Syrian Arab Republic - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Syria's economy has deeply deteriorated amid the ongoing conflict that began in 2011, declining by more than 70% from 2010 to 2017. The government has struggled to fully address the effects of international sanctions, widespread infrastructure damage, diminished domestic consumption and production, reduced subsidies, and high inflation, which have caused dwindling foreign exchange reserves, rising budget and trade deficits, a decreasing value of the Syrian pound, and falling household purchasing power. In 2017, some economic indicators began to stabilize, including the exchange...

Continue reading View Factbook for Syrian Arab Republic

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2010 1,762,709,625,620 1,532,037,344,858 SYP Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2010 2,791,775,000,000 2,520,705,000,000 SYP Annual
Government Consumption 2009 301,787 274,879 Mil. SYP Annual
Investment 2007 560,938,000,000 321,463,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2007 412,136,000,000 371,519,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2002 197,011,813,000 182,078,419,000 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Producer Price Index (PPI) Jan 1977 6.06 5.89 Index 2005=100 Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 1,087,850 1,092,828 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 4,786,176 4,823,362 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2011 14.9 8.61 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods and Services 2010 886,108,177,210 721,878,629,348 SYP Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2010 948,171,802,830 791,339,974,207 SYP Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Birth Rate 2016 21.47 22.16 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.52 5.59 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -4,157,896 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French administered the area as Syria until granting it independence in 1946. The new country lacked political stability and experienced a series of military coups. Syria united with Egypt in February 1958 to form the United Arab Republic. In September 1961, the two entities separated, and the Syrian Arab Republic was reestablished. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights region to Israel. During the 1990s, Syria and Israel held occasional, albeit unsuccessful, peace talks over its return. In November 1970, Hafiz al-ASAD, a member of the socialist Ba'ath Party and the minority Alawi sect, seized power in a bloodless coup and brought political stability to the country. Following the death of President Hafiz al-ASAD, his son, Bashar al-ASAD, was approved as president by popular referendum in July 2000. Syrian troops - stationed in Lebanon since 1976 in an ostensible peacekeeping role - were withdrawn in April 2005. During the July-August 2006 conflict between Israel and Hizballah, Syria placed its military forces on alert but did not intervene directly on behalf of its ally Hizballah. In May 2007, Bashar al-ASAD's second term as president was approved by popular referendum.
Influenced by major uprisings that began elsewhere in the region, and compounded by additional social and economic factors, antigovernment protests broke out first in the southern province of Dar'a in March 2011 with protesters calling for the repeal of the restrictive Emergency Law allowing arrests without charge, the legalization of political parties, and the removal of corrupt local officials. Demonstrations and violent unrest spread across Syria with the size and intensity of protests fluctuating. The government responded to unrest with a mix of concessions - including the repeal of the Emergency Law, new laws permitting new political parties, and liberalizing local and national elections - and with military force and detentions. The government's efforts to quell unrest and armed opposition activity led to extended clashes between government forces, their allies, and oppositionists.
