Lebanon - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and inadequate intellectual property rights protection. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism. The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's...

Continue reading View Factbook for Lebanon

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2017 17,020,002,012,026 18,538,461,070,725 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 65,996,175,802,300 64,688,921,127,800 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 15,154,943,371,430 16,868,381,297,598 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 15,154,943,371,430 16,868,381,297,598 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 17,020,002,012,026 18,538,461,070,725 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 62,945,596,891,184 64,324,150,905,813 LBP Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 76,064,912,297,378 74,559,889,418,368 LBP Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) 2017 119 114.07 Index 2010=100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Rate 2017 6.64 6.58 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2017 2,207,590 2,164,392 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 4,463,958,243,000 4,307,428,009,000 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 18,817,704,182,070 18,649,620,554,200 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 38,852,700,224,602 38,434,027,766,000 NCU Annual
Real Net Exports 2017 -20,034,996,042,532 -19,784,407,211,800 NCU Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -3,891,531,939 -2,496,862,649 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 30,257,759,173,751 29,744,262,293,714 LBP Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 47,545,512,137,563 46,189,184,281,881 LBP Annual
Exports of Goods May 2015 293.3 234.7 Millions of US Dollars, NSA Monthly
Balance of Goods May 2015 -1,192 -1,209 Millions of US Dollars, NSA Monthly
Imports of Goods May 2015 1,485 1,444 Millions of US Dollars, NSA Monthly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic Aug 2018 56,526 56,112 Billion of Lebanese Pound, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt Aug 2018 109,834 109,254 Billion of Lebanese Pound, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt - Foreign Aug 2018 35,361 35,251 Millions of US Dollars NSA Monthly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Aug 2018 4.44 4.44 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Feb 2013 10 10 % - End of period Monthly
Stock Market Index Jan 2012 81 82.36 Index Jan2010=100, NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Change in Inventories 2010 34,500 -334,695,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -150,000 # Annual
Population 2017 6,082,357 6,006,668 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 15.47 15.38 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 4.62 4.59 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Since independence, the country has been marked by periods of political turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on its position as a regional center for finance and trade. The country's 1975-90 civil war, which resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities, was followed by years of social and political instability. Sectarianism is a key element of Lebanese political life. Neighboring Syria has historically influenced Lebanon's foreign policy and internal policies, and its military occupied Lebanon from 1976 until 2005. The Lebanon-based Hizballah militia and Israel continued attacks and counterattacks against each other after Syria's withdrawal, and fought a brief war in 2006. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.

Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Geographic coordinates:
33 50 N, 35 50 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km
country comparison to the world: 169
Area - comparative:
about one-third the size of Maryland
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 484 km
border countries (2): Israel 81 km, Syria 403 km
Coastline:
225 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,250 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m
Natural resources:
limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 63.3%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 12.3%; permanent pasture 39.1%
forest: 13.4%
other: 23.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,040 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the majority of the people live on or near the Mediterranean coast, and of these most live in and around the capital, Beirut; favorable growing conditions in the Bekaa Valley, on the southeastern side of the Lebanon Mountains, have attracted farmers and thus the area exhibits a smaller population density
Natural hazards:
earthquakes; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil deterioration (erosion, pollution and urbanization); desertification; species loss; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills; waste-water management
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
smallest country in continental Asia; Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

