Namibia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Namibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 11.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2016 32,105,300,811 42,746,279,022 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 32,241,830,078 43,174,695,312 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 39,080,132,812 50,315,445,312 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 96,772,675,676 79,946,913,920 NAD Annual
Investment 2016 39,080,133,943 50,315,445,093 NAD Annual
Government Consumption 2016 39,963 38,418 Mil. ZAR Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 131.8 131.55 Index 2000=100 Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2001 Q2 3,646,000,000 3,752,000,000 NAD, NSA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Feb 2018 150.06 149.83 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 287,965 284,712 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 22.3 23.4 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 958,627 931,913 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2015 23,947,196,748 21,654,577,714 NAD Annual
Total Employment 2011 638,652 580,653 ages 15+ Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -281,710,664 -353,386,596 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -80,215,787 -29,925,609 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,109,089,125 1,039,510,332 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,390,799,790 1,392,896,928 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 79,473,890,625 83,368,742,187 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 41,580,242,187 39,189,828,125 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 59,887,494,404 53,763,247,690 NAD Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 92,617,974,816 91,122,678,193 NAD Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2016 199,217,132,812 193,131,609,375 NCU Annual
Government Revenues 2015 52,130,886,468 50,031,850,193 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 -7,948,000,000 -6,332,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Feb 2018 7.68 7.61 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Dec 2012 5.5 5.5 % Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Oct 2012 8.7 % Monthly
Money Market Rate Jan 2010 7.05 6.58 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2014 80.6 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 2,479,713 2,425,561 # Annual
Death Rate 2015 7.46 7.78 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2015 29.59 29.9 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -1,371 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. Prime Minister Hage GEINGOB was elected president in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections and established a system of gender parity in parliamentary positions.

Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
22 00 S, 17 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km
country comparison to the world: 35
Area - comparative:
slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 4,220 km
border countries (4): Angola 1,427 km, Botswana 1,544 km, South Africa 1,005 km, Zambia 244 km
Coastline:
1,572 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain:
mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,141 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish
note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Land use:
agricultural land: 47.2%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 46.2%
forest: 8.8%
other: 44% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
80 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
population density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola
Natural hazards:
prolonged periods of drought
Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip

People & Society

Population:
2,484,780
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Nationality:
noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
Ethnic groups:
black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other indigenous ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Languages:
Oshivambo languages 48.9%, Nama/Damara 11.3%, Afrikaans 10.4% (common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population), Otjiherero languages 8.6%, Kavango languages 8.5%, Caprivi languages 4.8%, English (official) 3.4%, other African languages 2.3%, other 1.7%
note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 Indo-European languages (2011 est.)
Religions:
Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Demographic profile:
Planning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades – from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 – due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.
The majority of Namibians are rural dwellers (about 55%) and live in the better-watered north and northeast parts of the country. Migration, historically male-dominated, generally flows from northern communal areas – non-agricultural lands where blacks were sequestered under the apartheid system – to agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers in the center and south. After independence from South Africa, restrictions on internal movement eased, and rural-urban migration increased, bolstering urban growth.
Some Namibians – usually persons who are better-educated, more affluent, and from urban areas – continue to legally migrate to South Africa temporarily to visit family and friends and, much less frequently, to pursue tertiary education or better economic opportunities. Namibians concentrated along the country’s other borders make unauthorized visits to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, or Botswana, to visit family and to trade agricultural goods. Few Namibians express interest in permanently settling in other countries; they prefer the safety of their homeland, have a strong national identity, and enjoy a well-supplied retail sector. Although Namibia is receptive to foreign investment and cross-border trade, intolerance toward non-citizens is widespread.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.97% (male 463,810/female 454,735)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 251,838/female 253,823)
25-54 years: 34.37% (male 408,536/female 445,500)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 48,529/female 59,543)
65 years and over: 3.96% (male 41,912/female 56,554) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 68.1
youth dependency ratio: 62.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 21.2 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 21.9 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Population growth rate:
1.95% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Birth rate:
27.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Death rate:
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Population distribution:
population density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola
Urbanization:
urban population: 48.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
WINDHOEK (capital) 368,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
265 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Infant mortality rate:
total: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 65.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Total fertility rate:
3.29 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
56.1% (2013)
Health expenditures:
8.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 42
Physicians density:
0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density:
2.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 84.6% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 15.4% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 54.5% of population
rural: 16.8% of population
total: 34.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.5% of population
rural: 83.2% of population
total: 65.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
13.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
230,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,300 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
17.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 119
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
13.2% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 37
Education expenditures:
8.3% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 9
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.9%
male: 79.2%
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 56.2%
male: 49.4%
female: 62.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch Suedwest Afrika), South-West Africa
etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name "namib" means "vast place" in the Nama/Damara language
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Administrative divisions:
14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language
Independence:
21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Constitution:
history: drafted 9 February 1990, signed 16 March 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the National Assembly membership and of the National Council of Parliament and assent by the president of the republic; if the National Council fails to pass an amendment, the president can call for a referendum; passage by referendum requires two-thirds majority of votes cast; amendments that detract from or repeal constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended, and the requisite majorities needed by Parliament to amend the constitution cannot be changed; amended 1998, 2010, 2014 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5.0%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1.0%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president) and the National Council, which primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly (42 seats); members indirectly elected 3 each by the 14 regional councils to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 27 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 40, NUDO 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 80.0%, DTA 4.8%, RDP 3.5%, APP 2.3%, UDF 2.1%, NUDO 2.0%, CPN 1.5%, other 3.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 77, DTA 5, RDP 3, APP 2, UDF 2, NUDO 2, CPN 2, SWANU 1, UPM 1, RP 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65 but terms can be extended by the president until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders:
All People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI]
Communist Party of Namibia or CPN (formerly known as Workers' Revolutionary Party or WRP) [Attie BEUKES and Harry BOESAK]
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [McHenry VENAANI]
National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Asser MBAI]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Jeremiah NAMBINGA]
Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA]
South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB, acting president]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Apius AUCHAB]
United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
National Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS
other: labor unions
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP (associate observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin ANDJABA (since 16 September 2010)
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Frederick DAUGHTON (since 26 November 2014)
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603
Flag description:
a wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a golden-yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green; red signifies the heroism of the people and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all; white stands for peace, unity, tranquility, and harmony; blue represents the Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain; the golden-yellow sun denotes power and existence; green symbolizes vegetation and agricultural resources
National symbol(s):
oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow
National anthem:
name: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB
note: adopted 1991

