Uganda - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, significant reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market, which suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, has now recovered, largely due to record coffee harvests and increasing gold exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2017 14,861,890,826,611 14,813,806,773,077 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 21,484,759,469,673 20,723,174,380,603 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 14,664,469,880,253 14,616,385,826,720 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 65,178,073,888,016 63,799,170,951,567 UGX Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 86,555,301,587,712 81,687,691,283,877 UGX Annual
Investment 2016 20,667,938,557,442 19,894,099,330,523 UGX Annual
Government Consumption 2015 7,677 6,484 Bil. UGS Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 126.76 120.1 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Jul 2018 170.5 169.76 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Rate 2017 2.1 2.01 % of total labor force Annual
Agriculture Employment 2017 10,923,129 10,724,007 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 15,233,457 14,698,291 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 2,391,511,737,921 2,210,621,605,635 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 8,870,870,724,095 9,066,930,122,967 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 12,177,716,702,340 13,921,578,851,142 NCU Annual
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -513,119,186 -460,895,611 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 901,703,970 788,583,482 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -318,780,592 -346,640,781 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,414,823,157 1,249,479,093 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 15,962,312,532,243 15,636,483,767,158 UGX Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 22,607,960,026,129 24,867,362,919,449 UGX Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2017 Q4 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Government Revenues 2016 12,027,236,071,186 10,602,837,009,971 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 980,983,000,000 598,126,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Jul 2018 10.52 9.78 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Feb 2013 16 17 % Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Nov 2009 14.7 % Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 42,862,958 41,487,965 # Annual
Death Rate 2016 8.7 8.87 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2016 42.14 42.63 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -150,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. In December 2017, parliament approved the removal of presidential age limits, thereby making it possible for MUSEVENI to continue standing for office.

Geography

Location:
East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
country comparison to the world: 82
Area - comparative:
slightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain:
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation:
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Albert Nile 614 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
Land use:
agricultural land: 71.2%
arable land 34.3%; permanent crops 11.3%; permanent pasture 25.6%
forest: 14.5%
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
140 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated
Natural hazards:
droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms
Environment - current issues:
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

People & Society

Population:
39,570,125
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Nationality:
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups:
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Languages:
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Religions:
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Demographic profile:
Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.
Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.
Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 48.05% (male 9,486,324/female 9,526,713)
15-24 years: 21.1% (male 4,130,357/female 4,217,681)
25-54 years: 26.3% (male 5,208,817/female 5,199,556)
55-64 years: 2.57% (male 491,397/female 525,064)
65 years and over: 1.98% (male 343,805/female 440,411) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 101.6
youth dependency ratio: 97.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.4
potential support ratio: 22.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 15.8 years
male: 15.7 years
female: 15.9 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 227
Population growth rate:
3.2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Birth rate:
42.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Death rate:
10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Net migration rate:
-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Population distribution:
population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 16.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
KAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Infant mortality rate:
total: 56.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.9 years
male: 54.4 years
female: 57.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Total fertility rate:
5.71 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
36.9% (2016)
Health expenditures:
7.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 77
Physicians density:
0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 17.3% of population
total: 19.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 82.7% of population
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
6.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.4 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
28,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5.3% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 181
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
12% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 51
Education expenditures:
2.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 131
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 2.6%
male: 2%
female: 3.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the name "Buganda," adopted by the British as the designation for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
121 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bunyangabu, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Butebo, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Kyotera, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namisindwa, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Omoro, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pakwach, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubanda, Rubirizi, Rukiga, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
Independence:
9 October 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership in the second and third readings; proposals affecting constitutional sections including the sovereignty of the people, supremacy of the constitution, human rights and freedoms, the democratic and multiparty form of government, presidential term of office, independence of the judiciary, and the institutions of traditional or cultural leaders also requires passage by referendum, ratification by at least two-thirds majority vote of district council members in at least two-thirds of Uganda's districts, and assent by the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
head of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both head of state and head of government
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 February 2016
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (445 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; up to 18 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 292, FDC 37, DP 14, Uganda People's Defense Force 10, UPC 6, independent 66 (excludes 19 ex-officio members)
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (an 8-member independent advisory body) and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts; local council courts; family and children courts
Political parties and leaders:
Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Patrick Oboi AMURIAT]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Monica EMIRU]
Forum for Womem in Democracy [Joyce Namirimo TAMALE]
Activists for Change [Mathias MPUUGA]
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mull Sebujja KATENDE (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah R. MALAC (since 27 February 2016)
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: 256-312-306-001
FAX: 256-414-259794
Flag description:
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
National symbol(s):
grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
National anthem:
name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962

