Botswana - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in tourism-related services, subsistence farming, and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world...

Continue reading View Factbook for Botswana

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2016 25,196,869,118 31,677,118,284 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 52,985,791,595 49,643,411,727 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 31,669,726,615 30,556,394,783 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 Q4 21,390,800,000 20,865,900,000 BWP, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 43,657,400,000 44,090,600,000 BWP, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2016 Q4 13,897,800,000 13,646,500,000 BWP, NSA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 131.56 131.49 Index 2005=100 Quarterly
Government Consumption 2016 Q4 7,685 7,579 Mil. BWP Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 143.85 143.57 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 296,061 286,997 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 18.1 17.92 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 1,101,762 1,077,380 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 19,224,440,000 18,544,010,000 NCU Annual
Labor Force Employment 2009 622 315.79 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2017 5,934,380,838 7,362,549,592 USD Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 2,148,740,231 2,145,192,041 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 5,004,532,106 5,870,754,311 USD Annual
Balance of Goods 2017 929,848,731 1,491,795,280 USD Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 49,278,928,588 43,251,773,925 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 45,842,991,638 48,883,897,216 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 20,070,800,000 22,214,600,000 BWP, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 19,146,400,000 16,770,100,000 BWP, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2016 57,174,690,000 48,407,600,000 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 -7,015,000,000 -10,219,990,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Average Long-term Government Bond Jun 2017 5.5 5.5 % Monthly
Lending Rate Apr 2013 9.5 9.5 % Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 2,291,661 2,250,260 # Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.68 7.02 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2016 23.67 24.14 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 15,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than five decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI assumed the presidency in April 2018 following the retirement of former President Ian KHAMA due to constitutional term limits. MASISI is Botswana’s fifth president since independence. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 581,730 sq km
land: 566,730 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 49
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 4,347.15 km
border countries (4): Namibia 1,544 km, South Africa 1,969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,013 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use:
agricultural land: 45.8%
arable land 0.6%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 45.2%
forest: 19.8%
other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issues:
overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollution
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People & Society

Population:
2,214,858
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups:
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Languages:
Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Religions:
Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
Demographic profile:
Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.
Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.
Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.
Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.95% (male 357,003/female 350,657)
15-24 years: 18.91% (male 207,209/female 211,629)
25-54 years: 38.45% (male 401,082/female 450,437)
55-64 years: 5.46% (male 51,195/female 69,835)
65 years and over: 5.23% (male 50,206/female 65,605) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 55.1
youth dependency ratio: 49.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.5 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Population growth rate:
1.55% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Birth rate:
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Death rate:
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Net migration rate:
3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Population distribution:
the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west
Urbanization:
urban population: 58% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
GABORONE (capital) 247,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19 years (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Infant mortality rate:
total: 29.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.3 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 65.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Total fertility rate:
2.56 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
52.8%
note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)
Health expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 129
Physicians density:
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density:
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 78.5% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 63.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.5% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
21.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
360,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,900 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
18.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 114
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
11.2% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 66
Education expenditures:
9.6% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 5
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 36%
male: 29.6%
female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
etymology: the name Botswana means "Land of the Tswana" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
Independence:
30 September 1966 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
election results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008) stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became President
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (65 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 6 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
elections: last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Sidney PILANE]
Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
Real Alternative Party or RAP [Gaontebale MOKGOSI]
Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (coalition includes BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF)
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
consulate(s) general: Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 318-0232
Flag description:
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
National symbol(s):
zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
National anthem:
name: "Fatshe leno la rona" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
note: adopted 1966

Economy

Economy - overview:
Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in tourism-related services, subsistence farming, and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,100 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.
Botswana's economy closely follows global economic trends because of its heavy reliance on a single luxury export. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.
Botswana’s economy recovered from the 2008 global recession in 2010, but has only grown modestly since then, primarily due to the downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains. Diamond exports increased again in 2017 to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth of about 4.5% in 2017 and increasing foreign reserves to about 45% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$39.55 billion (2017 est.)
$37.86 billion (2016 est.)
$36.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 120
GDP (official exchange rate):
$16.73 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
-1.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$18,100 (2017 est.)
$17,600 (2016 est.)
$17,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 96
Gross national saving:
29.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
40.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 46.8%
government consumption: 17.7%
investment in fixed capital: 30.7%
investment in inventories: -10%
exports of goods and services: 54.1%
imports of goods and services: -39.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 29.2%
services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Industries:
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Labor force:
1.177 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
20% (2013 est.)
17.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Population below poverty line:
30.3% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
60.5 (2009 est.)
63 (1993 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Budget:
revenues: $5.609 billion
expenditures: $6.072 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
33.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Public debt:
18.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Central bank discount rate:
5.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
7.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Stock of narrow money:
$1.574 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.505 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Stock of broad money:
$6.893 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.859 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.597 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Current account balance:
$746 million (2017 est.)
$1.824 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Exports:
$7.58 billion (2017 est.)
$7.226 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Exports - commodities:
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
Exports - partners:
Belgium 18.9%, India 15.1%, South Africa 13.6%, Namibia 11.6%, UAE 9.7%, Israel 6.1%, Singapore 5.6%, Canada 5% (2016)
Imports:
$5.998 billion (2017 est.)
$5.906 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partners:
South Africa 64.5%, Namibia 10.5%, Canada 5.6% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$7.476 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Debt - external:
$2.461 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Exchange rates:
pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
10.19 (2017 est.)
10.9 (2016 est.)
10.9 (2015 est.)
10.13 (2014 est.)
8.98 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 700,000
electrification - total population: 66%
electrification - urban areas: 75%
electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)
Electricity - production:
2.789 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Electricity - consumption:
3.722 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Electricity - imports:
1.468 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
134,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
98.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Refined petroleum products - imports:
21,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 142,122
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 3,288,986
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 148 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Telephone system:
general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)
Internet country code:
.bw
Internet users:
total: 869,610
percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
A2 (2016)
Airports:
74 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 70
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
Railways:
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 96
Roadways:
total: 17,916 km
note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)
country comparison to the world: 117

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
3.37% of GDP (2016)
2.66% of GDP (2015)
2.13% of GDP (2014)
2.06% of GDP (2013)
2.23% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 23
Military branches:
Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their parents, may be denied education and basic necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative of forced labor; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labor on farms and at cattle posts in the country’s rural west
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Botswana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; an anti-trafficking act was passed at the beginning of 2014, but authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any offenders or government officials complicit in trafficking or operationalize victim identification and referral procedures based on the new law; the government sponsored a radio campaign to familiarize the public with the issue of human trafficking (2015)

Economic Indicators for Botswana including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Botswana economy.