Sweden - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-16, with real GDP growth above 2%, but continues to struggle with deflationary pressure. GDP...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Private Consumption 2017 Q4 515,952 488,378 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, NSA Quarterly
Private Consumption 2017 Q4 525,542 499,977 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 1,143,039 1,133,274 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, SA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2017 Q4 325,300 292,251 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 284,313 288,130 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, SA Quarterly
Investment 2017 Q4 320,230 276,835 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2017 Q4 320,914 248,216 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 1,222,053 1,111,392 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Real Investment 2017 Q4 304,915 276,728 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 293,829 293,010 Mil. SEK, SA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2018 327.1 325.76 1980=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Apr 2018 109.1 108.5 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force Employment Apr 2018 5,084 5,085 Ths. #, SA Monthly
Unemployment Rate Apr 2018 6.3 6.2 %, SA Monthly
Labor Force Apr 2018 5,425 5,420 Ths. #, SA Monthly
Unemployment Apr 2018 341 335 Ths. #, SA Monthly
Agriculture Employment 2017 94,788 99,459 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2017 Q4 547,158 546,731 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Total Employment 2015 4,810 4,737 Ths. # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods Mar 2018 300 339 Millions of Swedish Kroner, SA Monthly
Exports of Goods Mar 2018 116,899 116,327 Millions of Swedish Kroner, SA Monthly
Imports of Goods Mar 2018 116,600 115,988 Millions of Swedish Kroner, SA Monthly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 33.5 44.7 Bil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 556,514 501,431 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 485,184 446,979 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 540,122 490,217 Mil. Ch. 2016 SEK, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 505,533 459,102 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2013 784,787 787,573 Mil. SEK Annual
Government Expenditures 2013 928,027 812,480 Mil. SEK Annual
Government Budget Balance 2013 -143,240 -24,907 Mil. SEK Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate 25 May 2018 -0.48 -0.49 Percent, NSA Business Daily
Lending Rate 25 May 2018 -0.5 -0.5 Percent, NSA Daily
Average Long-term Government Bond 24 May 2018 0.63 0.66 % P.A., NSA Business Daily
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) 24 May 2018 -0.7 -0.7 % P.A., NSA Business Daily
Stock Market Index 24 May 2018 1,593 1,602 Index, NSA Business Daily
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Non-residential Building Permits 2018 Q1 749 776 Number, NSA Quarterly
Building Permits 2018 Q1 2,302 2,688 Number, NSA Quarterly
Residential Building Permits 2018 Q1 1,553 1,911 Number, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index 2018 Q1 777 782 1981=100, NSA Quarterly
Residential Housing Starts 2018 Q1 12,672 16,465 #, NSA Quarterly
Building Completions 2018 Q1 39,753 48,800 #, SAAR Quarterly
House Price Index for New Homes 2017 Q4 117.41 114.03 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for Existing Homes 2017 Q4 113.82 118.28 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence Apr 2018 15 13.6 SA Monthly
Real Retail Sales Dec 2017 122.9 124.6 2010=100, SA Monthly
Retail Sales Dec 2017 147.8 127.1 2010=100, WDA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q2 88.4 86.9 %, SA Quarterly
Business Confidence Apr 2018 19.9 16.7 SA Monthly
Industrial Production Mar 2018 111.5 110.8 Ch. Vol. Index 2015=100, WDASA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2017 Q4 2,608 8,980 Mil. SEK, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Births 2017 115,416 117,425 # Annual
Population 2017 10,120,242 9,995,153 absolute Annual
Deaths 2017 91,972 90,982 # Annual
Birth Rate 2015 11.7 11.9 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 9.3 9.2 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 253,958 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

Geography

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates:
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
country comparison to the world: 57
Area - comparative:
almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total: 2,211 km
border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km
Coastline:
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation:
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources:
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1%
forest: 68.7%
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,640 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
Natural hazards:
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues:
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe

People & Society

Population:
9,960,487 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Nationality:
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups:
indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; most common countries of origin among immigrants: Finland, Syria, Iraq, Poland, Iran
Languages:
Swedish (official)
note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages
Religions:
Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 63%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 17% (2016 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.43% (male 892,462/female 843,375)
15-24 years: 11.31% (male 581,025/female 545,971)
25-54 years: 39.42% (male 1,993,590/female 1,933,080)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 578,942/female 574,479)
65 years and over: 20.26% (male 931,593/female 1,085,970) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 27.4
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.2 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Population growth rate:
0.81% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Birth rate:
12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Death rate:
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Net migration rate:
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Population distribution:
most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 86.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.486 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.1 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Infant mortality rate:
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 82.1 years
male: 80.2 years
female: 84.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Total fertility rate:
1.88 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Health expenditures:
11.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 6
Physicians density:
4.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density:
2.54 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
11,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
20.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 97
Education expenditures:
7.7% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 20
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 20.4%
male: 21.2%
female: 19.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
Government type:
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence:
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
National holiday:
National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government") (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held on or before 9 September 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, L 5.4%, KD 4.6%, other 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, L 19, KD 16
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leaders:
Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Gustav FRIDOLIN]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Naringsliv) [Carola LEMNE]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO [Goran ARRIUS]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO [Eva NORDMARK]
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Karl-Petter THORWALDSSON]
other: environmental groups; media
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David E. LINDWALL (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description:
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
National symbol(s):
three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
National anthem:
name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional
note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