People & Society

Population:
6,229,794 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Nationality:
noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Lebanese
Ethnic groups:
Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendants of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Languages:
Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Religions:
Muslim 54% (27% Sunni, 27% Shia), Christian 40.5% (includes 21% Maronite Catholic, 8% Greek Orthodox, 5% Greek Catholic, 6.5% other Christian), Druze 5.6%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, Hindus, and Mormons
note: 18 religious sects recognized (2012 est.)
religious affiliation:
Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.09% (male 768,282/female 732,773)
15-24 years: 16.42% (male 523,380/female 499,582)
25-54 years: 44.79% (male 1,412,114/female 1,378,464)
55-64 years: 7.91% (male 232,198/female 260,685)
65 years and over: 6.78% (male 183,995/female 238,321) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 35.3
elderly dependency ratio: 12
potential support ratio: 8.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 30.5 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 31.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Population growth rate:
-1.1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 231
Birth rate:
14.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Net migration rate:
-20.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
Population distribution:
the majority of the people live on or near the Mediterranean coast, and of these most live in and around the capital, Beirut; favorable growing conditions in the Bekaa Valley, on the southeastern side of the Lebanon Mountains, have attracted farmers and thus the area exhibits a smaller population density
Urbanization:
urban population: 88% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
BEIRUT (capital) 2.226 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Infant mortality rate:
total: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.8 years
male: 76.5 years
female: 79.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Total fertility rate:
1.72 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
54.5% (2009)
Health expenditures:
6.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 95
Physicians density:
2.38 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 80.7% of population
rural: 80.7% of population
total: 80.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.3% of population
rural: 19.3% of population
total: 19.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,200 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
32% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 19
Education expenditures:
2.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 162
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96%
female: 91.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 22.1%
male: 22.3%
female: 21.6% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
conventional short form: Lebanon
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form: Lubnan
former: Greater Lebanon
etymology: derives from the Semitic root "lbn" meaning "white" and refers to snow-capped Mount Lebanon
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Beirut
geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
8 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Aakkar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beqaa (Bekaa), Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord (North Lebanon), Liban-Sud (South Lebanon), Mont-Liban (Mount Lebanon), Nabatiye
Independence:
22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Constitution:
history: drafted 15 May 1926, adopted 23 May 1926
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and introduced as a government bill to the Chamber of Deputies or proposed by at least 10 members of the Chamber of Deputies and agreed upon by two-thirds of its members; following government review and approval, the proposal is prepared as a draft amendment and submitted to the Chamber of Deputies for discussion and vote; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of a required two-thirds quorum of the chamber membership and promulgation by the president; amended several times, last in 2004 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communities
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Lebanon
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
Suffrage:
21 years of age; authorized for all men and women regardless of religion; excludes persons convicted of felonies and other crimes or those imprisoned; excludes all military and security service personnel regardless of rank
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Michel AWN (since 31 October 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Saad al-HARIRI (since 18 December 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Ghassan HASBANI (since 18 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and National Assembly
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in the first round and if needed absolute majority vote in a second round for a 6-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); last held on 31 October 2016 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly
election results: Michel AWN elected president in second round; National Assembly vote - Michel AWN (FPM) 83; note - in the initial election held on 23 April 2014, no candidate received the required two-thirds vote, and subsequent attempts failed because the Assembly lacked the necessary quorum to hold a vote; the president was finally elected in its 46th attempt on 31 October 2016
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab in Arabic or Assemblee Nationale in French (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); in 2017, the Assembly changed the electoral system from majoritarian to proporional representation
note: Lebanon’s constitution states the National Assembly cannot conduct regular business until it elects a president when the position is vacant
elections: last held on on 6 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: percent of vote by coalition - NA; seats by coalition - Amal-Hizballah 35, Free Patriotic Movement 24, Future Movement 19, Lebanese Forces 13, Progressive Socialist Party 9, Azm Movement 4, other 11, independent 13
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (organized into 8 chambers, each with a presiding judge and 2 associate judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 10 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body headed by the chief justice, and includes other judicial officials; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the Council of Ministers and 5 by parliament; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; specialized tribunals, religious courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders:
Amal Movement [Nabih BERRI]
Azm Movement [Najib MIQATI]
Ba’th Arab Socialist Party of Lebanon [Fayiz SHUKR]
Free Patriotic Movement or FPM [Gibran BASSIL]
Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI]
Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH]
Islamic Actions Front [Sheikh Zuhayr al-JU’AYD]
Kata'ib Party [Sami GEMAYEL]
Lebanese Forces or LF [Samir JA'JA]
Marada Movement [Sulayman FRANJIEH]
Progressive Socialist Party or PSP [Walid JUNBLATT]
Social Democrat Hunshaqian Party [Sabuh KALPAKIAN]
Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
Tashnag or Armenian Revolutionary Federation [Hagop PAKRADOUNIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Grand Mufti of Lebanon [Shaykh Abd al-LATIF DARYAN]
Maronite Church [Patriarch Moran Mor Bechora Boutros al-RAHI]
note: a number of Sunni militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel ISSA (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth H. RICHARD (since 17 May 2016)
embassy: Awkar, Lebanon (Awkar facing the Municipality)
mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Lebanon; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070
telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600
FAX: [961] (4) 544136
Flag description:
three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree centered in the white band; the red bands symbolize blood shed for liberation, the white band denotes peace, the snow of the mountains, and purity; the green cedar tree is the symbol of Lebanon and represents eternity, steadiness, happiness, and prosperity
National symbol(s):
cedar tree; national colors: red, white, green
National anthem:
name: "Kulluna lil-watan" (All Of Us, For Our Country!)
lyrics/music: Rachid NAKHLE/Wadih SABRA
note: adopted 1927; chosen following a nationwide competition

