Pakistan - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population. A challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for more than half of Pakistan's export earnings; Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2016 1,875,434,000,000 1,760,001,000,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 23,285,749,269,302 21,890,279,327,127 PKR Annual
Investment 2016 4,061,104,419,002 3,871,395,808,084 PKR Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 29,102,629,764,537 27,443,022,495,134 PKR Annual
Government Consumption 2016 3,506 3,011 Bil. PKR Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 128.68 121.7 Index 2005=100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 29,396,422 28,909,960 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 68,396,210 65,423,214 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2014 4.06 6.2 % Annual
Labor Force Employment 2014 55,379 56,010 Ths. Annual
Unemployment Aug 1993 198.33 193.47 #, NSA Monthly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 14,183,000,000 13,502,000,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -4,160,000,000 -4,374,000,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 6,476,700,000 6,131,000,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt - Foreign 2016 72,697,473,000 65,757,391,000 DOD; current USD Annual
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic 2016 51,599,875,000 48,185,880,000 DOD; current USD Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate May 2018 6.13 6.09 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Nov 2017 6.01 6.01 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Jun 2017 6.4 6.4 % Monthly
Lending Rate Apr 2013 9.5 9.5 % - End of period Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production Apr 2018 3,910,000,000 3,890,000,000 2010 USD, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2016 465,642,000,000 439,088,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2016 187,995,000,000 178,242,000,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 197,015,955 193,203,476 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 28.23 28.73 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 7.28 7.34 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -1,181,920 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998. India-Pakistan relations improved in the mid-2000s but have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks and have been further strained by attacks in India by militants suspected of being based in Pakistan. Nawaz SHARIF took office as prime minister in 2013, marking the first time in Pakistani history that a democratically elected government completed a full term and transitioned to a successive democratically elected government. In July 2017, the Supreme Court disqualified SHARIF from public office, and Shahid Khaqan ABBASI replaced him as prime minister in August. Pakistan has been engaged in a decades-long armed conflict with militant groups that target government institutions and civilians, including the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
country comparison to the world: 37
Area - comparative:
slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 7,257 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km
Coastline:
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:
divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
Elevation:
mean elevation: 900 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:
arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
agricultural land: 35.2%
arable land 27.6%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 6.5%
forest: 2.1%
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
202,000 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated
Natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

People & Society

Population:
204,924,861 (July 2017 est.)
note: provisional results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,774,000
country comparison to the world: 6
Nationality:
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:
Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
Languages:
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Religions:
Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.36% (male 33,005,623/female 31,265,463)
15-24 years: 21.14% (male 22,337,897/female 20,980,455)
25-54 years: 37.45% (male 39,846,417/female 36,907,683)
55-64 years: 5.57% (male 5,739,817/female 5,669,495)
65 years and over: 4.48% (male 4,261,917/female 4,910,094) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 65.3
youth dependency ratio: 57.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 23.8 years
male: 23.7 years
female: 23.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Population growth rate:
1.43% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Birth rate:
21.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Death rate:
6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Net migration rate:
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Population distribution:
the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 39.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Karachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Infant mortality rate:
total: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.1 years
male: 66.1 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Total fertility rate:
2.62 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
35.4% (2012/13)
Health expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 187
Physicians density:
0.98 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 93.9% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 83.1% of population
rural: 51.1% of population
total: 63.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 16.9% of population
rural: 48.9% of population
total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
130,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
5,500 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 150
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
31.6% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 11
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 164
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 69.5%
female: 45.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 8.6%
male: 8%
female: 10.6% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
etymology: the word "pak" means "pure" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure"
Government type:
federal parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of 2 administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
Independence:
14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday:
Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)
amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses; amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
Legal system:
common law system with Islamic law influence
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan ABBASI (since 1 August 2017); Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF resigned 7/28/17
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77 votes
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held on 25 July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML-N 15, PPPP 12, PTI 6, PkMAP 2, NP 2, JUI-F 2, JI 1, MQM-P 1, PML-F 1, independent 10; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; general seats by party - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independent 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; seats by party as of December 2017 (includes women and non-Muslim seats) - PML-N 188, PPPP 47, PTI 33, MQM 24, JUI-F 13, PML-F 5, other 20, independent 10
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.
