Slovenia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in the 2008-09 period in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to...

Continue reading View Factbook for Slovenia

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 1,902 1,810 Mil. 2010 EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 11,221 10,941 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Investment 2017 Q4 2,151 2,056 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Real Investment 2017 Q4 1,964 1,882 Mil. 2010 EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 10,283 10,079 Mil. 2010 EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 2,091 1,982 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2018 102.86 102.16 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Jan 2018 100.6 100.2 Index prv. mo.=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Total Employment Mar 2018 863,173 856,777 #, NSA Monthly
Agriculture Employment Mar 2018 24,902 24,538 #, NSA Monthly
Labor Force 2017 988,433 996,858 # Annual
Primary Industries Employment 2017 Q4 54 51 Ths., NSA Quarterly
Unemployment Rate 2016 8 9 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods Mar 2018 2,536 2,281 Mil. EUR, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods Mar 2018 2,741 2,358 Mil. EUR, NSA Monthly
Balance of Goods Mar 2018 205.4 76.6 Mil. EUR, NSA Monthly
Current Account Balance Mar 2018 280.9 153.9 Mil. EUR, NSA Monthly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 7,882 7,652 Mil. 2010 EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 8,849 8,609 Mil. 2010 EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 9,388 9,060 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 8,233 7,951 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Net Exports 2017 Q4 1,154 1,109 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt 2017 Q4 31,860 33,306 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Government Expenditures 2017 Q4 4,895 4,618 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Government Revenues 2017 Q4 4,936 4,635 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Government Budget Balance 2017 Q4 40.83 16.3 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Gross External Debt 2017 Q3 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Stock Market Index 24 May 2018 905.35 900.61 Index, NSA Daily
Money Market Rate May 2017 -0.36 -0.36 %, NSA Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) May 2017 -0.33 -0.33 %, NSA Monthly
Lending Rate May 2017 2.38 2.46 %, NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond May 2017 0.98 1 % Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Residential Building Permits Apr 2018 174 234 #, NSA Monthly
Building Permits Apr 2018 422 511 #, NSA Monthly
Non-residential Building Permits Apr 2018 248 277 #, NSA Monthly
House Price Index for Existing Homes 2017 Q4 115.66 112.51 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index 2017 Q4 102.8 100.9 Index prv. qt.=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for New Homes 2017 Q4 118.16 108.05 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
Residential Building Completions 2016 2,566 2,437 # Annual
Non-residential Housing Starts 2016 3,192 2,208 # Annual
Building Completions 2016 6,715 4,268 # Annual
Housing Starts 2016 9,014 7,979 # Annual
Residential Housing Starts 2016 5,822 5,771 # Annual
Non-residential Building Completions 2016 4,149 1,831 # Annual
Dwelling Stocks 31 Jan 2015 845,415 # 365 days
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence May 2018 0 1 Balance of Opinion, SA Monthly
Retail Sales Dec 2017 117.97 119.78 Index 2010=100, SA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q2 86 85 %, SA Quarterly
Business Confidence Apr 2018 102.15 102.45 Index long term avg=100, SA Monthly
Industrial Production Mar 2018 121.84 121.23 Index 2015=100, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2017 Q4 91.77 91.86 Mil. EUR, CDASA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2018 Q1 2,066,880 2,065,890 #, NSA Quarterly
Births 2016 20,345 20,641 #, NSA Annual
Death Rate 2015 9.6 9.2 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2015 10 10.3 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Deaths 2014 18,886 19,334 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 16,571 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen zone in 2007.

Geography

Location:
south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
country comparison to the world: 155
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total: 1,211 km
border countries (4): Austria 299 km, Croatia 600 km, Hungary 94 km, Italy 218 km
Coastline:
46.6 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:
a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation:
mean elevation: 492 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources:
lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Land use:
agricultural land: 22.8%
arable land 8.4%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 13.1%
forest: 62.3%
other: 14.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
60 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere
Natural hazards:
flooding; earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage from urban air pollution and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

