Population growth rate:
0.68% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Birth rate:
17.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Death rate:
6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Net migration rate:
-4.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Population distribution:
population density is high throughout, but increases in and around Kingston, Montego Bay, and Port Esquivel
Urbanization:
urban population: 55.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.93% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
KINGSTON (capital) 588,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
89 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Infant mortality rate:
total: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.7 years
male: 72.1 years
female: 75.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Total fertility rate:
1.96 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
72.5% (2008/09)
Health expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 130
Physicians density:
0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density:
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 89.4% of population
total: 93.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 10.6% of population
total: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 79.9% of population
rural: 84.1% of population
total: 81.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 20.1% of population
rural: 15.9% of population
total: 18.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
30,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,300 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Major infectious diseases:
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 55
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.5% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 112
Education expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 40
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 88.7%
male: 84%
female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 37.8%
male: 32.4%
female: 43.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jamaica
etymology: from the native Taino word "haymaca" meaning "Land of Wood and Water" or possibly "Land of Springs"
Government type:
parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital:
name: Kingston
geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 76 48 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
note: for local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation
Independence:
6 August 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 August (1962)
Constitution:
several previous (preindependence); latest drafted 1961-62, submitted to British Parliament 24 July 1962, entered into force 6 August 1962 (at independence); amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system:
common law system based on the English model
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dr. Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrew HOLNESS (since 3 March 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister and the opposition party leader, 13 seats allocated to the ruling party, and 8 seats allocated to the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives (63 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 February 2016 (next to be held no later than February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - JLP 50.1%, PNP 49.7%, other 0.2%; seats by party - JLP 32, PNP 31
Judicial branch:
highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of president of the court and a minimum of 4 judges; Supreme Court (40 judges organized in specialized divisions); note - appeals beyond Jamaica's highest courts are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) rather than to the Caribbean Court of Justice (the appellate court implemented for member states of the Caribbean Community)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice of the Supreme Court and president of the Court of Appeal appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister; other judges of both courts appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; judges of both courts serve till age 70
subordinate courts: resident magistrate courts, district courts, and petty sessions courts
Political parties and leaders:
Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew HOLNESS]
People's National Party or PNP [Dr. Peter David PHILLIPS]
National Democratic Movement or NDM [Peter TOWNSEND]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
New Beginnings Movement or NBM
Rastafarians
International organization participation:
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Audrey Patrice MARKS (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
FAX: [1] (202) 452-0036
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
consulate(s): Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Concord (MA), Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia (PA), Richmond (VA), San Francisco, Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eric KHANT (since 30 June 2017)
embassy: 142 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6
mailing address: P.O. Box 541, Kingston 5
telephone: [1] (876) 702-6000
FAX: [1] (876) 702-6348
Flag description:
diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side); green represents hope, vegetation, and agriculture, black reflects hardships overcome and to be faced, and yellow recalls golden sunshine and the island's natural resources
National symbol(s):
green-and-black streamertail (bird), Guaiacum officinale (Guaiacwood); national colors: green, yellow, black
National anthem:
name: "Jamaica, Land We Love"
lyrics/music: Hugh Braham SHERLOCK/Robert Charles LIGHTBOURNE
note: adopted 1962

