Sudan - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 110,876,550,000 90,996,160,700 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 5,439,562,400 5,245,479,600 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 5,876,949,800 5,682,867,000 NCU Annual
Investment 2016 116,414,950,000 96,534,561,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 573,578,619,152 491,288,670,596 SDD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2017 512.51 502.16 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 5,945,998 5,692,064 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 10,847,440 10,559,338 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 1999 831,770,000 581,600,000 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,037,235,618 874,751,932 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -1,486,548,479 -1,174,460,830 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 2,523,784,097 2,049,212,763 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -1,808,184,248 -1,418,186,949 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 58,342,000,000 47,697,200,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 6,423,431,200 6,170,443,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 3,280,302,600 3,313,437,000 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 74,358,100,000 63,648,400,000 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance 2009 -5,864,895,443 -1,744,580,877 current LCU Annual
Government Revenues 1999 2,155,620,000 1,621,430,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 40,533,330 39,578,828 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 32.93 33.32 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 7.44 7.52 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -589,384 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided.
Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), and has resulted in 1.1 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displacing nearly 2 million people and causing thousands of deaths. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

Geography

Location:
north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
country comparison to the world: 17
Area - comparative:
slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 6,819 km
border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrain:
generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
Elevation:
mean elevation: 568 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,042 m
Natural resources:
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 100%
arable land 15.7%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 84.2%
forest: 0%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
18,900 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and throughout South Darfur
Natural hazards:
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the Nile is Sudan's primary water source; its major tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, meet at Khartoum to form the River Nile which flows northward through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea

People & Society

Population:
37,345,935 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Nationality:
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups:
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Languages:
Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Religions:
Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.68% (male 7,335,613/female 7,111,552)
15-24 years: 21.04% (male 4,033,787/female 3,823,098)
25-54 years: 32.77% (male 5,943,906/female 6,293,921)
55-64 years: 4.24% (male 824,577/female 760,014)
65 years and over: 3.27% (male 655,795/female 563,672) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 81.6
youth dependency ratio: 75.4
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 15.9 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.9 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Population growth rate:
1.64% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Birth rate:
27.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Death rate:
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Net migration rate:
-4.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Population distribution:
with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
Urbanization:
urban population: 34.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.02% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
KHARTOUM (capital) 5.129 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Infant mortality rate:
total: 48.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.4 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 66.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Total fertility rate:
3.57 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
12.2% (2014)
Health expenditures:
8.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 48
Physicians density:
3.06 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
0.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
56,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
6.6% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 165
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
33% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 21
Education expenditures:
2.2% of GDP (2009)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 7 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 20%
male: 16%
female: 32% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the Black [peoples]"
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
Independence:
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution:
history: previous 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution)
amendments: proposed by the National Legislature or by the president of the republic; passage requires submission of the proposal to the Legislature at least two months prior to consideration, approval by at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses of the Legislature, and assent by the president; amended 2015 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013) and prime minister (since 2 March 2017); Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013) and prime minister (since 2 March 2017); Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the NCP dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Jalal al-DIGAIR]
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Federal Umma Party [Dr. Ahmed Babikir NAHAR]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
National Umma Party or NUP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Reform Movement Now [Dr. Ghazi Salahuddin al-ATABANI]
Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party or SCoP [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
Umma Party for Reform and Development
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid al-NUR, various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI]
National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Yasir ARMAN]
International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MAOWIA Osman Khalid Mohammed (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since July 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
National symbol(s):
secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
National anthem:
name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military

Economy

Economy - overview:
Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.
Sudan was subject to comprehensive US sanctions, which were lifted in October 2017. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining and agriculture, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.
Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but fell to about 35% per year in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$186.8 billion (2017 est.)
$180.1 billion (2016 est.)
$174.7 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 69
GDP (official exchange rate):
$119 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.7% (2017 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,600 (2017 est.)
$4,500 (2016 est.)
$4,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 173
Gross national saving:
12.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 77.3%
government consumption: 6.1%
investment in fixed capital: 18.5%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 8.9%
imports of goods and services: -11.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 39.6%
industry: 2.6%
services: 57.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
Industries:
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
Industrial production growth rate:
2.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Labor force:
11.92 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
19.6% (2017 est.)
20.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Population below poverty line:
46.5% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $8.198 billion
expenditures: $13.4 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
6.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Public debt:
54.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
65.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
26.9% (2017 est.)
17.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 222
Stock of narrow money:
$13.64 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Stock of broad money:
$20.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$19.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Stock of domestic credit:
$21.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$21.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-2.317 billion (2017 est.)
$-5.126 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Exports:
$3.808 billion (2017 est.)
$3.094 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Exports - commodities:
gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
Exports - partners:
UAE 42.9%, Saudi Arabia 19.5%, Egypt 15.9% (2016)
Imports:
$8.649 billion (2017 est.)
$7.325 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners:
UAE 15.4%, India 11.2%, Egypt 10.4%, Saudi Arabia 9.2%, Turkey 8.9%, Japan 5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$504.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$168.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Debt - external:
$53.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$51.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$25.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Exchange rates:
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
6.72 (2017 est.)
6.14 (2016 est.)
6.14 (2015 est.)
6.03 (2014 est.)
5.74 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 24,700,000
electrification - total population: 35%
electrification - urban areas: 63%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
Electricity - production:
12.69 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Electricity - consumption:
10.26 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
3.736 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
34.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
60.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
5.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Crude oil - production:
104,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Crude oil - exports:
152,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Crude oil - proved reserves:
5 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Refined petroleum products - production:
89,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
110,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Refined petroleum products - exports:
7,396 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Refined petroleum products - imports:
23,920 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Natural gas - proved reserves:
84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
14 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 136,472
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 27,807,293
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Telephone system:
general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; teledensity exceeeds 75 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2016)
Broadcast media:
the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
Internet country code:
.sd
Internet users:
total: 10,284,260
percent of population: 28.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 25
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 496,178
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 13,161,592 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
ST (2016)
Airports:
74 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 71
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)
Heliports:
6 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 7,251 km
narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (20014)
country comparison to the world: 31
Roadways:
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
country comparison to the world: 129
Waterways:
4,068 km (1,723 km open year-round on White and Blue Nile Rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 24
Merchant marine:
total: 17
by type: general cargo 1, other 16 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 142
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Port Sudan

Military & Security

Military branches:
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation:
18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
the effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of April 2017, more than 610,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting about 507,000 refugees, including more than 375,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 103,176 (Eritrea); 8,502 (Chad); 6,997 (Syria) (2016); 771,862 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
IDPs: 2.072 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2017)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)

Economic Indicators for Sudan including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Sudan economy.