Political parties and leaders:
Awami National Party or ANP [Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN]
Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]
Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]
Muttahida Quami Movement-Pakistan or MQM-P [Farooq SATTAR] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)
Muttahida Quami Movement-London or MQM-L [Nadeem NUSRAT] (MQM split into two factions in 2016)
National Party or NP [Mir Hasil Khan BIZENJO]
Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; note - in February 2018, the Supreme court ordered the Election Commission to remove SHARIF as party head
Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI]
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice) [Imran KHAN]
Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]
Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]
note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Pakistan Ulema Council or PUC
other: military; landowners; industrialists; small merchants
International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Aizaz Ahmad CHAUDHRY (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David M. HALE (since 3 December 2015)
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20521-8100
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000/[92] (51) 201-4000
FAX: [92] (51) 233-8071
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar
Flag description:
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
National symbol(s):
star and crescent, jasmine; national colors: green, white
National anthem:
name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
note: adopted 1954; also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population. A challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for more than half of Pakistan's export earnings; Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually increased since 2012. Official unemployment was 6% in 2017, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Human development continues to lag behind most of the region.
In 2013, Pakistan embarked on a $6.3 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility, which focused on reducing energy shortages, stabilizing public finances, increasing revenue collection, and improving its balance of payments position. The program concluded in September 2016. Although Pakistan missed several structural reform criteria, it restored macroeconomic stability, improved its credit rating, and boosted growth. The Pakistani rupee, after heavy depreciation in 2013, remained relatively stable against the US dollar in 2015-17. Balance of payments concerns have reemerged, however, as a result of increased imports and declining remittances.
Pakistan must continue to address several longstanding issues, including expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, improving the country’s business environment, reducing dependence on foreign donors, and widening the country’s tax base. Given demographic challenges, Pakistan’s leadership will be pressed to implement economic reforms, promote further development of the energy sector, and attract foreign investment to support sufficient economic growth necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, much of which is under the age of 25.
In an effort to boost development, Pakistan and China are implementing the “China-Pakistan Economic Corridor,” with $60 billion in investments targeted towards energy and other infrastructure projects. Pakistan believes CPEC investments will enable growth rates of over 6% of GDP by laying the groundwork for increased exports. CPEC-related obligations, however, have raised IMF concern that capital outflows that will begin to increase in 2020.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.056 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.003 trillion (2016 est.)
$960.2 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
data are for fiscal years
country comparison to the world: 26
GDP (official exchange rate):
$278.9 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: data are for fiscal years
country comparison to the world: 35
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,400 (2017 est.)
$5,200 (2016 est.)
$5,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
data are for fiscal years
country comparison to the world: 170
Gross national saving:
11.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data are for fiscal years
country comparison to the world: 148
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 14.2%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 8.3%
imports of goods and services: -17.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 24.7%
industry: 19.1%
services: 56.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries:
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, surgical instruments, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Labor force:
63.89 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42.3%
industry: 22.6%
services: 35.1% (FY2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6% (2017 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
country comparison to the world: 85
Population below poverty line:
29.5% (FY2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.7 (FY2013 est.)
30.9 (FY2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Budget:
revenues: $45.64 billion
expenditures: $59.28 billion
note: data are for fiscal years (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
14.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Public debt:
59.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
59.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (2017 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Central bank discount rate:
5.75% (15 November 2016 est.)
6% (15 November 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7% (31 December 2017 est.)
6.94% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Stock of narrow money:
$117.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$103.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Stock of broad money:
$142 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$126.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Stock of domestic credit:
$165.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$145.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Current account balance:
$-11.67 billion (2017 est.)
$-4.867 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Exports:
$21.7 billion (2017 est.)