International pressure on the ASAD regime intensified after late 2011, as the Arab League, the EU, Turkey, and the US expanded economic sanctions against the regime and those entities that support it. In December 2012, the Syrian National Coalition, was recognized by more than 130 countries as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people. In September 2015, Russia launched a military intervention on behalf of the ASAD regime, and government-aligned forces recaptured Aleppo city in December 2016, shifting the conflict in the regime’s favor. Political negotiations between the government and opposition delegations at UN-sponsored Geneva conferences since 2014 have failed to produce a resolution of the conflict. Russia, Iran, and Turkey since early 2017 have held negotiations in Astana to establish de-escalation zones to reduce violence in Syria. Unrest continues in Syria, and according to an April 2016 UN estimate, the death toll among Syrian Government forces, opposition forces, and civilians was over 400,000, though other estimates have placed the number well over 500,000. As of December 2017, approximately 13.1 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria, with 6.3 million people displaced internally, and an additional 5.4 million registered Syrian refugees, making the Syrian situation among the largest humanitarian crises worldwide

Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey
Geographic coordinates:
35 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 185,180 sq km
land: 183,630 sq km
water: 1,550 sq km
note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory
country comparison to the world: 90
Area - comparative:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Pennsylvania
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 2,363 km
border countries (5): Iraq 599 km, Israel 83 km, Jordan 379 km, Lebanon 403 km, Turkey 899 km
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate:
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus
Terrain:
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west
Elevation:
mean elevation: 514 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -208 m
highest point: Mount Hermon (Jabal a-Shayk) 2,814 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 75.8%
arable land 25.4%; permanent crops 5.8%; permanent pasture 44.6%
forest: 2.7%
other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
14,280 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
significant population density along the Mediterranean coast; larger concentrations found in the major cities of Damascus, Aleppo (the country's largest city), and Hims (Homs); more than half of the population lives in the coastal plain, the province of Halab, and the Euphrates River valley
note: the ongoing civil war has altered the population distribution
Natural hazards:
dust storms, sandstorms
volcanism: Syria's two historically active volcanoes, Es Safa and an unnamed volcano near the Turkish border have not erupted in centuries
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
the capital of Damascus - located at an oasis fed by the Barada River - is thought to be one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities; there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (2017)

People & Society

Population:
18,028,549 (July 2017 est.)
note: approximately 20,500 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2014)
country comparison to the world: 63
Nationality:
noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian
Ethnic groups:
Arab 90.3%, Kurdish, Armenian, and other 9.7%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French, English
Religions:
Muslim 87% (official; includes Sunni 74% and Alawi, Ismaili, and Shia 13%), Christian 10% (includes Orthodox, Uniate, and Nestorian), Druze 3%, Jewish (few remaining in Damascus and Aleppo)
religious affiliation:
Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.62% (male 2,923,814/female 2,777,073)
15-24 years: 19.54% (male 1,790,360/female 1,732,694)
25-54 years: 39.22% (male 3,522,653/female 3,547,540)
55-64 years: 5.41% (male 482,576/female 493,085)
65 years and over: 4.21% (male 342,407/female 416,347) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 72.8
youth dependency ratio: 65.8
elderly dependency ratio: 7
potential support ratio: 14.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.3 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 24.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Population growth rate:
NA
Birth rate:
21.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Net migration rate:
NA
Population distribution:
significant population density along the Mediterranean coast; larger concentrations found in the major cities of Damascus, Aleppo (the country's largest city), and Hims (Homs); more than half of the population lives in the coastal plain, the province of Halab, and the Euphrates River valley
note: the ongoing civil war has altered the population distribution
Urbanization:
urban population: 58.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Aleppo 3.562 million; DAMASCUS (capital) 2.566 million; Hims (Homs) 1.641 million; Hamah 1.237 million; Lattakia 781,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Infant mortality rate:
total: 14.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.1 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 77.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
53.9% (2009/10)
Health expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 177
Physicians density:
1.55 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 87.2% of population
total: 90.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.7% of population
rural: 12.8% of population
total: 9.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 95.1% of population
total: 95.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 4.9% of population
total: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
27.8% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 35
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
10.1% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 70
Education expenditures:
5.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 70
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 91.7%
female: 81% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 35.8%
male: 26.6%
female: 71.1% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form: Syria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form: Suriyah
former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)
etymology: name ultimately derived from the ancient Assyrians who dominated northern Mesopotamia, but whose reach also extended westward to the Levant; over time, the name came to be associated more with the western area
Government type:
presidential republic; highly authoritarian regime
Capital:
name: Damascus
geographic coordinates: 33 30 N, 36 18 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins midnight on the last Friday in March; ends at midnight on the last Friday in October
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah (Latakia), Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq (Damascus), Halab, Hamah, Hims (Homs), Idlib, Rif Dimashq (Damascus Countryside), Tartus
Independence:
17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day (Evacuation Day), 17 April (1946); note - celebrates the leaving of the last French troops and the proclamation of full independence
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest issued 15 February 2012, passed by referendum and effective 27 February 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-third of the People’s Assembly members; following review by a special Assembly committee, passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote by the Assembly and approval by the president (2016)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law (for family courts)
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Syria; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen of Syria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Imad Muhammad Dib KHAMIS (since 22 June 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Walid al-MUALEM (since 23 June 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 June 2014 (next to be held in June 2021); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministers
election results: Bashar al-ASAD elected president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD (Ba'th Party) 88.7%, Hassan al-NOURI (independent) 4.3%, Maher HAJJER (independent) 3.2%, other/invalid 3.8%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral People's Assembly or Majlis al-Shaab (250 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 13 April 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NPF 80%, other 20%; seats by party - NPF 200, other 50
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Cassation (organized into civil, criminal, religious, and military divisions, each with 3 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC, a judicial management body headed by the minister of justice with 7 members including the national president; judge tenure NA; Supreme Constitutional Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the SJC; judges appointed for 4-year renewable terms
subordinate courts: courts of first instance; magistrates' courts; religious and military courts; Economic Security Court; Counterterrorism Court (established June 2012)
Political parties and leaders:
legal parties/alliances: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party [Bashar al-ASAD, regional secretary]
Arab Socialist Union of Syria or ASU [Safwan al-QUDSI]
National Progressive Front or NPF [Bashar al-ASAD, Suleiman QADDAH] (alliance includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD], Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr al-DIN])
Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]
Syrian Social Nationalist Party or SSNP [Ali HAIDAR]
Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL]
Kurdish parties (considered illegal): Kurdish Azadi Party
Kurdish Democratic Accord Party (al Wifaq) [Fowzi SHINKALI]
Kurdish Democratic Left Party [Saleh KIDDO]
Kurdish Democratic Party (al Parti-Ibrahim wing) [Nasr al-Din IBRAHIM]
Kurdish Democratic Party (al Parti-Mustafa wing)
Kurdish Democratic Party in Syria or KDP-S [Saud AL-MALA]
Kurdish Democratic Patriotic/National Party
Kurdish Democratic Peace Party [Talal MOHAMMED]
Kurdish Democratic Progressive Party or KDPP-Darwish
Kurdish Democratic Progressive Party or KDPP-Muhammad
Kurdish Democratic Union Party or PYD [Shahoz HASAN and Aysha HISSO]
Kurdish Democratic Unity Party [Kamiron Haj ABDU]
Kurdish Democratic Yekiti Party [Mahi al-Din Sheikh ALI]
Kurdish Equality Party [Namet DAOUD]
Kurdish Future Party [Rezan HASSAN]
Kurdish Green Party [ Laqman AHMI]
Kurdish Left Party [Shallal KIDDO]
Kurdish National Democratic Rally in Syria
Kurdish Reform Movement in Syria [Amjad OTHMAN]
Kurdish Reform Movement Party [ Feisal AL-YUSSEF]
Kurdish Yekiti (Union) Party
Kurdistan Communist Party [ Nejm al-Sin MALA’AMIR]
Kurdistan Democratic Party in Syria [Abdul Karim SAKKO]
Kurdistan Liberal Union [Farhad TILO]
Syrian Kurdish Democratic Party
Tiyar al-Mustaqbal [Narin MATINI]
other: Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
note: as of December 2017,there were hundreds of political and armed opposition groups that organize protests, provide civilian services, and stage armed attacks
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
note: Embassy ceased operations and closed on 18 March 2014
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313
FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); US Senior Advisor for Syria Stephanie WILLIAMS (since 2017); note - on 6 February 2012, the US closed its embassy in Damascus; Czechia serves as protecting power for US interests in Syria
embassy: Abou Roumaneh, 2 Al Mansour Street, Damascus
mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone: [963] (11) 3391-4444
FAX: [963] (11) 3391-3999
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; two small, green, five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); identical to the former flag of the United Arab Republic (1958-1961) where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt; the current design dates to 1980
note: similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and that of Egypt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band
National symbol(s):
hawk; national colors: red, white, black, green
National anthem:
name: "Humat ad-Diyar" (Guardians of the Homeland)
lyrics/music: Khalil Mardam BEY/Mohammad Salim FLAYFEL and Ahmad Salim FLAYFEL
note: adopted 1936, restored 1961; between 1958 and 1961, while Syria was a member of the United Arab Republic with Egypt, the country had a different anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
Syria's economy has deeply deteriorated amid the ongoing conflict that began in 2011, declining by more than 70% from 2010 to 2017. The government has struggled to fully address the effects of international sanctions, widespread infrastructure damage, diminished domestic consumption and production, reduced subsidies, and high inflation, which have caused dwindling foreign exchange reserves, rising budget and trade deficits, a decreasing value of the Syrian pound, and falling household purchasing power. In 2017, some economic indicators began to stabilize, including the exchange rate and inflation, but economic activity remains depressed and GDP almost certainly fell.
