Cameroon - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Cameroon’s market-based, diversified economy features oil and gas, timber, aluminum, agriculture, mining and the service sector. Oil remains Cameroon’s main export commodity, and despite falling global oil prices, still accounts for nearly 40% of exports. Cameroon’s economy suffers from factors that often impact underdeveloped countries, such as stagnant per capita income, a relatively inequitable distribution of income, a top-heavy civil service, endemic corruption, continuing inefficiencies of a large parastatal system in key sectors, and a generally unfavorable...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 4,365,674,500,000 4,012,477,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 4,365,675,000,000 4,302,832,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 4,319,042,800,000 3,976,799,000,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 12,036,178,041,611 11,582,709,285,677 XAF Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 17,384,218,344,890 16,806,957,060,301 XAF Annual
Investment 2016 3,503,871,166,349 3,583,784,070,916 XAF Annual
Government Consumption 2015 1,981 1,871 Bil. XAF Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 128.82 121.79 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 114.86 114.76 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 6,511,055 6,325,402 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 4.25 4.27 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 10,196,111 9,910,729 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 1999 274,700,000,000 259,200,000,000 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2017 Q2 -28,968,413 180,784,583 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q2 1,068,148,625 1,151,662,835 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q2 1,097,117,039 970,878,252 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q2 -141,870,197 -100,162,014 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 3,695,216,379,778 3,981,942,703,707 XAF Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 4,159,267,242,848 4,605,200,000,000 XAF Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance 2011 -159,000,000,000 -127,000,000,000 current LCU Annual
Government Revenues 1999 867,460,000,000 862,310,000,000 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Apr 2013 4 4 % Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production 1984 Q4 146.13 136.01 1980=100, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 24,053,727 23,439,189 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 36.3 36.84 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 10.08 10.35 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -36,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
French Cameroon became independent in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year the southern portion of neighboring British Cameroon voted to merge with the new country to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972, a new constitution replaced the federation with a unitary state, the United Republic of Cameroon. The country has generally enjoyed stability, which has enabled the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of President Paul BIYA.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Geographic coordinates:
6 00 N, 12 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 472,710 sq km
water: 2,730 sq km
country comparison to the world: 55
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total: 5,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 901 km, Chad 1,116 km, Republic of the Congo 494 km, Equatorial Guinea 183 km, Gabon 349 km, Nigeria 1,975 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate:
varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrain:
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Elevation:
mean elevation: 667 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako on Mont Cameroun 4,045 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 20.6%
arable land 13.1%; permanent crops 3.3%; permanent pasture 4.2%
forest: 41.7%
other: 37.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
290 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
population concentrated in the west and north, with the interior of the country sparsely populated
Natural hazards:
volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
volcanism: Mt. Cameroon (4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000, is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku volcanic field have released fatal levels of gas on occasion, killing some 1,700 people in 1986
Environment - current issues:
waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation and overgrazing result in erosion, desertification, and reduced quality of pastureland; poaching; overfishing; overhunting
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa because of its central location on the continent and its position at the west-south juncture of the Gulf of Guinea; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People & Society