$21.71 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Exports - commodities:
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, surgical instruments, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners:
US 16.3%, China 7.6%, UK 7.4%, Afghanistan 6.5%, Germany 5.7% (2016)
Imports:
$48.21 billion (2017 est.)
$41.62 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Imports - commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:
China 29.1%, UAE 13.2%, Indonesia 4.4%, US 4.3%, Japan 4.2% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$20.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Debt - external:
$75.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$70.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$41.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.175 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
105.1 (2017 est.)
104.77 (2016 est.)
104.77 (2015 est.)
102.77 (FY2014 est.)
101.1 (FY2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 49,500,000
electrification - total population: 73%
electrification - urban areas: 91%
electrification - rural areas: 62% (2013)
Electricity - production:
104.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Electricity - consumption:
85.9 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Electricity - imports:
452 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
22.83 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
61.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
31.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
5.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Crude oil - production:
85,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Crude oil - exports:
493.2 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Crude oil - imports:
166,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Crude oil - proved reserves:
350.6 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Refined petroleum products - production:
259,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
517,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Refined petroleum products - exports:
20,720 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Refined petroleum products - imports:
247,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Natural gas - production:
39.3 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Natural gas - consumption:
48.06 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Natural gas - imports:
1.37 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Natural gas - proved reserves:
542.5 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
145 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 3,104,415
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 136,489,014
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 67 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, but fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 3G and 4G mobile services introduced
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2015)
Broadcast media:
media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 8 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 30 stations; nearly 200 commercially licensed, privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2017)
Internet country code:
.pk
Internet users:
total: 31,338,715
percent of population: 15.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 67
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,467,827
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 183,177,313 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
AP (2016)
Airports:
151 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 37
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 108
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 43
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Heliports:
23 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 11,881 km
broad gauge: 11,492 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (2015)
country comparison to the world: 22
Roadways:
total: 263,942 km
paved: 185,063 km (includes 708 km of expressways)
unpaved: 78,879 km (2014)
country comparison to the world: 21
Merchant marine:
total: 52
by type: bulk carrier 5, oil tanker 6, other 41 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 114
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (1,545,434)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
3.56% of GDP (2016)
3.54% of GDP (2015)
3.48% of GDP (2014)
3.47% of GDP (2013)
3.48% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 19
Military branches:
Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 2 - 2.4 million (1.4 million registered, 800,000 - 1.0 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2017)
IDPs: 249,000 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2017)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the largest human trafficking problem is bonded labor in agriculture, brickmaking and, to a lesser extent, fishing, mining and carpet-making; children are bought, sold, rented, and placed in forced begging rings, domestic service, small shops, brick-making factories, or prostitution; militant groups also force children to spy, fight, or die as suicide bombers, kidnapping the children or getting them from poor parents through sale or coercion; women and girls are forced into prostitution or marriages; Pakistani adults migrate to the Gulf States and African and European states for low-skilled jobs and sometimes become victims of forced labor, debt bondage, or prostitution; foreign adults and children, particularly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, may be subject to forced labor, and foreign women may be sex trafficked in Pakistan, with refugees and ethnic minorities being most vulnerable
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Pakistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government lacks political will and capacity to fully address human trafficking, as evidenced by ineffective law enforcement efforts, official complicity, penalization of victims, and the continued conflation of migrant smuggling and human trafficking by many officials; not all forms of trafficking are prohibited; an anti-trafficking bill drafted in 2013 to address gaps in existing legislation remains pending, and a national action plan drafted in 2014 is not finalized; feudal landlords and brick kiln owners use their political influence to protect their involvement in bonded labor, while some police personnel have taken bribes to ignore prostitution that may have included sex trafficking; authorities began to use standard procedures for the identification and referral of trafficking victims, but it is not clear how widely these methods were practiced; in other instances, police were reluctant to assist NGOs with rescues and even punished victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked (2015)
Illicit drugs:
significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 930 hectares in 2015; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests

Economic Indicators for Pakistan including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Pakistan economy.