Tanzania - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Tanzania has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism with GDP growth in 2009-17 averaging 6%-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession and in general, benefited from low oil prices. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining. The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for slightly less than one-quarter of GDP...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 34,768,001,000,000 31,122,533,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 13,140,451,000,000 13,733,585,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 18,901,666,000,000 16,816,044,000,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 64,066,418,111,978 54,953,168,134,649 TZS Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 103,744,621,030,887 90,844,811,944,147 TZS Annual
Investment 2016 26,479,125,651,769 25,357,739,072,270 TZS Annual
Government Consumption 2015 12,447 10,996 Bil. TZS Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 139.23 130.17 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 180.83 181.52 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 17,549,051 17,084,183 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 2.21 2.17 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 25,423,588 24,618,499 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -668,147,794 -877,235,571 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -350,783,160 -481,084,834 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 2,097,929,771 1,895,975,165 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,429,781,977 1,018,739,593 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 9,828,015,000,000 11,135,270,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 13,184,584,000,000 12,973,879,000,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 20,213,109,378,254 19,645,875,806,492 TZS Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 23,459,238,072,227 22,510,717,129,916 TZS Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2014 13,567,884,770,000 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 -3,700,830,000,000 -3,512,210,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Apr 2018 4.04 4.69 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Feb 2013 12 12 % - End of period Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 57,310,019 55,572,201 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 38.19 38.64 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.74 7.02 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -199,999 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. In 1995, the country held its first democratic elections since the 1970s. Zanzibar maintains semi-autonomy and participates in national elections; popular political opposition on the isles led to four contentious elections since 1995, in which the ruling party claimed victory despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
country comparison to the world: 32
Area - comparative:
more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 4,161 km
border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
Coastline:
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain:
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,018 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
Natural resources:
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
agricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%
forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,840 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the largest and most populous East African country; population distribution is extremely uneven, but greater population clusters occur in the northern half of country and along the east coast
Natural hazards:
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Environment - current issues:
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest

People & Society

Population:
53,950,935
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Nationality:
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups:
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Languages:
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Religions:
Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
Demographic profile:
Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.74% (male 11,921,393/female 11,678,536)
15-24 years: 19.86% (male 5,361,747/female 5,351,794)
25-54 years: 29.88% (male 8,098,183/female 8,020,289)
55-64 years: 3.51% (male 836,313/female 1,055,347)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 687,118/female 940,215) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 93.4
youth dependency ratio: 87.4
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.7 years
male: 17.5 years
female: 18 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
Population growth rate:
2.75% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Birth rate:
35.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Death rate:
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Net migration rate:
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Population distribution:
the largest and most populous East African country; population distribution is extremely uneven, but greater population clusters occur in the northern half of country and along the east coast
Urbanization:
urban population: 33% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015/16 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Infant mortality rate:
total: 39.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.6 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 64.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Total fertility rate:
4.77 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
38.4% (2015/16)
Health expenditures:
5.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 121
Physicians density:
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
4.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.4 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
33,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 152
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
13.7% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 53
Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 37
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 77.9%
male: 83.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 9.4%
male: 7%
female: 11.7% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: German East Africa, Trust Territory of Tanganyika, United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Dodoma (legislative capital), Dar es Salaam (administrative capital); note - Dodoma was designated the national capital in 1996 and serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; Dar es Salaam remains the de facto capital, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation; the government contends that it will complete the transfer of the executive branch to Dodoma by 2020
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
31 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Songwe, Tabora, Tanga
Independence:
26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
National holiday:
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; note - progress enacting a new constitution drafted in 2014 by the Constituent Assembly has been stalled
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments to constitutional articles including those on sovereignty of the United Republic, the authorities and powers of the government, the president, the Assembly, and the High Court requires two-thirds majority vote of the mainland Assembly membership and of the Zanzibar House of Representatives membership; House of Representatives approval of other amendments is not required (2017)
Legal system:
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%
note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN (CCM) 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED (ADC) 3%, other 5.6%; the main opposition party in Zanzibar, the Civic United Front, boycotted the 20 March 2016 election rerun
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (393 seats; 264 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 113 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (82 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 20 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 1 seat for the House speaker, and 1 ex-officio seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)
elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election either October 2020 or March 2021; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; repoll held on 20 March 2016
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CCM 55%, Chadema 31.8%, CUF 8.6%, other 2.2%; seats by party - CCM 253, Chadema 70%, CUF 42%, other 2
Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but terms can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Change and Transparency or ACT [Zitto KABWE]
Alliance for Democratic Change or ADC [Miraji ABDALLAH]
Civic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]
National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]
Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]
note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constitution) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
Twaweza
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wilson Mutagaywa MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Inmi PATTERSON (since 5 July 2017)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
Flag description:
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
National symbol(s):
Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
National anthem:
name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
Tanzania has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism with GDP growth in 2009-17 averaging 6%-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession and in general, benefited from low oil prices. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.
The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for slightly less than one-quarter of GDP and employs about 65% of the work force, although gold production in recent years has increased to about 35% of exports. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.
The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.
The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the governments use of a controversial cybercrime bill.
Under the new government elected in 2015, Tanzania has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government. Recent policy moves by President MAGUFULI are aimed at protecting domestic industry and have caused concern among foreign investors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$162.8 billion (2017 est.)
$152.9 billion (2016 est.)
$143 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 76
GDP (official exchange rate):
$51.61 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.5% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,300 (2017 est.)
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$3,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 190
Gross national saving:
19.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
23% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 65%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 34.3%
investment in inventories: -8.6%
exports of goods and services: 17.9%
imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 23.4%
industry: 28.6%
services: 47.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate:
8.8% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Labor force:
24.89 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.3% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Population below poverty line:
22.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37.6 (2007 est.)
34.6 (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Budget:
revenues: $7.872 billion
expenditures: $9.271 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
15.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Public debt:
35.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
34% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (2017 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Central bank discount rate:
8.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
3.7% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.96% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Stock of narrow money:
$4.869 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.601 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Stock of broad money:
$8.291 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.613 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Stock of domestic credit:
$9.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.625 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Current account balance:
$-2.907 billion (2017 est.)
$-2.677 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Exports:
$5.194 billion (2017 est.)
$5.697 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Exports - commodities:
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 15.1%, India 13.8%, South Africa 12.4%, China 7%, Kenya 6.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5.7%, Belgium 5.6% (2016)
Imports:
$8.61 billion (2017 est.)
$8.464 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners:
China 20.7%, India 18.1%, UAE 7.5%, South Africa 6%, Japan 4.7% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$4.174 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.067 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: excludes gold
country comparison to the world: 97
Debt - external:
$15.88 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -
2,243.8 (2017 est.)
2,177.1 (2016 est.)
2,177.1 (2015 est.)
1,989.7 (2014 est.)
1,654 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 37,400,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 71%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
Electricity - production:
6.025 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Electricity - consumption:
4.976 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
Electricity - imports:
71 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.187 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
46% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
47.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
6.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
60,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Refined petroleum products - imports:
58,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Natural gas - production:
1.1 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Natural gas - consumption:
1.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Natural gas - proved reserves:
6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
10 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 129,597
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 40,044,186
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Telephone system:
general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.tz
Internet users:
total: 6,822,754
percent of population: 13.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 17
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,239,707
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,337,440 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
5H (2016)
Airports:
166 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 34
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 311 km; oil 891 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 4,567 km
narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 41
Roadways:
total: 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 55
Waterways:
(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
Merchant marine:
total: 279
by type: bulk carrier 10, container ship 9, general cargo 147, oil tanker 29, other 84 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 55
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.14% of GDP (2016)
1.13% of GDP (2015)
1.05% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 105
Military branches:
Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Maritime threats:
the International Maritime Bureau reports that shipping in territorial and offshore waters in the Indian Ocean remain at risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships, especially as Somali-based pirates extend their activities south; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 224,033 (Burundi); 82,034 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2018)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem; Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats; Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs; trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Tanzania was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law; authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)
Illicit drugs:
targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia

Economic Indicators for Tanzania including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Tanzania economy.