During 2017, the ongoing conflict and continued unrest and economic decline worsened the humanitarian crisis, necessitating high levels of international assistance, as more than 13 million people remain in need inside Syria, and the number of registered Syrian refugees increased from 4.8 million to more than 5.4 million.
Prior to the turmoil, Damascus had begun liberalizing economic policies, including cutting lending interest rates, opening private banks, consolidating multiple exchange rates, raising prices on some subsidized items, and establishing the Damascus Stock Exchange, but the economy remains highly regulated. Long-run economic constraints include foreign trade barriers, declining oil production, high unemployment, rising budget deficits, increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, industrial contaction, water pollution, and widespread infrastructure damage.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$50.28 billion (2015 est.)
$55.8 billion (2014 est.)
$61.9 billion (2013 est.)
notes: data are in 2015 US dollars
the war-driven deterioration of the economy resulted in a disappearance of quality national level statistics in the 2012-13 period
country comparison to the world: 110
GDP (official exchange rate):
$24.6 billion (2014 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
NA% (2017 est.)
-36.5% (2014 est.)
-30.9% (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2015 dollars
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$3,300 (2014 est.)
$2,800 (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2015 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 193
Gross national saving:
20.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 63.9%
government consumption: 22.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.1%
investment in inventories: 10.9%
exports of goods and services: 9.4%
imports of goods and services: -25.1% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 19.6%
services: 60.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk
Industries:
petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seeds crushing, automobile assembly
Industrial production growth rate:
4.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Labor force:
3.767 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 16%
services: 67% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate:
50% (2017 est.)
50% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Population below poverty line:
82.5% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $1.033 billion
expenditures: $3.177 billion
note: government projections for FY2016 (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
4.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-8.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Public debt:
58.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
55.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25.5% (2017 est.)
43.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 220
Central bank discount rate:
0.75% (31 December 2017 est.)
5% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
33.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
32% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Stock of narrow money:
$5.795 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.488 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Stock of broad money:
$6.696 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.522 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Stock of domestic credit:
$6.816 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.993 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-2.123 billion (2017 est.)
$-2.077 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Exports:
$1.786 billion (2017 est.)
$1.705 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Exports - commodities:
crude oil, minerals, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fiber, textiles, clothing, meat and live animals, wheat
Exports - partners:
Lebanon 34.6%, Jordan 11.6%, China 9.4%, Turkey 8.2%, Iraq 7.7%, Tunisia 4.9% (2016)
Imports:
$5.649 billion (2017 est.)
$5.496 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn, paper
Imports - partners:
Russia 22%, Turkey 20%, China 11.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$407.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$504.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Debt - external:
$5.699 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.085 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Exchange rates:
Syrian pounds (SYP) per US dollar -
514.6 (2017 est.)
459.2 (2016 est.)
459.2 (2015 est.)
236.41 (2014 est.)