Population:
24,994,885
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian
Ethnic groups:
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Languages:
24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 38.4%, Protestant 26.3%, other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 20.9%, animist 5.6%, other 1%, non-believer 3.2% (2005 est.)
Demographic profile:
Cameroon has a large youth population, with more than 60% of the populace under the age of 25. Fertility is falling but remains at a high level, especially among poor, rural, and uneducated women, in part because of inadequate access to contraception. Life expectancy remains low at about 55 years due to the prevalence of HIV and AIDs and an elevated maternal mortality rate, which has remained high since 1990. Cameroon, particularly the northern region, is vulnerable to food insecurity largely because of government mismanagement, corruption, high production costs, inadequate infrastructure, and natural disasters. Despite economic growth in some regions, poverty is on the rise, and is most prevalent in rural areas, which are especially affected by a shortage of jobs, declining incomes, poor school and health care infrastructure, and a lack of clean water and sanitation. Underinvestment in social safety nets and ineffective public financial management also contribute to Cameroon’s high rate of poverty.
International migration has been driven by unemployment (including fewer government jobs), poverty, the search for educational opportunities, and corruption. The US and Europe are preferred destinations, but, with tighter immigration restrictions in these countries, young Cameroonians are increasingly turning to neighboring states, such as Gabon and Nigeria, South Africa, other parts of Africa, and the Near and Far East. Cameroon’s limited resources make it dependent on UN support to host more than 320,000 refugees and asylum seekers as of September 2017. These refugees and asylum seekers are primarily from the Central African Republic and more recently Nigeria.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.39% (male 5,337,879/female 5,257,026)
15-24 years: 19.56% (male 2,456,061/female 2,432,500)
25-54 years: 30.87% (male 3,880,906/female 3,835,107)
55-64 years: 3.98% (male 485,059/female 509,649)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 372,415/female 428,283) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 85.9
youth dependency ratio: 80
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.5 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Population growth rate:
2.56% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Birth rate:
35.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Death rate:
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Net migration rate:
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Population distribution:
population concentrated in the west and north, with the interior of the country sparsely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 55.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
YAOUNDE (capital) 3.066 million; Douala 2.943 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.7 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
596 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Infant mortality rate:
total: 51 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59 years
male: 57.6 years
female: 60.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Total fertility rate:
4.64 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
34.4% (2014)
Health expenditures:
4.1% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 164
Physicians density:
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 52.7% of population
total: 75.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 47.3% of population
total: 24.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 61.8% of population
rural: 26.8% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 38.2% of population
rural: 73.2% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
560,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
29,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
11.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 135
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
14.8% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 47
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 133
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75%
male: 81.2%
female: 68.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 11 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 6.4%
male: 5.3%
female: 7.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon
local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon
former: Kamerun, French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon
etymology: in the 15th century, Portuguese explorers named the area near the mouth of the Wouri River the Rio dos Camaroes (River of Prawns) after the abundant shrimp in the water; over time the designation became Cameroon in English; this is the only instance where a country is named after a crustacean
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Yaounde
geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Adamaoua, Centre, East (Est), Far North (Extreme-Nord), Littoral, North (Nord), North-West (Nord-Ouest), West (Ouest), South (Sud), South-West (Sud-Ouest)
Independence:
1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
State Unification Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest effective 18 January 1996
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; amendment drafts require approval of at least one-third of the membership in either house of Parliament; passage requires absolute majority vote of the Parliament membership; passage of drafts requested by the president for a second reading in Parliament requires two-thirds majority vote of its membership; the president can opt to submit drafts to a referendum, in which case passage requires a simple majority; constitutional articles on Cameroon’s unity and territorial integrity and its democratic principles cannot be amended; amended 2008 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Philemon YANG (since 30 June 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Amadou ALI (since 2014)and Jean NKUETE
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote - Paul BIYA (CPDM) 78.0%, John FRU NDI (SDF) 10.7%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.2%, other 8.1%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; 70 members indirectly elected by regional councils and 30 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the 100-member Senate was formed at the time of the April 2013 election
elections: Senate last held on 25 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023); National Assembly last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 63, SDF 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 148, SDF 18, UNDP 5, UDC 4, UPC 3, other 2
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cameroon (consists of 9 titular and 6 surrogate judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and audit chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 11 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the advice of the Higher Judicial Council of Cameroon, a body chaired by the president and includes the minister of justice, selected magistrates, and representatives of the National Assembly; judge term NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president for single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Parliamentary Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases involving the president and prime minister); appellate and first instance courts; circuit and magistrate's courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy and Development
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]
Cameroon People's Party or CPP [Edith Kah WALLA]
Cameroon Renaissance Movement or MRC [Maurice KAMTO]
Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]
Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]
Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]
National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]
Progressive Movement or MP [Jean-Jacques EKINDI]
Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]
Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Provisionary Management Bureau]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Network of Human Rights Defenders in Central Africa or REDHAC [Maximilliene Ngo MBE]
Tribunal 53 Articles [Patrice NGANANG]
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Essomba ETOUNDI (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; current temporary address - 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Henry BARLERIN (since 20 December 2017)
embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaounde
mailing address: P.O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 22220 1500; Consular: [237] 22220 1603
FAX: [237] 22220 1500 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 22220 1752
branch office(s): Douala
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow, with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; the vertical tricolor recalls the flag of France; red symbolizes unity, yellow the sun, happiness, and the savannahs in the north, and green hope and the forests in the south; the star is referred to as the "star of unity"
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National symbol(s):
lion; national colors: green, red, yellow
National anthem:
name: "O Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancetres" (O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Rene Djam AFAME, Samuel Minkio BAMBA, Moise Nyatte NKO'O [French], Benard Nsokika FONLON [English]/Rene Djam AFAME
note: adopted 1957; Cameroon's anthem, also known as "Chant de Ralliement" (The Rallying Song), has been used unofficially since 1948 and officially adopted in 1957; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ

