Poland - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term Poland is the largest recipient of EU development funds and their cyclical allocation can significantly impact the rate of economic growth. The...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2018 Q2 299,144 309,463 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2018 Q2 88,268 81,733 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q2 89,302 88,946 Mil. Ch. 2010 PLN, SA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2018 Q2 79,728 79,017 Mil. Ch. 2010 PLN, SA Quarterly
Real Investment 2018 Q2 104,677 108,474 Mil. Ch. 2010 PLN, SA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q2 503,069 485,355 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q2 471,447 466,779 Mil. Ch. 2010 PLN, SA Quarterly
Investment 2018 Q2 91,642 75,222 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q2 81,718 58,987 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Oct 2018 175.5 174.8 1998=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Sep 2018 100.4 100 Previous month=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment 2108 Q1 709 Ths. #, NSA Quarterly
Unemployment Rate Sep 2018 5.7 5.8 Percent, NSA Monthly
Wage & Salaries 2018 Q2 128.95 132.04 Bil. Zloty, NSA Quarterly
Total Employment 2018 Q2 16,565 16,344 Ths. #, NSA Quarterly
Labor Force 2018 Q2 17,182 17,053 Ths., NSA Quarterly
Labor Force Employment 2018 Q2 16,565 16,344 Ths. #, NSA Quarterly
Agriculture Employment 2017 1,932,674 1,946,773 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods Sep 2018 21,162 20,229 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Balance of Goods Sep 2018 -524 -434 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Current Account Balance Sep 2018 -637 -670 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Imports of Goods Sep 2018 20,638 19,795 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q2 281,765 267,364 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Net Exports 2018 Q2 20,001 15,235 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q2 261,764 252,128 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2017 790,279 747,974 Mil. Zloty, NSA Annual
Government Budget Balance 2017 -14,151 -46,065 Mil. Zloty, NSA Annual
Government Revenues 2017 776,128 701,908 Mil. Zloty, NSA Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate 14 Nov 2018 1.5 1.5 % p.a., NSA Daily
Stock Market Index 13 Nov 2018 56,652 Index, NSA Business Daily
Average Long-term Government Bond Oct 2018 3.22 3.24 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate Sep 2018 1.63 1.46 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Lending Rate Aug 2018 3.61 3.63 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Household Lending Rate Aug 2018 6.35 6.41 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Building Permits Sep 2018 19,466 21,929 Ths., NSA Monthly
House Price Index 2018 Q1 105.17 103.08 Index 2010=100, SA Quarterly
Dwelling Stocks 2017 14,439,777 14,272,010 # Annual
Residential Building Permits 2017 89,888 80,796 # Annual
Building Completions 2016 98,949 100,492 # Annual
Residential Building Completions 2016 75,877 76,663 # Annual
Non-residential Building Completions 2016 23,072 23,829 # Annual
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence Oct 2018 -1.7 -0.9 SA Monthly
Retail Sales Sep 2018 103.6 106.7 Index corr. per. prv. yr. = 100, NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q4 82.4 83.3 %, SA Quarterly
Business Confidence Oct 2018 -6 -5.8 SA Monthly
Industrial Production Sep 2018 116.5 117.3 Index 2015=100, SA Monthly
Real Change in Inventories 2018 Q2 15,375 19,527 Mil. Ch. 2010 PLN, SA Quarterly
Change in Inventories 2018 Q2 9,924 16,234 Mil. PLN, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -50,002 # Annual
Births 2017:2 401,982 200,038 # YTD, NSA Annual
Deaths 2017:2 402,852 210,776 # YTD, NSA Annual
Population 2016 38,432,992 38,437,239 # Annual
Death Rate 2015 10.4 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2013 9.7 10.1 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.

Geography

Location:
Central Europe, east of Germany
Geographic coordinates:
52 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
country comparison to the world: 71
Area - comparative:
about twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
Coastline:
440 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
Climate:
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrain:
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Elevation:
mean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
Natural resources:
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 48.2%
arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 30.6%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
970 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
population concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk
Natural hazards:
flooding
Environment - current issues:
decreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note:
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

People & Society

Population:
38,476,269 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Nationality:
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
Ethnic groups:
Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
Languages:
Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%
note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
Religions:
Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.76% (male 2,919,353/female 2,757,923)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 2,113,358/female 2,003,033)
25-54 years: 43.48% (male 8,447,418/female 8,283,757)
55-64 years: 14.21% (male 2,586,097/female 2,880,031)
65 years and over: 16.86% (male 2,560,847/female 3,924,452) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 43.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.4
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.7 years
male: 39 years
female: 42.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Population growth rate:
-0.13% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Birth rate:
9.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Death rate:
10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Net migration rate:
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Population distribution:
population concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk
Urbanization:
urban population: 60.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.02% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
WARSAW (capital) 1.722 million; Krakow 760,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
27.4 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.8 years
male: 73.9 years
female: 81.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Total fertility rate:
1.35 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Health expenditures:
6.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 97
Physicians density:
2.29 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 98.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 69
Education expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 65
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 20.8%
male: 20.7%
female: 20.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska
etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a west Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic "pole" (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
Independence:
11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009, 2015 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 11 December 2017); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Culture and National Heritage Piotr GLINSKI (since 16 November 2015), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Higher Education Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), Beata SZYDLO, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Social Policy (since 11 December 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 May 2015 with a second round on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2020); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Andrzej DUDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold of total votes cast for a party to gain a seat; members serve 4-year terms); note - the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the 2 houses meet jointly
note: all minorities are exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October or November 2019); Sejm - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October or November 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 61, PO 34, PSL 1, independent 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 37.6%, PO 24.1%, K15 8.8%, N 7.6%, PSL 5.1% other 16.8%; seats by party - PiS 235, PO 138, K15 42, N 28, PSL 16, German minority 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 justices organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended
subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; State Tribunal; administrative courts; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
Political parties and leaders:
Civic Platform or PO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY]
German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA]
Kukiz 15 or K15 [Pawel KUKIZ]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]
Liberty (formerly the Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic-Liberty and Hope or KORWiN) [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE]
Nowoczesna ("Modern") or N [Katarzyna LUBNAUER]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ]
Razem (Together) [collective leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ [Jan GUZ] (trade union)
Independent Self-Governing Trade Union or Solidarity [Piotr DUDA]
Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
International organization participation:
Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Piotr Antoni WILCZEK (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Wayne JONES (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
consulate(s) general: Krakow
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
National symbol(s):
white crowned eagle; national colors: white, red
National anthem:
name: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied

Economy

Economy - overview:
Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term Poland is the largest recipient of EU development funds and their cyclical allocation can significantly impact the rate of economic growth.
The Polish economy performed well during the 2014-17 period, with the real GDP growth rate generally exceeding 3%, in part because of increases in government social spending that have helped to accelerate consumer-driven growth. However, since 2015, Poland has implemented new business restrictions and taxes on foreign-dominated economic sectors, including banking and insurance, energy, and healthcare, that have dampened investor sentiment and has increased the government’s ownership of some firms. The government reduced the retirement age in 2016 and has had mixed success in introducing new taxes and boosting tax compliance to offset the increased costs of social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland during the next few years is at risk of exceeding the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds. Poland’s economy is projected to perform well in the next few years in part because of an anticipated cyclical increase in the use of its EU development funds and continued, robust household spending.
Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.111 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.07 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.042 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 25
GDP (official exchange rate):
$510 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.8% (2017 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$29,300 (2017 est.)
$28,200 (2016 est.)
$27,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 66
Gross national saving:
19% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 58.8%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 56.2%
imports of goods and services: -51.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 40.2%
services: 64.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
Industries:
machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
4.2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Labor force:
17.6 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 11.5%
industry: 30.4%
services: 57.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.8% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Population below poverty line:
17.6% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.8 (2015 est.)
33.7 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Budget:
revenues: $90.8 billion
expenditures: $102.2 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
17.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Public debt:
46.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 115
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (2017 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Central bank discount rate:
1.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
2% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.74% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Stock of narrow money:
$255.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Stock of broad money:
$374.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$300.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Stock of domestic credit:
$413.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$336.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$261.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$277.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$351.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Current account balance:
$-4.958 billion (2017 est.)
$-959 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Exports:
$221.4 billion (2017 est.)
$195.7 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Exports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
Exports - partners:
Germany 27.3%, UK 6.6%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.4%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.5% (2016)
Imports:
$221.8 billion (2017 est.)
$193.6 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
Imports - partners:
Germany 28.3%, China 7.9%, Netherlands 6%, Russia 5.8%, Italy 5.3%, France 4.2%, Czech Republic 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$115 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$114.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Debt - external:
$362 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$347.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$235.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$224.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$68.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$64.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Exchange rates:
zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
3.75 (2017 est.)
3.95 (2016 est.)
3.95 (2015 est.)
3.77 (2014 est.)
3.15 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
152.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Electricity - consumption:
141.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Electricity - exports:
12.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Electricity - imports:
14.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
37.32 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
77.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Crude oil - production:
20,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Crude oil - exports:
4,520 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Crude oil - imports:
490,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Crude oil - proved reserves:
137.8 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Refined petroleum products - production:
557,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
578,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Refined petroleum products - exports:
135,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Refined petroleum products - imports:
173,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Natural gas - production:
6.132 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Natural gas - consumption:
26.78 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Natural gas - exports:
56 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Natural gas - imports:
12.12 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Natural gas - proved reserves:
81.66 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
296 million Mt (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 8,143,145
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 53,001,776
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 138 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Telephone system:
general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2015)
Broadcast media:
state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)
Internet country code:
.pl
Internet users:
total: 28,237,820
percent of population: 73.3% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 92
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,841,128
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 120,016,466 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
SP (2016)
Airports:
126 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 47
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 87
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 6 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Heliports:
6 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 2,483 km (2016)
Railways:
total: 19,231 km
broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,874 km electrified) (2016)
country comparison to the world: 15
Roadways:
total: 420,000 km
paved: 291,000 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways, 1,559 of motorways)
unpaved: 129,000 km (2016)
country comparison to the world: 17
Waterways:
3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 27
Merchant marine:
total: 152
by type: container ship 1, general cargo 13, oil tanker 7, other 131 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 73
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.99% of GDP (2017)
1.99% of GDP (2016)
2.14% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.77% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 49
Military branches:
Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defense Force (2017)
note: Territorial Defense Force only began recruitment in winter 2016
Military service age and obligation:
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; professional soldiers serve on a permanent basis (for an unspecified period of time) or on a contract basis (for a specified period of time); initial contract period is 18 months; women serve in the military on the same terms as men (2018)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 71,302 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015); 9,864 (Russia) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,825 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe

Economic Indicators for Poland including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Poland economy.