153.7 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 96%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 81% (2013)
Electricity - production:
16.83 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Electricity - consumption:
13.96 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Electricity - exports:
262 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
9.61 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
84.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
15.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Crude oil - production:
28,670 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Crude oil - imports:
83,140 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Crude oil - proved reserves:
2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Refined petroleum products - production:
111,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
140,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Refined petroleum products - exports:
12,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Refined petroleum products - imports:
41,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Natural gas - production:
4.3 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Natural gas - consumption:
4.9 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Natural gas - imports:
249.2 million cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Natural gas - proved reserves:
240.7 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
49 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 3,464,846
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 13,349,860
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Telephone system:
general assessment: the armed insurgency that began in 2011 has led to major disruptions to the network and has caused telephone and Internet outages throughout the country
domestic: the number of fixed-line connections increased markedly prior to the civil war in 2011; mobile-cellular service stands at about 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Egypt, Lebanon, and Cyprus; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run TV and radio broadcast networks; state operates 2 TV networks and a satellite channel; roughly two-thirds of Syrian homes have a satellite dish providing access to foreign TV broadcasts; 3 state-run radio channels; first private radio station launched in 2005; private radio broadcasters prohibited from transmitting news or political content (2007)
Internet country code:
.sy
Internet users:
total: 5,476,850
percent of population: 31.9% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 475,932
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,517,388 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
YK (2016)
Airports:
90 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 62
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 61
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 48 (2013)
Heliports:
6 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 3,170 km; oil 2,029 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 2,052 km
standard gauge: 1,801 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 251 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 75
Roadways:
total: 69,873 km
paved: 63,060 km
unpaved: 6,813 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 68
Waterways:
900 km (navigable but not economically significant) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 68
Merchant marine:
total: 21
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 7, other 13 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 137
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Baniyas, Latakia, Tartus

Military & Security

Military branches:
Syrian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (includes Air Defense Forces), Intelligence Services (Air Force Intelligence, Military Intelligence)
Ministry of Interior: Political Security Directorate, General Intelligence Directorate, National Police Force (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months; women are not conscripted but may volunteer to serve (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied with the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms in the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation would settle border dispute with Jordan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 438,000 (Palestinian Refugees) (2017); 16,879 (Iraq)
note: the ongoing civil war has resulted in just over 5.6 million Syrian refugees - dispersed in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey - as of May 2018
IDPs: 6.784 million (ongoing civil war since 2011) (2017)
stateless persons: 160,000 (2016); note - Syria's stateless population consists of Kurds and Palestinians; stateless persons are prevented from voting, owning land, holding certain jobs, receiving food subsidies or public healthcare, enrolling in public schools, or being legally married to Syrian citizens; in 1962, some 120,000 Syrian Kurds were stripped of their Syrian citizenship, rendering them and their descendants stateless; in 2011, the Syrian Government granted citizenship to thousands of Syrian Kurds as a means of appeasement; however, resolving the question of statelessness is not a priority given Syria's ongoing civil war
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: as conditions continue to deteriorate due to Syria’s civil war, human trafficking has increased; Syrians remaining in the country and those that are refugees abroad are vulnerable to trafficking; Syria is a source and destination country for men, women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Syrian children continue to be forcibly recruited by government forces, pro-regime militias, armed opposition groups, and terrorist organizations to serve as soldiers, human shields, and executioners; ISIL forces Syrian women and girls and Yazidi women and girls taken from Iraq to marry its fighters, where they experience domestic servitude and sexual violence; Syrian refugee women and girls are forced into exploitive marriages or prostitution in neighboring countries, while displaced children are forced into street begging domestically and abroad
tier rating: Tier 3 - the government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Syria’s violent conditions enabled human trafficking to flourish; the government made no effort to investigate, prosecute, or convict trafficking offenders or complicit government officials, including those who forcibly recruited child soldiers; authorities did not identify victims and failed to ensure victims, including child soldiers, were protected from arrest, detention, and severe abuse as a result of being trafficked (2015)
Illicit drugs:
a transit point for opiates, hashish, and cocaine bound for regional and Western markets; weak anti-money-laundering controls and bank privatization may leave it vulnerable to money laundering

Economic Indicators for Syrian Arab Republic including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Syrian Arab Republic economy.