Tonga - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Tonga has a small, open island economy and is the last constitutional monarchy among the Pacific Island countries. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla beans, and yams are the main crops. Agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. Tonga had 53,800 visitors in 2015. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from overseas Tongans to...

Continue reading View Factbook for Tonga

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 915,586,130 867,746,589 TOP Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 106.34 102.48 Index 2005=100 Annual
Investment 2012 267,221,300 279,612,100 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2012 264,315,300 223,982,300 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2010 111,172,222 2010 USD Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2010 109,354,347 2010 USD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Sep 2018 129.97 129.05 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 13,063 12,167 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 40,580 40,059 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -3,376,891 -10,444,364 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -51,305,057 -58,503,039 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 55,606,357 62,751,738 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 4,301,300 4,248,699 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 189,582,200 144,018,400 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 605,921,700 547,623,800 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate 2017 7.87 7.93 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -4,833 # Annual
Population 2017 108,020 107,122 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 23.98 24.41 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.99 6.02 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific; in 2010 it began implementing steps to conduct more representative elections. Tropical Cyclone Gita, the strongest-ever recorded storm to impact Tonga, hit the islands in February 2018 causing extensive damage.

Geography

Location:
Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
20 00 S, 175 00 W
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total: 747 sq km
land: 717 sq km
water: 30 sq km
country comparison to the world: 190
Area - comparative:
four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
419 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain:
mostly flat islands with limestone bedrock formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic rock
Elevation:
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kao Volcano on Kao Island 1,046 m
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 43.1%
arable land 22.2%; permanent crops 15.3%; permanent pasture 5.6%
forest: 12.5%
other: 44.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
over two-thirds of the population lives on the island of Tongatapu; only 45 of the nation's 171 islands are occupied
Natural hazards:
cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou
volcanism: moderate volcanic activity; Fonualei (180 m) has shown frequent activity in recent years, while Niuafo'ou (260 m), which last erupted in 1985, has forced evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Late and Tofua
Environment - current issues:
deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
archipelago of 171 islands (45 inhabited)