Economy

Economy - overview:
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, significant reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market, which suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, has now recovered, largely due to record coffee harvests and increasing gold exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy equipment. Productivity is hampered by several supply-side constraints, including insufficient infrastructure, underinvestment in agriculture, rudimentary technology, and corruption.
Uganda’s economic growth has slowed since 2016, with the growth rate dropping from 5.7% in 2015 to 4.4% in 2017. In FY 2016/17, revenue collections dropped by 4%, as public debt increased from 33.3% of GDP in 2015 to 40% in 2017. Uganda relies on foreign donor support to finance long-term drivers of growth, such as agriculture, health, and education.
Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding in the near future when oil production begins in the next three to 10 years. Foreign investors are planning to invest $9 billion in production facilities projects, $4 billion in an export pipeline, and $2-3 billion in a refinery to produce petroleum products for the domestic and East African Community markets. Furthermore, the government is looking to build several hundred million dollars’ worth of highways to connect the oil region to the rest of the country.
Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. Uganda has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa - only 22% of Ugandans have access to electricity at the national level, and this figure drops to 10% in rural areas. Additional problems include poor economic management, endemic corruption, and a failure to invest adequately in health, education, and economic opportunities for a burgeoning young population.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$88.61 billion (2017 est.)
$84.84 billion (2016 est.)
$82.91 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 90
GDP (official exchange rate):
$26.39 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.4% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,400 (2017 est.)
$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 199
Gross national saving:
19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 71.7%
government consumption: 10%
investment in fixed capital: 23.9%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 18.8%
imports of goods and services: -24.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 24.5%
industry: 23.2%
services: 52.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
Industries:
sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate:
6.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Labor force:
20.05 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 71.9%
industry: 4.4%
services: 23.7% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.4% (2013 est.)
9.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Population below poverty line:
19.7% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.5 (2013 est.)
45.7 (2002 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Budget:
revenues: $4.019 billion
expenditures: $5.268 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
15.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Public debt:
38.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.8% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Central bank discount rate:
14% (December 2014 est.)
17% (30 March 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
23.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Stock of narrow money:
$2.543 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Stock of broad money:
$4.331 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.674 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Stock of domestic credit:
$4.772 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.989 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Current account balance:
$-1.476 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.09 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Exports:
$3.172 billion (2017 est.)
$2.921 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Exports - commodities:
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports - partners:
Kenya 20.9%, UAE 11.2%, Rwanda 9.5%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 8.9%, Italy 4.5% (2016)
Imports:
$4.592 billion (2017 est.)
$4.326 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Imports - commodities:
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners:
China 17.9%, India 17.2%, UAE 9.5%, Kenya 9.2%, Japan 5.2%, South Africa 4.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.045 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.034 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: excludes gold
country comparison to the world: 107
Debt - external:
$7.163 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.408 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,606 (2017 est.)
3,420.1 (2016 est.)
3,420.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 32,100,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
Electricity - production:
3.235 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Electricity - consumption:
2.936 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Electricity - exports:
121 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Electricity - imports:
48 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
922,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
14.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
76.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
10.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Crude oil - proved reserves:
2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
27,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Refined petroleum products - imports:
26,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Natural gas - proved reserves:
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
2.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 368,243
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 22,838,486
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Telephone system:
general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; private companies have laid over 1,800 km of fiber optics in Uganda since 2015; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps (2018)
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line and mobile-
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania (2018)
Broadcast media:
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; 31 Free-To-Air (FTA) TV stations, 2 digital terrestrial TV stations, 3 cable TV stations, and 5 digital satellite TV stations; 258 operational FM stations (2017)
Internet country code:
.ug
Internet users:
total: 18,148,923
percent of population: 45.9%; note - more than 80% are mobile Internet subscribers (September 2017)
country comparison to the world: 52

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 41,812
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 23,472 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
5X (2016)
Airports:
47 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 93
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 42
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Railways:
total: 1,244 km
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 85
Roadways:
total: 20,544 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 4,257 km
unpaved: 16,287 km (2017)
country comparison to the world: 109
Waterways:
(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
Merchant marine:
total: 1
by type: bulk carrier 1 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 176
Ports and terminals:
lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.57% of GDP (2016)
1.6% of GDP (2015)
1.71% of GDP (2014)
1.74% of GDP (2013)
1.79% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 68
Military branches:
Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, "no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 40,634 (Burundi) (refugee and asylum seekers); 15,260 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017); 1,061,771 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 285,398 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 37,193 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
IDPs: 24,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2017)

Economic Indicators for Uganda including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Uganda economy.