Mozambique - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP, in purchasing power parity terms, from $4 billion in 1993 to about $37 billion in 2017. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 91,907,000,000 114,202,414,100 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 245,159,200,000 236,879,429,700 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 170,028,327,700 154,469,609,400 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 689,212,919,921 591,678,608,398 MZM Annual
Private Consumption 2016 492,817,222,656 401,021,366,210 MZM Annual
Investment 2016 141,505,406,250 189,089,453,125 MZM Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 140.92 132.19 Index 2005=100 Annual
Government Consumption 2015 157,827 138,592 Mil. MZE Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Jul 2018 177.55 177.86 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 9,454,602 9,166,295 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 25.04 25.15 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 12,497,940 12,125,151 # Annual
Total Employment 2011 10,625,162 10,370,777 ages 15+ Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 -642,038,642 -953,929,138 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q2 -171,986,630 -249,971,667 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q2 1,516,851,332 1,443,126,135 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q2 1,344,864,701 1,193,154,468 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 394,425,302,600 366,788,657,500 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 173,017,603,500 154,882,816,400 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 239,553,681,640 190,616,312,500 MZM Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 531,744,796,875 425,947,453,125 MZM Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2017 1,038,654,365,000 947,402,871,100 NCU Annual
Government Revenues 2016 165,595,300,000 155,893,019,000 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 -46,609,200,000,000 -30,743,300,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) May 2018 16.07 16.35 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate May 2018 16.5 16.5 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Mar 2013 9.95 9.95 % Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 29,668,834 28,829,476 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 38.95 39.36 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 10.09 10.38 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -25,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2015. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have intermittently engaged in a low-level insurgency since 2012, although a late December 2016 ceasefire held throughout 2017.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 36
Area - comparative:
slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 4,783 km
border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Eswatini 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
Coastline:
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical to subtropical
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation:
mean elevation: 345 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:
agricultural land: 56.3%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
forest: 43.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,180 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
three large populations clusters are found along the southern coast between Maputo and Inhambane, in the central area between Beira and Chimoio along the Zambezi River, and in and around the northern cities of Nampula, Cidade de Nacala, and Pemba; the northwest and southwest are the least populated areas
Natural hazards:
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues:
increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

People & Society

Population:
26,573,706
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Nationality:
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Languages:
Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
Demographic profile:
Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.72% (male 5,975,407/female 5,908,511)
15-24 years: 21.57% (male 2,824,012/female 2,907,033)
25-54 years: 27.42% (male 3,409,425/female 3,875,837)
55-64 years: 3.4% (male 435,203/female 468,939)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 352,546/female 416,793) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 93.5
youth dependency ratio: 87.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.2 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 17.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 222
Population growth rate:
2.46% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Birth rate:
38.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Death rate:
11.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Net migration rate:
-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Population distribution:
three large populations clusters are found along the southern coast between Maputo and Inhambane, in the central area between Beira and Chimoio along the Zambezi River, and in and around the northern cities of Nampula, Cidade de Nacala, and Pemba; the northwest and southwest are the least populated areas
Urbanization:
urban population: 32.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.36% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
MAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.9 years
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Infant mortality rate:
total: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.7 years
male: 52.9 years
female: 54.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Total fertility rate:
5.08 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
11.6% (2011)
Health expenditures:
7% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 82
Physicians density:
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
12.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.8 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
62,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
7.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 160
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
15.6% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 44
Education expenditures:
6.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 78
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 39.3%
male: 40.2%
female: 38.7% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution:
history: previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the Assembly of the Republic membership; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions including the independence and sovereignty of the state, the republican form of government, basic rights and freedoms, and universal suffrage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; referenda not required for passage of other amendments; amended 2007 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members elected through a party list in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad who are appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic and cannot be fired in the course of a five-year term and the vice president is appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUSI]
Mozambican National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [A Paulo NHANCALE, Managing Director]
Youth Parliament (Parlamento Juvenil) [Salomao MUCHANGA]
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos DOS SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala
National symbol(s):
national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
National anthem:
name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
note: adopted 2002

Economy

Economy - overview:
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP, in purchasing power parity terms, from $4 billion in 1993 to about $37 billion in 2017. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, about half the population remains below the poverty line and subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force.
Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans secured between 2012-14 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion; this prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. An international audit was performed on Mozambique’s debt in 2016-17, but debt restructuring and resumption of donor support have yet to occur.
Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but the sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to slower growth in 2016-17.
Two major international consortiums are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$37.39 billion (2017 est.)
$35.69 billion (2016 est.)
$34.37 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 123
GDP (official exchange rate):
$12.35 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.7% (2017 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,300 (2017 est.)
$1,200 (2016 est.)
$1,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 221
Gross national saving:
18.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
5% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 67.3%
government consumption: 24.5%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: 24.9%
exports of goods and services: 42.6%
imports of goods and services: -78.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 24.3%
industry: 23%
services: 52.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries:
aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
10.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Labor force:
12.98 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
22.4% (2014 est.)
17% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Population below poverty line:
46.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45.6 (2008 est.)
47.3 (2002 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Budget:
revenues: $2.758 billion
expenditures: $3.607 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
22.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Public debt:
119.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
121.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17.5% (2017 est.)
19.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Central bank discount rate:
9.5% (17 January 2013 est.)
3.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
27% (31 December 2017 est.)
21.18% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Stock of narrow money:
$4.278 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Stock of broad money:
$6.496 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Stock of domestic credit:
$5.231 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.242 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-3.162 billion (2017 est.)
$-4.307 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Exports:
$4.773 billion (2017 est.)
$3.328 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Exports - commodities:
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners:
Netherlands 30.8%, India 15.2%, South Africa 14.6% (2016)
Imports:
$5.021 billion (2017 est.)
$4.733 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
South Africa 36.6%, China 10.9%, Netherlands 7.8%, Bahrain 5.2%, France 4.2%, Portugal 4.2%, UAE 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.193 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.081 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Debt - external:
$10.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Exchange rates:
meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
64.4 (2017 est.)
63.07 (2016 est.)
63.07 (2015 est.)
39.98 (2014 est.)
31.37 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 15,700,000
electrification - total population: 39%
electrification - urban areas: 66%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)
Electricity - production:
19.58 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Electricity - consumption:
13.86 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Electricity - exports:
12.88 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Electricity - imports:
10.55 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
2.556 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
14% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
85.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Refined petroleum products - imports:
21,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Natural gas - production:
5.695 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Natural gas - consumption:
2.726 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Natural gas - exports:
3.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 82,421
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 15,025,598
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Telephone system:
general assessment: the mobile segment has shown strong growth since the introduction of competition in 2003; poor fixed-line infrastructure means most Internet access is through mobile accounts
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; three mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.mz
Internet users:
total: 4,543,284
percent of population: 17.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 16
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 686,892
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,138,916 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
C9 (2016)
Airports:
98 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 57
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 4,787 km
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 40
Roadways:
total: 31,083 km
paved: 7,365 km
unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
country comparison to the world: 96
Waterways:
460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 85
Merchant marine:
total: 27
by type: general cargo 10, other 17 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 131
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.03% of GDP (2016)
0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.02% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
0.91% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 111
Military branches:
Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 10,148 (2018)
Illicit drugs:
southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

Economic Indicators for Mozambique including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Mozambique economy.