Bahrain - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Low oil prices have generated a budget deficit of at least a $3.5 billion deficit in 2017, nearly 10% of GDP. Bahrain has few options for covering this deficit, with low foreign assets and fewer oil resources compared to its GCC neighbors. In 2016 the three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrain’s sovereign debt rating to “junk” status, citing persistently low oil prices and the government’s high debt levels. Nevertheless, Bahrain in 2017 was able to raise about $4 billion by issuing international debt. Oil comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues,...

Continue reading View Factbook for Bahrain

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2016 2,951,849,630 2,810,380,000 BHD Annual
Investment 2016 2,951,849,630 2,810,380,000 BHD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 117.86 117.23 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 8,934 7,943 # Annual
Total Employment 2017 Q4 763,112 761,313 #, NSA Quarterly
Labor Force Employment 2015 711.88 673.12 Ths. Annual
Unemployment Rate 2011 4 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2011 Q4 5,527,925,531 5,319,946,808 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2011 Q4 3,547,074,468 3,028,989,361 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2011 Q4 1,980,851,063 2,290,957,446 USD, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2012 42,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. A steady decline in oil production and reserves since 1970 prompted Bahrain to take steps to diversify its economy, in the process developing petroleum processing and refining, aluminum production, and hospitality and retail sectors. It has also endeavored to become a leading regional banking center, especially with respect to Islamic finance. Bahrain's small size, central location among Gulf countries, economic dependence on Saudi Arabia, and proximity to Iran require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Its foreign policy activities usually fall in line with Saudi Arabia and the UAE.
The Sunni royal family has long struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. In early 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government confronted similar pro-democracy and reform protests at home with police and military action, including deploying Gulf Cooperation Council security forces to Bahrain. Political talks throughout 2014 between the government and opposition and loyalist political groups failed to reach an agreement, prompting opposition political societies to boycott legislative and municipal council elections in late 2014. Ongoing dissatisfaction with the political status quo continues to factor into sporadic clashes between demonstrators and security forces.

Geography

Location:
Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
26 00 N, 50 33 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 760 sq km
land: 760 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 188
Area - comparative:
3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Elevation:
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 135 m
Natural resources:
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Land use:
agricultural land: 11.3%
arable land 2.1%; permanent crops 3.9%; permanent pasture 5.3%
forest: 0.7%
other: 88% (2014 est.)
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; dust storms
Environment - current issues:
desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs)
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People & Society

Population:
1,410,942 (July 2017 est.)
note: immigrants make up approximately 48% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
country comparison to the world: 155
Nationality:
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini
Ethnic groups:
Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)
Languages:
Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
Religions:
Muslim 70.3%, Christian 14.5%, Hindu 9.8%, Buddhist 2.5%, Jewish 0.6%, folk religion <.1, unaffiliated 1.9%, other 0.2% (2010 est.)
religious affiliation:
Age structure:
0-14 years: 19.08% (male 136,669/female 132,493)
15-24 years: 15.65% (male 124,906/female 95,881)
25-54 years: 56.04% (male 516,064/female 274,604)
55-64 years: 6.28% (male 56,671/female 31,983)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 20,656/female 21,015) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 30.2
youth dependency ratio: 27.1
elderly dependency ratio: 3
potential support ratio: 33.1 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 32.3 years
male: 33.8 years
female: 29.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Population growth rate:
2.26% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Birth rate:
13.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Death rate:
2.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 223
Net migration rate:
12.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Population distribution:
smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq
Urbanization:
urban population: 88.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.77% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
MANAMA (capital) 411,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.3 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79 years
male: 76.8 years
female: 81.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Health expenditures:
5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 142
Physicians density:
0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.01% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
<500 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
29.8% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 25
Education expenditures:
2.7% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 153
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 96.9%
female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 5.3%
male: 2.6%
female: 12.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn
former: Dilmun, Tylos, Awal, Mishmahig, Bahrayn, State of Bahrain
etymology: the name means "the two seas" in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Manama
geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)
note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor
Independence:
15 August 1971 (from the UK)
National holiday:
National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution:
history: adopted 14 February 2002
amendments: proposed by the king or by at least 15 members of either chamber of the National Assembly followed by submission to an Assembly committee for review and, if approved, submitted to the government for restatement as drafts; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both chambers and validation by the king; constitutional articles on the state religion (Islam), state language (Arabic), and the monarchy and “inherited rule” cannot be amended; amended 2012, 2017 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Islamic law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal; note - Bahraini Cabinet in May 2011 endorsed a draft law lowering eligibility to 18 years
Executive branch:
chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa (since September 2005), Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 11 December 2006), KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since November 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Consultative Council or Majlis al Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king) and the Council of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)
elections: Council of Representatives - last held in two rounds on 23 and 29 November 2014 (next to be held in late 2018)
election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by society - NA; seats by society - Al-Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 2, Islamic Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 1, independent 37; note - Bahrain has societies rather than parties
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal (court sittings include the president and at least one judge); appeals beyond the High Sharia Court of Appeal are heard by the Supreme Court of Appeal
note: the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into civil law courts and sharia law courts; sharia courts(involving personal status and family law) are further divided into Sunni Muslim and Shia Muslim
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointment and tenure NA
subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court; Administrative Courts of Appeal; military courts
Political parties and leaders:
note: political parties are prohibited, but political societies were legalized under a July 2005 law
Arab Islamic Center Society [Mohd SANAD]
Constitutional Gathering Society [Khalid AL-KALBAN]
Islamic Asalah [Abd al-Halim MURAD]
Islamic Saff Society [Abdullah Khalil BU GHAMAR]
Islamic Shura Society
Movement of National Justice Society [Muhi al-Din KHAN]
National Action Charter Society [Muhammad AL-BUAYNAYN]
National Democratic Assembly [Hasan AL-ALI]
National Dialogue Society [Hamad Rashid Al NUAIMI]
National Islamic Minbar [Ali AHMAD]
National Progressive Tribune [Khalil YOUSIF]
National Unity Gathering [Abdullatif AL-MAHMOOD]
Unitary National Democratic Assemblage Hasan AL-MARZOOQ]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
none
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulla bin Rashid AL KHALIFA (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Justin H. SIBERELL (since November 2017)
embassy: Building
mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
telephone: [973] 1724-2700
FAX: [973] 1727-2594
Flag description:
red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
note: until 2002 the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag
National symbol(s):
a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white
National anthem:
name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)
lyrics/music: unknown
note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom

Economy

Economy - overview:
Low oil prices have generated a budget deficit of at least a $3.5 billion deficit in 2017, nearly 10% of GDP. Bahrain has few options for covering this deficit, with low foreign assets and fewer oil resources compared to its GCC neighbors. In 2016 the three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrain’s sovereign debt rating to “junk” status, citing persistently low oil prices and the government’s high debt levels. Nevertheless, Bahrain in 2017 was able to raise about $4 billion by issuing international debt.
Oil comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues, despite past efforts to diversify its economy, build communication and transport facilities for multinational firms with business in the Gulf, and expand infrastructure development. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. It plans to introduce a Value Added Tax (VAT) by the end of 2018.
Other major economic activities are production of aluminum - Bahrain's second biggest export after oil - finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In April 2018 Bahrain announced it had found a significant oil field off the country’s west coast, but is still assessing how much of the oil can be extracted profitably.
In 2011, Bahrain experienced economic setbacks as a result of domestic unrest driven by the majority Shia population; however, the economy recovered in 2012-15, partly as a result of improved tourism. In addition to addressing its current fiscal woes, Bahraini authorities face the long-term challenge of boosting Bahrain’s regional competitiveness — especially regarding industry, finance, and tourism — and reconciling revenue constraints with popular pressure to maintain generous state subsidies and a large public sector. Since 2015, the government lifted subsidies on meat, diesel, kerosene, and gasoline and has begun to phase in higher prices for electricity and water.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$69.77 billion (2017 est.)
$68.08 billion (2016 est.)
$66.12 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 99
GDP (official exchange rate):
$33.87 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.5% (2017 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$51,800 (2017 est.)
$51,600 (2016 est.)
$51,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 25
Gross national saving:
19% of GDP (2017 est.)
21% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 45.8%
government consumption: 15.5%
investment in fixed capital: 26.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 80.2%
imports of goods and services: -67.9% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 38.2%
services: 61.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Industries:
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
0% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Labor force:
831,600
note: excludes unemployed; 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 32%
services: 67% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.8% (2017 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)
note: official estimate; actual rate is higher
country comparison to the world: 42
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $5.463 billion
expenditures: $9.281 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
16.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-11.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Public debt:
82.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
72% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.9% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Stock of narrow money:
$9.239 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.157 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Stock of broad money:
$27.72 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Stock of domestic credit:
$29.72 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$29.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$19.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$18.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Current account balance:
$-1.556 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.493 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Exports:
$14.33 billion (2017 est.)
$12.78 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners:
Saudi Arabia 18.3%, UAE 17.5%, US 11.1%, Japan 8.7%, Qatar 4.8%, China 4.2% (2016)
Imports:
$13.96 billion (2017 est.)
$13.59 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Imports - commodities:
crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners:
China 9.7%, US 8.6%, UAE 7.4%, Japan 6.1%, Saudi Arabia 5.5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.166 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Debt - external:
$42.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$42.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$22.11 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$21.56 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$10.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Exchange rates:
Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -
0.38 (2017 est.)
0.38 (2016 est.)
0.38 (2015 est.)
0.38 (2014 est.)
0.38 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 41,317
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 93% (2012)
Electricity - production:
26.78 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Electricity - consumption:
26.09 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Electricity - exports:
213 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Electricity - imports:
205 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
3.928 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Crude oil - production:
50,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Crude oil - imports:
223,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Crude oil - proved reserves:
124.6 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Refined petroleum products - production:
270,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
58,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Refined petroleum products - exports:
244,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Refined petroleum products - imports:
13,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Natural gas - production:
15.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Natural gas - consumption:
21.92 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Natural gas - proved reserves:
92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
37 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 279,864
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 2,994,865
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 212 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system
domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones
international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2009)
Internet country code:
.bh
Internet users:
total: 1,351,326
percent of population: 98.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,313,756
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 240,107,004 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
A9C (2016)
Airports:
4 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 184
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 20 km; oil 54 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 4,122 km
paved: 3,392 km
unpaved: 730 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 156
Merchant marine:
total: 260
by type: container ship 3, general cargo 11, oil tanker 4, other 242 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 60
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
4.59% of GDP (2015)
4.42% of GDP (2014)
4.14% of GDP (2013)
3.84% of GDP (2012)
3.59% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 11
Military branches:
Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (RBA), Royal Bahraini Navy (RBN), Royal Bahraini Air Force (RBAF), Royal Bahraini Air Defense Force (RBADF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Economic Indicators for Bahrain including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Bahrain economy.