People & Society

Population:
106,479 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Nationality:
noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan
Ethnic groups:
Tongan 96.6%, part-Tongan 1.7%, other 1.7%, unspecified 0.03% (2006 est.)
Languages:
English and Tongan 87%, Tongan (official) 10.7%, English (official) 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 0.03% (2006 est.)
Religions:
Protestant 64.9% (includes Free Wesleyan Church 37.3%, Free Church of Tonga 11.4%, Church of Tonga 7.2%, Tokaikolo Christian Church 2.6%, Assembly of God 2.3%, Seventh Day Adventist 2.2%, Constitutional Church of Tonga 0.9%, Anglican 0.8% and Full Gospel Church 0.2%), Mormon 16.8%, Roman Catholic 15.6%, other 1.1%, none 0.03%, unspecified 1.7% (2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.87% (male 18,323/female 17,741)
15-24 years: 19.65% (male 10,715/female 10,209)
25-54 years: 34.3% (male 18,243/female 18,278)
55-64 years: 5.76% (male 3,048/female 3,083)
65 years and over: 6.42% (male 3,090/female 3,749) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 74.2
youth dependency ratio: 63.9
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 23 years
male: 22.5 years
female: 23.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Population growth rate:
-0.05% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Birth rate:
22.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Death rate:
4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Net migration rate:
-17.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
Population distribution:
over two-thirds of the population lives on the island of Tongatapu; only 45 of the nation's 171 islands are occupied
Urbanization:
urban population: 23.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
NUKU'ALOFA 25,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
24.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-49 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
124 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Infant mortality rate:
total: 11.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.4 years
male: 74.9 years
female: 78.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Total fertility rate:
3.1 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
34.1% (2012)
Health expenditures:
5.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 133
Physicians density:
0.56 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
2.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
48.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 7
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.9% (2012)
Literacy:
definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.3%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
local long form: Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga
local short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands
etymology: "tonga" means "south" in the Tongan language and refers to the country's geographic position in relation to central Polynesia
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Nuku'alofa
geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in November; ends second Sunday in January
Administrative divisions:
5 island divisions; 'Eua, Ha'apai, Ongo Niua, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence:
4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
National holiday:
Official Birthday of King TUPOU VI, 4 July (1959); note - actual birthday of the monarch is 12 July 1959; 4 July (2015) is the day the king was crowned; Constitution Day (National Day), 4 November (1875)
Constitution:
history: adopted 4 November 1875
amendments: proposed by the Legislative Assembly; passage requires approval by the Assembly in each of three readings, the unanimous approval of the Privy Council (a high-level advisory body to the monarch), the Cabinet, and assent to by the monarch; revised 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2018)
Legal system:
English common law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Tonga; if a child is born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Tonga
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012); Heir Apparent Crown Prince Siaosi Manumataogo 'Alaivahamama'o 'Ahoeitu Konstantin Tuku'aho, son of the king (born 17 September 1985); note - on 18 March 2012, King George TUPOU V died and his brother, Crown Prince TUPOUTO'A Lavaka, assumed the throne as TUPOU VI
head of government: Interim Prime Minister 'Akilisi POHIVA (since 30 December 2014); note - King TUPOU VI dissolved the parliament on 26 August 2017
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly and appointed by the monarch; election last held on 18 December 2017 (next to be held in November 2021); note - King TUPOU VI's dissolution of parliament in August 2017 triggered an early election
election results: 'Akilisi POHIVA (Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands) reelected prime minister by parliament receiving 14 of 26 votes
note: a Privy Council advises the monarch
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (26 seats; 17 people's representatives directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 9 indirectly elected by hereditary leaders; members serve 3-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 November 2017 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 14, nobles' representatives 9, independent 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and a number of judges determined by the monarch); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are brought before the King in Privy Council, the monarch's advisory organ that has both judicial and legislative powers
judge selection and term of office: judge appointments and tenures made by the King in Privy Council, judge appointments subject to consent of the Legislative Assembly
subordinate courts: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Courts; Land Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands [Samuela 'Akilisi POHIVA]
People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO]
Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA]
Tonga Democratic Labor Party
Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA]
Public Service Association or PSA [Finau TUTONE]
International organization participation:
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahe'uli'uli Sandhurst TUPOUNIUA (since 17 September 2013)
chancery: 250 E. 51st Street, New York, NY, 10022
telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025
FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
Flag description:
red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross reflects the deep-rooted Christianity in Tonga; red represents the blood of Christ and his sacrifice; white signifies purity
National symbol(s):
red cross on white field, arms equal length; national colors: red, white
National anthem:
name: "Ko e fasi `o e tu"i `o e `Otu Tonga" (Song of the King of the Tonga Islands)
lyrics/music: Uelingatoni Ngu TUPOUMALOHI/Karl Gustavus SCHMITT
note: in use since 1875; more commonly known as "Fasi Fakafonua" (National Song)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Tonga has a small, open island economy and is the last constitutional monarchy among the Pacific Island countries. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla beans, and yams are the main crops. Agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. Tonga had 53,800 visitors in 2015. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand.
The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from overseas Tongans to offset its trade deficit. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, encouraging investment, and is committing increased funds for health care and education. Tonga's English-speaking and educated workforce offer a viable labor market, and the tropical climate provides fertile soil. Renewable energy and deep-sea mining also offer opportunities for investment.
Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well developed social services. The government faces high unemployment among the young, moderate inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$587 million (2017 est.)
$569.6 million (2016 est.)
$552.7 million (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 211
GDP (official exchange rate):
$437 million (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.1% (2017 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,600 (2017 est.)
$5,500 (2016 est.)
$5,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 168
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 99.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: -2.7%
exports of goods and services: 18.7%
imports of goods and services: -61.5% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 19.5%
industry: 20.8%
services: 59.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, sweet potatoes, cassava, taro and kava
Industries:
tourism, construction, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Labor force:
33,800 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 27.5%
industry: 27.5%
services: 2,006% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1.1% (2011 est.)
1.1% (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Population below poverty line:
24% (FY03/04 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $134.6 million
expenditures: $134.6 million (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
30.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Public debt:
45.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
46.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.5% (2017 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
7.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Stock of narrow money:
$137.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$112.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Stock of broad money:
$263.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$227.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Stock of domestic credit:
$166.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$135.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-59 million (2017 est.)
$-53 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Exports:
$18.2 million (2017 est.)
$19.4 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Exports - commodities:
squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports - partners:
Hong Kong 25.6%, Japan 15.1%, NZ 14.3%, US 13.5%, Australia 10%, Philippines 9.4% (2016)
Imports:
$320.7 million (2017 est.)
$266.6 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners:
NZ 35.3%, Fiji 12.1%, Singapore 9.3%, China 8.4%, US 8%, Australia 7.6%, Japan 4.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$131.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$176.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Debt - external:
$233.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$198.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$127.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$117.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Exchange rates:
pa'anga (TOP) per US dollar -
2.23 (2017 est.)
2.22 (2016 est.)
2.22 (2015 est.)
2.11 (2014 est.)
1.85 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 5,325
electrification - total population: 96%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 83% (2012)
Electricity - production:
50 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Electricity - consumption:
46.5 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
17,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
82.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
17.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,457 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 11,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 80,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Telephone system:
general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Digicel Tonga Limited is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; both parties provide high speed Internet, mobile telephone networks, and international telecom services; Digicel also holds a telecommunication license after its acquisition of TonFon (a subsidiary of former Shoreline Communications Tonga); submarine cable infrastructure, managed by Tonga Cable Limited, has also been brought to the country by Asian Development Bank and World Bank aid
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 85 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network
international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
1 state-owned TV station and 3 privately owned TV stations; satellite and cable TV services are available; 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned radio stations; Radio Australia broadcasts available via satellite (2015)
Internet country code:
.to
Internet users:
total: 42,552
percent of population: 40.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 75,416
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
A3 (2016)
Airports:
6 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 177
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways:
total: 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 191
Merchant marine:
total: 34
by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 14, oil tanker 1, other 17 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 124
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Nuku'alofa, Neiafu, Pangai

Military & Security

Military branches:
Tonga Defense Services (TDS): Land Force (Royal Guard), Maritime Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
16 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); no conscription; the king retains the right to call up "all those capable of bearing arms" in wartime (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Economic Indicators for Tonga including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Tonga economy.