Montenegro - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. As of 2015, around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for roughly 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and...

Continue reading View Factbook for Montenegro

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 1,730,711,400 1,659,358,900 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 4,236,524,000 3,954,214,000 NCU Annual
Investment 2017 1,241,700,000 1,031,867,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 1,066,970,000 916,725,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 617,011,000 533,246,500 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 600,311,000 518,550,100 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2018 116.03 115.94 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) 2017 108.28 107.93 2010=100, NSA Annual
Wholesale Price Index 2013 107.57 105.69 Index 2010 = 100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 18,851 18,936 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 16.07 17.7 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 247,787 247,985 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods 2018 Q2 814,081,560 600,752,403 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q2 131,666,457 121,749,924 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 -367,537,911 -373,898,048 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q2 -682,415,102 -479,002,478 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 1,737,625,000 1,599,912,000 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 2,761,552,000 2,488,122,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 693,788,100 666,333,600 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 1,338,524,400 1,236,651,800 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2023 2.39 2.28 Billions National Currency Annual
Government Expenditures 2023 2.38 2.26 Billions National Currency Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Apr 2018 0.67 0.67 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Apr 2018 6.68 6.7 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Change in Inventories 2017 16,700,000 14,696,400 NCU Annual
Capacity Utilization 2013 57.5 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -2,400 # Annual
Population 2017 628,960 628,615 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 11.36 11.52 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 9.86 9.8 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. At the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro joined with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the two-state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006. In 2017, Montenegro joined NATO and is currently completing its EU accession process, having officially applied to join the EU in December 2008.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km
country comparison to the world: 162
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 680 km
border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
Coastline:
293.5 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Climate:
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain:
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,086 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:
agricultural land: 38.2%
arable land 12.9%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 24.1%
forest: 40.4%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
24 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People & Society

Population:
642,550 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Nationality:
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
Languages:
Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
Religions:
Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.1% (male 47,937/female 49,102)
15-24 years: 9.58% (male 27,510/female 34,053)
25-54 years: 46.59% (male 161,842/female 137,549)
55-64 years: 13.58% (male 43,561/female 43,686)
65 years and over: 15.14% (male 39,164/female 58,146) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 47.8
youth dependency ratio: 27.3
elderly dependency ratio: 20.5
potential support ratio: 4.9 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.7 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 41.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Population growth rate:
-0.28% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Birth rate:
10 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Death rate:
9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Population distribution:
highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area
Urbanization:
urban population: 64.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.25% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
PODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
26.3 years (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
23.3% (2013)
Health expenditures:
6.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 96
Physicians density:
2.34 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
<500 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<100 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23.3% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 66
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 133
Education expenditures:
NA
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.5%
female: 98% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 37.7%
male: 39.9%
female: 34.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence:
3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday:
National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007
amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 20 May 2018)
head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016)
cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 April 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly
election results: Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 October 2016 (next to be held by October 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 41.4%, DF 20.3%, Key Coalition, 11.1%, DCG 10.0%, SDP 5.2%, SD 3.3%, BS, 3.2%, Albanians Decisively 1.3%, HGI .5%, other 3.7%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 36, DF 18, Key Coalition 9, DCG 8, SDP 4, SD 2, BS 2, Albanians Decisively 1, HGI 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for 3 years, other judges 9 years
subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts
Political parties and leaders:
Albanians Decisively [Genci NIMANBEGU] (coalition includes FORCA, AA, DUA)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ]
Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (coalition includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
Key Coalition [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes DEMOS, SNP, URA]
Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
True Montenegro or PRAVA [Marko MILACIC]
United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC]
Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nebojsa KALUDEROVIC (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret UYEHARA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
Flag description:
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
National symbol(s):
double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold
National anthem:
name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song

Economy

Economy - overview:
Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. As of 2015, around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for roughly 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydropower potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by 2018, will help meet its goal.
Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime.
The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro are Russia, Italy, Cyprus, Denmark, Hungary and Serbia. Net foreign direct investment in 2016 reached $755 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe, due to a low corporate tax rate.
Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system. Montenegro has recently explored further economic cooperation with China. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 71.3% of GDP. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. The Montenegrin Government recently said it would increase the non-tourism rate to 21% as of January 2018, with the goal of reducing its public debt.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$10.86 billion (2017 est.)
$10.55 billion (2016 est.)
$10.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 159
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.405 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
3.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$17,400 (2017 est.)
$16,900 (2016 est.)
$16,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 99
Gross national saving:
7.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
6.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
6.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 42.1%
imports of goods and services: -64.5% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 8.3%
industry: 21.2%
services: 70.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - products:
tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
Industries:
steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
4.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Labor force:
263,200 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 17.9%
services: 76.8% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate:
17.1% (2016 est.)
17.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Population below poverty line:
8.6% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.2 (2013 est.)
24.3 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Budget:
revenues: $1.62 billion
expenditures: $1.95 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Public debt:
71.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
69.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 49
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (2017 est.)
-0.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.22% (31 December 2014 est.)
9.36% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Stock of narrow money:
$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Stock of broad money:
$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.682 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$7.532 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Current account balance:
$-889 million (2017 est.)
$-791 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Exports:
$370.2 million (2014 est.)
$489.2 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Imports:
$1.982 billion (2014 est.)
$2.4 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$599.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Debt - external:
$1.576 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.433 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$483 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$446.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$133 million (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.89 (2017 est.)
0.9 (2016 est.)
0.92 (2015 est.)
0.89 (2014 est.)
0.76 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
2.897 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Electricity - consumption:
2.834 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Electricity - exports:
517 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Electricity - imports:
1.04 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
887,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
24.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
75.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
6,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Refined petroleum products - exports:
257.1 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Refined petroleum products - imports:
6,244 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
18 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 148,015
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 1,040,747
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 162 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2015)
Broadcast media:
state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 3 local public TV stations and 13 private TV stations; 13 local public radio stations, 35 private radio stations, and a few on-line media (2018)
Internet country code:
.me
Internet users:
total: 450,442
percent of population: 69.9% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 526,980
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
4O (2016)
Airports:
5 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 181
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Heliports:
1 (2012)
Railways:
total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (224 km electrified) (2017)
country comparison to the world: 126
Roadways:
total: 7,762 km
paved: 7,141 km
unpaved: 621 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 143
Merchant marine:
total: 12
by type: bulk carrier 4, other 8 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 145
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Bar

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.7% of GDP (2018)
1.66% of GDP (2017)
1.61% of GDP (2016)
1.38% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
1.45% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 64
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Ground Troops (Kopnena Vojska), Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 3,237 (2016)

Economic Indicators for Montenegro including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Montenegro economy.