Economy

Economy - overview:
The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services, which accounts for more than 70% of GDP. The country continues to derive most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Earnings from remittances and tourism each account for about 15% of GDP, while bauxite/alumina exports have declined to less than 5% of GDP.
Jamaica's economy has grown on average less than 1% a year for the last three decades and many impediments remain to growth: a bloated public sector which crowds out spending on important projects; high crime and corruption; red-tape; and a high debt-to-GDP ratio. Jamaica, however, has made steady progress in reducing its debt-to-GDP ratio from a high of almost 150% in 2012 to about 115% in 2017, in close collaboration with the International Monetary Fund. The existing Stand By Agreement requires Jamaica to produce an annual primary surplus of 7%, in an attempt to reduce its debt burden below 60% by 2025.
Economic growth reached 1.6% in 2016. The HOLNESS administration faces the difficult prospect of maintaining fiscal discipline to make debt payments while simultaneously attacking a serious crime problem. High unemployment exacerbates the crime problem, including gang violence fueled by the drug trade.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$26.2 billion (2017 est.)
$25.77 billion (2016 est.)
$25.44 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 141
GDP (official exchange rate):
$14.29 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.7% (2017 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,200 (2017 est.)
$9,100 (2016 est.)
$9,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 142
Gross national saving:
16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
17% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 81.9%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 21.1%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 29.4%
imports of goods and services: -46% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 7.5%
industry: 21.3%
services: 71.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, ackees, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk; shellfish
Industries:
tourism, bauxite/alumina, agricultural-processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate:
1.7% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Labor force:
1.325 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 19%
services: 64% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
12.2% (2017 est.)
12.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Population below poverty line:
16.5% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 35.8% (2004 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45.5 (2004 est.)
37.9 (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Budget:
revenues: $4.207 billion
expenditures: $4.15 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
29.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Public debt:
117.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
127.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Central bank discount rate:
2% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
16.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Stock of narrow money:
$3.634 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.409 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Stock of broad money:
$8.888 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.429 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Stock of domestic credit:
$7.902 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.343 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$6.39 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.223 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$6.626 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Current account balance:
$-390 million (2017 est.)
$-309 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Exports:
$1.123 billion (2017 est.)
$1.195 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Exports - commodities:
alumina, bauxite, sugar, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, apparel, mineral fuels
Exports - partners:
US 40.8%, Canada 11.9%, Netherlands 10.2%, Russia 5.8%, UK 4.1% (2016)
Imports:
$4.197 billion (2017 est.)
$4.169 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Imports - commodities:
food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
Imports - partners:
US 39%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.2%, China 6.4%, Japan 6.2%, Mexico 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.291 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Debt - external:
$14.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Exchange rates:
Jamaican dollars (JMD) per US dollar -
128.5 (2017 est.)
125.13 (2016 est.)
125.13 (2015 est.)
116.9 (2014 est.)
110.94 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 200,000
electrification - total population: 93%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 87% (2013)
Electricity - production:
3.894 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Electricity - consumption:
2.757 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
988,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
88.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
13% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Crude oil - imports:
19,160 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Refined petroleum products - production:
19,760 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
54,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Refined petroleum products - exports:
845.3 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Refined petroleum products - imports:
34,170 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
13 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 310,213
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 3,267,344
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Telephone system:
general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network
domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market for telecommunications services resulted in rapid growth in mobile-cellular telephone usage while the number of fixed lines in use has declined; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity exceeds 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable in the Dominican Republic; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Jamaica, Cuba, and Venezuela; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
3 free-to-air TV stations, subscription cable services, and roughly 30 radio stations (2013)
Internet country code:
.jm
Internet users:
total: 1,336,653
percent of population: 45.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 92,836
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
6Y (2016)
Airports:
28 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 123
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Roadways:
total: 22,121 km (includes 44 km of expressways)
paved: 16,148 km
unpaved: 5,973 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 104
Merchant marine:
total: 41
by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 8, general cargo 11, other 19 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 121
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Discovery Bay (Port Rhoades), Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Port Esquivel, Port Kaiser, Rocky Point
container port(s) (TEUs): Kingston (1,724,928)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.82% of GDP (2016)
0.83% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.9% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 128
Military branches:
Jamaica Defense Force: Ground Forces, Coast Guard, Air Wing (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
17 1/2 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Jamaica is a source and destination country for children and adults subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; sex trafficking of children and adults occurs on the street, in night clubs, bars, massage parlors, and private homes; child sex tourism is a problem in resort areas; Jamaicans have been subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor in the Caribbean, Canada, the US, and the UK, while foreigners have endured conditions of forced labor in Jamaica or aboard foreign-flagged fishing vessels operating in Jamaican waters; a high number of Jamaican children are reported missing
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Jamaica does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government made significant efforts to raise public awareness of human trafficking, and named a national trafficking-in-persons rapporteur – the first in the region; authorities initiated more new trafficking investigations than in 2013 and concluded a trafficking case in the Supreme Court, but chronic delays impeded prosecutions and no offenders were convicted for the sixth consecutive year; more adult trafficking victims were identified than in previous years, but only one child victim was identified, which was exceptionally low relative to the number of vulnerable children (2015)
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation and consumption of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Jamaica for illicit financial transactions

Economic Indicators for Jamaica including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Jamaica economy.