People & Society

Population:
1,972,126 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups:
Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Languages:
Slovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
Religions:
Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.32% (male 135,371/female 127,246)
15-24 years: 9.45% (male 95,546/female 90,744)
25-54 years: 42.9% (male 427,723/female 418,349)
55-64 years: 14.83% (male 143,642/female 148,821)
65 years and over: 19.51% (male 157,794/female 226,890) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 21.9
elderly dependency ratio: 26.8
potential support ratio: 3.7 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 44.5 years
male: 42.8 years
female: 46.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Population growth rate:
-0.31% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
Birth rate:
8.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
Death rate:
11.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Net migration rate:
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Population distribution:
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere
Urbanization:
urban population: 49.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
LJUBLJANA (capital) 279,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.1 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.3 years
male: 74.8 years
female: 82.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Total fertility rate:
1.36 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Health expenditures:
9.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 37
Physicians density:
2.77 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
4.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.4% of population
total: 99.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.6% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.1% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.9% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
<1000 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
20.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 102
Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 51
Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 16.3%
male: 17.6%
female: 14.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) "Slovenin," a derivation from "slovo" (word), denoting "people who speak (the same language)" (i.e., people who understand each other)
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
201 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)
municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica,
Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sostanj, Store, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk
urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution:
history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991
amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia
dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous
Suffrage:
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Miro CERAR (since 18 September 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 October and 12 November 2017 (next election schedule for 2022); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Borut PAHOR is reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%; note - a snap election was held on 13 July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK on 5 May 2014; Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - the National Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 July 2014 (next to be held by July 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SMC 34.5%, SDS 20.7%, DeSUS 10.2%, ZL 6%, SD 6%, NSi 5.6%, ZaAB 4.4%, other 12.6%; seats by party - SMC 36, SDS 21, DeSUS 10, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi, 5, ZaAB 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
note: as of January 2017, seats by party - SMC 35, SDS 19, DeSUS 11, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi 5, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1, unaffiliated 6
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD (formerly Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB) [Alenka BRATUSEK]
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]
Marjan Sarej List [Marjan SAREC]
Modern Center Party or SMC [Miro CERAR]
New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK]
Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]
Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN]
United Left or ZL (collective leadership)
inactive: Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia; reportedly inactive since 2009
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Roman Catholic Church
other: various trade and public sector employee unions
International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stanislav VIDOVIC (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brent Robert HARTLEY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands
National symbol(s):
Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red
National anthem:
name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)
lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL
note: adopted 1989; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism

Economy

Economy - overview:
With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in the 2008-09 period in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe.
In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. However, long-delayed privatizations, particularly within Slovenia’s largely state-owned and increasingly indebted banking sector, have fueled investor concerns since 2012 that the country would need EU-IMF financial assistance. In 2013, the European Commission granted Slovenia permission to begin recapitalizing ailing lenders and transferring their nonperforming assets into a “bad bank” established to restore bank balance sheets. From 2014 to 2016, export-led growth, fueled by demand in larger European markets pushed GDP growth to 2.3% per year, while stubbornly high unemployment fell slightly to below 12%.
Prime Minister CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$66.5 billion (2016 est.)
$63.66 billion (2015 est.)
$61.58 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 99
GDP (official exchange rate):
$44.73 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.1% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$32,200 (2016 est.)
$31,300 (2015 est.)
$30,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 58
Gross national saving:
23.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
25.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 51.8%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 79.2%
imports of goods and services: -69.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 32.4%
services: 65.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
hops, wheat, coffee, corn, apples, pears; cattle, sheep, poultry
Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:
2.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Labor force:
920,400 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 3.7%
industry: 31.7%
services: 64.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8% (2016 est.)
12.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Population below poverty line:
14.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 20.2% (2012)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
24.5 (2015)
25 (2014)
country comparison to the world: 147
Budget:
revenues: $19.2 billion
expenditures: $20.01 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
43.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Public debt:
79.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
83.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
country comparison to the world: 37
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Central bank discount rate:
0% (16 March 2016)
0.05% (4 Sept 2014)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 150
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2.81% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.49% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Stock of narrow money:
$16.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
country comparison to the world: 69
Stock of broad money:
$24.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Stock of domestic credit:
$30.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$5.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Current account balance:
$2.332 billion (2016 est.)
$1.884 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Exports:
$27.65 billion (2016 est.)
$26.67 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners:
Germany 19.3%, Italy 10.4%, Austria 7.5%, Croatia 7.3%, Hungary 4.4%, France 4.1% (2016)
Imports:
$25.95 billion (2016 est.)
$25.04 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners:
Germany 16.8%, Italy 13.5%, Austria 9.9%, Croatia 5.5%, China 4.8%, Turkey 4.4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$743.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$856.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Debt - external:
$46.3 billion (31 January 2017 est.)
$48.2 billion (31 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$14.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$7.837 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.843 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
16.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Electricity - consumption:
14.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Electricity - exports:
10.28 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Electricity - imports:
8.325 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
3.37 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
31.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
34.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
31.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Crude oil - production:
5 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 191
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
52,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Refined petroleum products - exports:
28,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Refined petroleum products - imports:
87,530 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Natural gas - production:
4.5 million cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Natural gas - consumption:
836.5 million cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Natural gas - imports:
832 million cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
14.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 731,320
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 2,385,757
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Telephone system:
general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 155 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386 (2016)
Broadcast media:
public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations (2007)
Internet country code:
.si
Internet users:
total: 1,493,382
percent of population: 75.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,130,637
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,349,442 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
S5 (2016)
Airports:
16 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 143
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 85
Roadways:
total: 38,985 km
paved: 38,985 km (includes 769 km of expressways) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 91
Waterways:
(some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 24 (Cyprus 5, Liberia 7, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 90
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Koper

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.92% of GDP (2016)
0.94% of GDP (2015)
0.98% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2013)
1.17% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 85
Military branches:
Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): Forces Command (with ground units, naval element, air and air defense brigade); Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
note: 477,791 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016); migration through the Western Balkans has decreased significantly since March 2016; Slovenia is predominantly a transit country and hosts fewer than 250 asylum seekers as of September 2017
Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

Economic Indicators for Slovenia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Slovenia economy.