Angola - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports; Angola is an OPEC member and subject to its direction regarding oil production levels. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2017 15,461,584,000,000 12,181,718,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Private Consumption 2017 2,563,400,000,000 2,507,523,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Government Consumption 2017 416,154,000,000 346,779,000,000 NCU Annual
Investment 2017 1,611,335,000,000 1,310,393,000,000 NCU Annual
Government Consumption 2017 2,754,847,000,000 2,010,000,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 1,611,335,000,000 1,310,393,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 422,832,000,000 348,690,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 422,832,000,000 348,690,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 15,595,705,874,598 12,321,460,885,128 AOA Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2005 100 86.43 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 321.52 317.14 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 6,223,606 5,835,678 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 11,871,100 11,464,497 # Annual
Total Employment 2011 6,896,086 6,647,269 ages 15+ Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 5,698,366,000,000 4,589,832,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 2,339,073,000,000 2,169,213,000,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 6,169,221,000,000 4,683,427,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 646,887,000,000 642,816,000,000 NCU Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 -632,867,168 -3,085,195,463 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 14,463,243,323 13,040,490,877 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2017 34,613,454,927 27,588,875,075 USD Annual
Balance of Goods 2017 20,150,211,603 14,548,384,197 USD Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2023 10,713 9,861 Billions National Currency Annual
Government Revenues 2023 9,552 8,696 Billions National Currency Annual
Outstanding Public Debt 2011 1,076 995.92 DOD; current US$ Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 1,847,110,000,000 1,199,300,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate May 2017 229.68 227.47 AOK per SDR - End of period Monthly
Lending Rate May 2017 16 16 % - End of period Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond 2012 10,000,000 0 current USD Annual
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Non-residential Building Permits 2010 11.52 # Annual
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Change in Inventories 2017 0 0 NCU Annual
Change in Inventories 2015 0 0 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 29,784,193 28,813,463 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 41.82 42.32 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 8.51 8.68 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 87,322 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS stepped down from the presidency in 2017, having led the country since 1979. He pushed through a new constitution in 2010.

Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 24
Area - comparative:
about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
Coastline:
1,600 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,112 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use:
agricultural land: 47.5%
arable land 8.3%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 91.23%
forest: 46.5%
other: 6% (2014 est.)
Irrigated land:
860 sq km (2014)
Population - distribution:
most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly Luanda
Natural hazards:
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues:
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People & Society

Population:
29,310,273 (July 2017 est.)
note: Angola's national statistical agency projects the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million
country comparison to the world: 46
Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups:
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Languages:
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
Demographic profile:
More than a decade after the end of Angola’s 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country’s rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, more than 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population – about 45% are under the age of 15 – is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola’s high maternal mortality rate.
Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 48.12% (male 7,005,891/female 7,097,392)
15-24 years: 18.25% (male 2,593,355/female 2,756,367)
25-54 years: 28.03% (male 3,921,046/female 4,293,307)
55-64 years: 3.26% (male 438,268/female 517,690)
65 years and over: 2.34% (male 290,247/female 396,710) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 97.6
youth dependency ratio: 93
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 226
Population growth rate:
3.52% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Birth rate:
44.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Death rate:
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Net migration rate:
0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Population distribution:
most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly Luanda
Urbanization:
urban population: 45.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.6% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015/16 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Infant mortality rate:
total: 67.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 61.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.2 years
male: 58.2 years
female: 62.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Total fertility rate:
6.16 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
13.7% (2015/16)
Health expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 179
Physicians density:
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
unimproved:
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
280,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 154
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
19% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 45
Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 127
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2011)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution:
history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic
Legal system:
civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: the candidate of the majority party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) was designated to run for president by the winning party following the 23 August 2017 general election
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 61.1%, UNITA 26.7%, CASA-CE 9.5%, PRS 1.4%, FNLA .9%, other 0.5%; seats by party - MPLA 150, UNITA 51, CASA-CE 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda - Armed Forces of Cabinda or FLEC-FAC [Emmanuel NZITA]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese national soccer team in 2010
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nina Maria FITE (14 February 2018)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a 5-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty; black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National symbol(s):
Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
National anthem:
name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
note: adopted 1975

Economy

Economy - overview:
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports; Angola is an OPEC member and subject to its direction regarding oil production levels. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.
Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.
The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued billions in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Lower prices for oil and diamonds also resulted in GDP falling 0.7% in 2016. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009 but reinstituted it in April 2016 and maintains an overvalued exchange rate. In late 2016, Angola lost the last of its dollar-clearing international correspondent banking relationships, further exacerbating hard currency problems. Since 2013 the central bank has consistently spent down reserves to defend the kwanza, gradually allowing a 40% depreciation since late 2014. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again to above 30% from 2015-2017.
Continued low oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects, although several major international oil companies remain in Angola. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$192 billion (2017 est.)
$189.2 billion (2016 est.)
$190.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 66
GDP (official exchange rate):
$124 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.5% (2017 est.)
-0.7% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$6,800 (2017 est.)
$6,900 (2016 est.)
$7,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 160
Gross national saving:
3.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
3.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 75.6%
government consumption: 15.4%
investment in fixed capital: 9.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 28.4%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 61.4%
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Agriculture - products:
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries:
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:
1.9% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Labor force:
12.51 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Population below poverty line:
40.5% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42.7 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Budget:
revenues: $35.59 billion
expenditures: $44.64 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
28.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-7.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Public debt:
87.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
77.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30.9% (2017 est.)
32.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 223
Central bank discount rate:
9% (31 December 2014 est.)
25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
20% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.71% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Stock of narrow money:
$30.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Stock of broad money:
$48.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Stock of domestic credit:
$14.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Current account balance:
$-5.922 billion (2017 est.)
$-4.904 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Exports:
$33.82 billion (2017 est.)
$31.03 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Exports - commodities:
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners:
China 53.7%, India 7.6%, US 5.6%, South Africa 5.3%, France 4.4% (2016)
Imports:
$23 billion (2017 est.)
$19.25 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Imports - commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners:
Portugal 15.9%, US 12.5%, China 12.2%, South Africa 6.8%, Belgium 6.3%, Brazil 5.5%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$18.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Debt - external:
$27.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$15.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$23.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Exchange rates:
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172.6 (2017 est.)
163.66 (2016 est.)
163.66 (2015 est.)
120.06 (2014 est.)
98.3 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 30%
electrification - urban areas: 46%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)
Electricity - production:
9.438 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Electricity - consumption:
8.338 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.704 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
45.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
54% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Crude oil - production:
1.77 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Crude oil - exports:
1.7 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Crude oil - proved reserves:
8.273 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Refined petroleum products - production:
46,680 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
142,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Refined petroleum products - exports:
23,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Refined petroleum products - imports:
118,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Natural gas - production:
773 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Natural gas - consumption:
1.094 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Natural gas - exports:
500 million cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Natural gas - proved reserves:
308.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
33 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 304,493
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 13,001,124
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 44 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Telephone system:
general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to five; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 64 telephones per 100 persons in 2016
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2016)
Broadcast media:
state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2009)
Internet country code:
.ao
Internet users:
total: 2,622,403
percent of population: 13.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 10
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,244,491
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 46.043 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
D2 (2016)
Airports:
176 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 32
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 2,852 km
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 63
Roadways:
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
country comparison to the world: 77
Waterways:
1,300 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 54
Merchant marine:
total: 55
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 9, other 32 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 110
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.95% of GDP (2016)
3.52% of GDP (2015)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
4.88% of GDP (2013)
3.59% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 30
Military branches:
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 36,731 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
Illicit drugs:
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa

Economic Indicators for Angola including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Angola economy.