Economy

Economy - overview:
Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and inadequate intellectual property rights protection. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism.
The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern banking hub. Following the civil war, Lebanon rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily, mostly from domestic banks, which saddled the government with a huge debt burden. Pledges of economic and financial reforms made at separate international donor conferences during the 2000s have mostly gone unfulfilled, including those made during the Paris III Donor Conference in 2007, following the July 2006 war. The "CEDRE" investment event hosted by France in April 2018 again rallied the international community to assist Lebanon with concessional financing and some grants for capital infrastructure improvements, conditioned upon long-delayed structural economic reforms in fiscal management, electricity tariffs, and transparent public procurement, among many others.
The Syria conflict cut off one of Lebanon's major markets and a transport corridor through the Levant. The influx of nearly one million registered and an estimated 300,000 unregistered Syrian refugees has increased social tensions and heightened competition for low-skill jobs and public services. Lebanon continues to face several long-term structural weaknesses that predate the Syria crisis, notably, weak infrastructure, poor service delivery, institutionalized corruption, and bureaucratic over-regulation. Chronic fiscal deficits have increased Lebanon’s debt-to-GDP ratio, the third highest in the world; most of the debt is held internally by Lebanese banks. These factors combined to slow economic growth to the 1-2% range in 2011-17, after four years of averaging 8% growth. Weak economic growth limits tax revenues, while the largest government expenditures remain debt servicing, salaries for government workers, and transfers to the electricity sector. These limitations constrain other government spending, limiting its ability to invest in necessary infrastructure improvements, such as water, electricity, and transportation. In early 2018, the Lebanese government signed long-awaited contract agreements with an international consortium for petroleum exploration and production as part of the country’s first offshore licensing round. Exploration is expected to begin in 2019.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$87.89 billion (2017 est.)
$86.59 billion (2016 est.)
$85.73 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 91
GDP (official exchange rate):
$52.7 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.5% (2017 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$19,500 (2017 est.)
$19,400 (2016 est.)
$19,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 89
Gross national saving:
3.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
4.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 83.6%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 19.4%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 26.4%
imports of goods and services: -42.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 5.7%
industry: 21%
services: 73.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Industries:
banking, tourism, real estate and construction, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Industrial production growth rate:
2.1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Labor force:
2.166 million
note: excludes as many as 1 million foreign workers and refugees (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Population below poverty line:
28.6% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $10.9 billion
expenditures: $15.99 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
20.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-9.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Public debt:
142.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
146.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment
country comparison to the world: 3
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.1% (2017 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Central bank discount rate:
3.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
10% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
8.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Stock of narrow money:
$7.366 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.739 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Stock of broad money:
$56.65 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$54.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Stock of domestic credit:
$112.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$104 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$11.22 billion (30 December 2014 est.)
$10.54 billion (30 December 2013 est.)
$10.42 billion (28 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Current account balance:
$-9.488 billion (2017 est.)
$-9.382 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Exports:
$4.051 billion (2017 est.)
$3.689 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Exports - commodities:
jewelry, base metals, chemicals, consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Exports - partners:
South Africa 21.1%, Saudi Arabia 9%, UAE 8%, Syria 6.7%, Iraq 5.4% (2016)
Imports:
$18.05 billion (2017 est.)
$17.33 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
China 11.2%, Italy 7.5%, US 6.3%, Germany 6.2%, Greece 5.7%, Egypt 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$53.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$54.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Debt - external:
$39.46 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$36.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Lebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar -
1,507.5 (2017 est.)
1,507.5 (2016 est.)
1,507.5 (2015 est.)
1,507.5 (2014 est.)
1,507.5 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
17.32 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Electricity - consumption:
15.66 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Electricity - imports:
268 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
2.337 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
87.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
12.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
143,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Refined petroleum products - imports:
148,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Natural gas - consumption:
150.1 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Natural gas - imports:
150.1 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
16 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,816,262
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 4,890,534
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 79 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Telephone system:
general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete
domestic: two mobile-cellular networks provide good service; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership about 95 per 100 persons
international: country code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria (2016)
Broadcast media:
7 TV stations, 1 of which is state owned; more than 30 radio stations, 1 of which is state owned; satellite and cable TV services available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible through partner stations (2007)
Internet country code:
.lb
Internet users:
total: 4,747,542
percent of population: 76.1% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,583,274
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 53,902,026 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
OD (2016)
Airports:
8 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 161
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 88 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 401 km
standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m gauge
note: rail system is still unusable due to damage sustained from fighting in the 1980s and in 2006 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 120
Roadways:
total: 6,970 km (includes 170 km of expressways) (2005)
country comparison to the world: 146
Merchant marine:
total: 54
by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 39, oil tanker 1, other 12 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 113
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Beirut, Tripoli
container port(s) (TEUs): Beirut (1,034,249)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.91% of GDP (2017)
2.96% of GDP (2016)
2.79% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 10
Military branches:
Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Lebanese Army ((Al Jaysh al Lubnani) includes Lebanese Navy (Al Quwwat al Bahiriyya al Lubnaniya), Lebanese Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Lubnaniya)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-24 years of age for officer candidates; no conscription (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon has been in place since 1978
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 6,454 (Iraq) (2016); 463,664 (Palestinian refugees) (2017); 986,942 (Syria) (2018)
IDPs: 11,000 (2007 Lebanese security forces' destruction of Palestinian refugee camp) (2017)
stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - tens of thousands of persons are stateless in Lebanon, including many Palestinian refugees and their descendants, Syrian Kurds denaturalized in Syria in 1962, children born to Lebanese women married to foreign or stateless men; most babies born to Syrian refugees, and Lebanese children whose births are unregistered
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Lebanon is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and a transit point for Eastern European women and children subjected to sex trafficking in other Middle Eastern countries; women and girls from South and Southeast Asia and an increasing number from East and West Africa are recruited by agencies to work in domestic service but are subject to conditions of forced labor; under Lebanon’s artiste visa program, women from Eastern Europe, North Africa, and the Dominican Republic enter Lebanon to work in the adult entertainment industry but are often forced into the sex trade; Lebanese children are reportedly forced into street begging and commercial sexual exploitation, with small numbers of Lebanese girls sex trafficked in other Arab countries; Syrian refugees are vulnerable to forced labor and prostitution
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Lebanon does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Lebanon was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were uneven; the number of convicted traffickers increased, but judges lack of familiarity with anti-trafficking law meant that many offenders were not brought to justice; the government relied heavily on an NGO to identify and provide service to trafficking victims; and its lack of thoroughly implemented victim identification procedures resulted in victims continuing to be arrested, detained, and deported for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked (2015)
Illicit drugs:
Lebanon is a transit country for hashish, cocaine, heroin, and fenethylene; fenethylene, cannabis, hashish, and some opium are produced in the Bekaa Valley; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug trafficking

Economic Indicators for Lebanon including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Lebanon economy.