Economy

Economy - overview:
Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade.
Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-16, with real GDP growth above 2%, but continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$497.4 billion (2016 est.)
$476 billion (2015 est.)
$452.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 39
GDP (official exchange rate):
$511 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.2% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
2.6% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$49,800 (2016 est.)
$48,900 (2015 est.)
$47,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 26
Gross national saving:
29.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
28% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 44.6%
government consumption: 26.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 44.3%
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 33.2%
services: 65.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries:
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
1.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Labor force:
5.276 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7% (2016 est.)
7.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Population below poverty line:
15% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
24.9 (2013)
25 (1992)
country comparison to the world: 145
Budget:
revenues: $261 billion
expenditures: $256.2 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
51% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Public debt:
41.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
43.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 129
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.1% (2016 est.)
0% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Central bank discount rate:
-0.5% (31 December 2016)
-0.35% (31 December 2015)
note:: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a "Reference rate" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate
country comparison to the world: 160
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
1.85% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.97% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Stock of narrow money:
$273.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$271.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Stock of broad money:
$321.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$323 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Stock of domestic credit:
$748.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$749.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Current account balance:
$23.07 billion (2016 est.)
$23.28 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Exports:
$151.4 billion (2016 est.)
$152.1 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Exports - commodities:
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)
Exports - partners:
Germany 10.6%, Norway 10.4%, US 7.3%, Denmark 7%, Finland 6.8%, UK 6%, Netherlands 5.4%, Belgium 4.7%, France 4.4% (2016)
Imports:
$139.9 billion (2016 est.)
$138.5 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Imports - commodities:
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
Germany 18.8%, Netherlands 8.2%, Norway 7.8%, Denmark 7.6%, China 5.6%, UK 5.2%, Belgium 4.6%, Finland 4.5%, France 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$58.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Debt - external:
$939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$412 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$483.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Exchange rates:
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
8.5605 (2016 est.)
8.5605 (2015 est.)
8.4335 (2014 est.)
6.8612 (2013 est.)
6.77 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
154.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Electricity - consumption:
125.4 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Electricity - exports:
26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Electricity - imports:
14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
39.67 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
6.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
24.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
40.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
30% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Crude oil - imports:
393,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 196
Refined petroleum products - production:
418,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
320,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Refined petroleum products - exports:
336,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Refined petroleum products - imports:
220,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Natural gas - consumption:
1.25 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Natural gas - imports:
812 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
country comparison to the world: 197
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
62 million Mt (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 3,328,371
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 12,362,191
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2016)
Broadcast media:
publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)
Internet country code:
.se
Internet users:
total: 9,041,427
percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 8
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
SE (2016)
Airports:
231 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 25
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 149
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 82
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
Heliports:
2 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 1,626 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 14,127 km
standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
country comparison to the world: 21
Roadways:
total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways)
paved: 140,100 km
unpaved: 433,034 km
note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads (2016)
country comparison to the world: 13
Waterways:
2,052 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 40
Merchant marine:
total: 190
by type: bulk carrier 7, general dry cargo 8, anti-pollution vessel 1, cable layer 2, dredge 2, ice 6, inspection 7, survey 6, training 4, tug 11, multi-purpose 1, passenger/ferry 26, ro-pax 38, ro-ro 29, ro-ro/container 4, tanker (ej gas) 37, tanker (LNG) 1
foreign: 275 (Bahamas 7, Barbados 3, Bermuda 20, Cayman Islands 1, Cook Islands 2, Cyprus 14, Danish Int’l 20, Denmark 2, Faeroe Islands 19, Finland 2, France 1, Germany 5, Gibraltar 19, Italy 1, Latvia 1, Liberia 10, Madeira 11, Malaysia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 7, Netherlands 35, Norway 2, Norwegian International 25, Panama 3, Russia 2, Singapore 16, Spain 2, St. Kitts and Nevis 1, St. Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, UK 24) (2015)
country comparison to the world: 35
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.04% of GDP (2016)
1.09% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)
1.13% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 84
Military branches:
Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2016)
Military service age and obligation:
18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, is due to be reinstated in 2018 (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 96,914 (Syria); 25,968 (Eritrea); 21,693 (Iraq); 22,548 (Somalia); 16,558 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 36,036 (2016); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia

Economic Indicators for Sweden including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Sweden economy.