Economy

Economy - overview:
Namibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 11.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.
Namibia is the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine is expected to start producing uranium ore in 2017. Once the Husab mine reaches full production, Namibia is expected to become the world’s second-largest producer of uranium. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.
Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years, food shortages are problematic in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, obscures one of the world's most unequal income distributions. A priority of the current government is poverty eradication. Despite a drought, real GDP growth remained strong in 2015 around 5.3% because of construction in the mining and housing sectors coupled with expansionary fiscal policy. GDP growth in 2016 slowed to 1%, however, due to contractions in both the construction and mining sectors, as well as the ongoing drought. Growth is expected to recover modestly in 2017 and 2018.
A five-year Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU); volatility in the size of Namibia's annual SACU allotment and global mineral prices complicates budget planning.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$26.35 billion (2016 est.)
$25.74 billion (2015 est.)
$24.02 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 136
GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.95 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.1% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
6.4% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$11,300 (2016 est.)
$11,400 (2015 est.)
$11,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 134
Gross national saving:
11.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 73.3%
government consumption: 25.1%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 42.7%
imports of goods and services: -66.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 6.2%
industry: 25.9%
services: 67.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
Industries:
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Industrial production growth rate:
-9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Labor force:
939,600 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 14%
services: 54%
note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate:
28.1% (2014 est.)
29.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Population below poverty line:
28.7% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
59.7 (2010)
70.7 (2003)
country comparison to the world: 7
Budget:
revenues: $3.502 billion
expenditures: $4.197 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
32.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Public debt:
40.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
39.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.7% (2016 est.)
3.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Central bank discount rate:
7% (12 April 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2015)
country comparison to the world: 47
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.32% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Stock of narrow money:
$2.898 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Stock of broad money:
$6.281 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.271 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Stock of domestic credit:
$7.006 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.36 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.305 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.152 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.176 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Current account balance:
$-1.529 billion (2016 est.)
$-1.7 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Exports:
$4.003 billion (2016 est.)
$4.015 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Exports - commodities:
diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 20%, South Africa 17.1%, Botswana 15%, Zambia 6.7%, Spain 4.6%, Italy 4.2% (2016)
Imports:
$6.441 billion (2016 est.)
$6.914 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
South Africa 57.1%, Botswana 6.8%, Zambia 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.834 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.688 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Debt - external:
$6.904 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.155 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Namibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar -
14.7096 (2016 est.)
14.7096 (2015 est.)
12.7589 (2014 est.)
10.8526 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 32%
electrification - urban areas: 50%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)
Electricity - production:
1.519 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Electricity - consumption:
3.771 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Electricity - exports:
88 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Electricity - imports:
2.623 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
514,200 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
30.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
64.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
5.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 211
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
25,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Refined petroleum products - exports:
79.56 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Refined petroleum products - imports:
24,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Natural gas - proved reserves:
62.29 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 62
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 187,812
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 2,659,951
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Telephone system:
general assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers with digital connections
domestic: multiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of about 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East submarine cable through South Africa; connected to the West Africa Cable System, an ultra-high capacity fiber-optic submarine cable linking southern and western African countries to Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2016)
Broadcast media:
1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
Internet country code:
.na
Internet users:
total: 756,118
percent of population: 31.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 553,322
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30,302,405 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
V5 (2016)
Airports:
112 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 52
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 93
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 52
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Railways:
total: 2,628 km
narrow gauge: 2,628 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 63
Roadways:
total: 44,138 km
paved: 6,387 km
unpaved: 37,751 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 83
Merchant marine:
total: 1
by type: cargo 1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 154
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
4.44% of GDP (2016)
4.7% of GDP (2015)
4.18% of GDP (2014)
3.07% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 20
Military branches:
Namibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, construction, and fishing operations
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Namibia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Namibia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2015, the Child Care and Protection Bill passed, criminalizing child trafficking; the government’s first sex trafficking prosecution remained pending; no new prosecutions were initiated and no trafficking offenders have ever been convicted; accusations of forced labor at Chinese construction and mining companies continue to go uninvestigated; authorities failed to fully implement victim identification and referral processes, which led to the deportation of possible victims (2015)

Economic Indicators for Namibia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Namibia economy.