Economy

Economy - overview:
Cameroon’s market-based, diversified economy features oil and gas, timber, aluminum, agriculture, mining and the service sector. Oil remains Cameroon’s main export commodity, and despite falling global oil prices, still accounts for nearly 40% of exports. Cameroon’s economy suffers from factors that often impact underdeveloped countries, such as stagnant per capita income, a relatively inequitable distribution of income, a top-heavy civil service, endemic corruption, continuing inefficiencies of a large parastatal system in key sectors, and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.
Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. The IMF continues to press for economic reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. The Government of Cameroon provides subsidies for electricity, food, and fuel that have strained the federal budget and diverted funds from education, healthcare, and infrastructure projects, as low oil prices have led to lower revenues.
Cameroon devotes significant resources to several large infrastructure projects currently under construction, including a deep seaport in Kribi and the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project. Cameroon’s energy sector continues to diversify, recently opening a natural gas-powered electricity generating plant. Cameroon continues to seek foreign investment to improve its inadequate infrastructure, create jobs, and improve its economic footprint, but its unfavorable business environment remains a significant deterrent to foreign investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$81.55 billion (2017 est.)
$78.44 billion (2016 est.)
$74.94 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 94
GDP (official exchange rate):
$30.65 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,400 (2017 est.)
$3,300 (2016 est.)
$3,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 187
Gross national saving:
16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 71.3%
government consumption: 12.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 19.5%
imports of goods and services: -23.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 23.1%
industry: 28%
services: 48.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, cassava (manioc, tapioca); livestock; timber
Industries:
petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:
4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Labor force:
9.912 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 70%
industry: 13%
services: 17% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.3% (2014 est.)
30% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Population below poverty line:
30% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 37.5%
highest 10%: 35.4% (2001 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
44.6 (2001 est.)
46.5 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Budget:
revenues: $5.154 billion
expenditures: $6.964 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
16.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Public debt:
32.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.7% (2017 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Stock of narrow money:
$4.374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Stock of broad money:
$7.102 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Stock of domestic credit:
$6.427 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.714 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$230 million (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Current account balance:
$-1.095 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.065 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Exports:
$5.158 billion (2017 est.)
$4.561 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Exports - commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners:
Netherlands 21%, India 11.3%, Italy 11%, China 8%, Spain 6.7%, France 5.9% (2016)
Imports:
$5.334 billion (2017 est.)
$4.784 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Imports - commodities:
machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Imports - partners:
China 17.8%, Nigeria 12%, France 11%, Thailand 4.6%, Togo 4.5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.357 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Debt - external:
$8.238 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.364 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Exchange rates:
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 10,100,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 88%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)
Electricity - production:
6.61 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Electricity - consumption:
5.702 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Electricity - imports:
1.414 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.545 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
52.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
46.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Crude oil - production:
93,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Crude oil - exports:
64,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Crude oil - imports:
39,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Crude oil - proved reserves:
200 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Refined petroleum products - production:
54,740 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
42,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Refined petroleum products - exports:
17,560 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Refined petroleum products - imports:
3,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Natural gas - production:
680 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Natural gas - consumption:
1.08 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Natural gas - proved reserves:
135.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,051,073
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 18,717,503
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Telephone system:
general assessment: system includes cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter; Camtel, the monopoly provider of fixed-line service, provides connections for only about 4 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable
domestic: mobile-cellular usage, in part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has increased sharply, reaching a subscribership base of over 65 per 100 persons
international: country code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
government maintains tight control over broadcast media; state-owned Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV), broadcasting on both a TV and radio network, was the only officially recognized and fully licensed broadcaster until August 2007, when the government finally issued licenses to 2 private TV broadcasters and 1 private radio broadcaster; about 70 privately owned, unlicensed radio stations operating but are subject to closure at any time; foreign news services required to partner with state-owned national station (2007)
Internet country code:
.cm
Internet users:
total: 6,090,201
percent of population: 25.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 267,208
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
TJ (2016)
Airports:
33 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 112
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 53 km; liquid petroleum gas 5 km; oil 1,107 km; water 35 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 987 km
narrow gauge: 987 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway connections generally efficient but limited; rail lines connect major cities of Douala, Yaounde, Ngaoundere, and Garoua; passenger and freight service provided by CAMRAIL (2014)
country comparison to the world: 90
Roadways:
total: 51,350 km
paved: 4,108 km
unpaved: 47,242 km
note: there are 28,857 km of national roads (2011)
country comparison to the world: 78
Waterways:
(major rivers in the south, such as the Wouri and the Sanaga, are largely non-navigable; in the north, the Benue, which connects through Nigeria to the Niger River, is navigable in the rainy season only to the port of Garoua) (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 19
by type: general cargo 4, other 15 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 140
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Douala (Wouri); Garoua (Benoue)
oil terminal(s): Limboh Terminal

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.6% of GDP (2016)
1.25% of GDP (2015)
1.25% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.34% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 66
Military branches:
Cameroon Armed Forces (Forces Armees Camerounaises, FAC): Army (L'Armee de Terre), Navy (Marine Nationale Republique, MNR, includes naval infantry), Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC), Rapid Intervention Brigade, Fire Fighter Corps, Gendarmerie (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
18-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; high school graduation required; service obligation 4 years; periodic government calls for volunteers (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Joint Border Commission with Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a full phase-out of Nigerian control and patriation of residents in 2008; Cameroon and Nigeria agreed on maritime delimitation in March 2008; sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 255,907 (Central African Republic); 95,027 (Nigeria) (2018)
IDPs: 241,030 (2017)

Economic Indicators for Cameroon including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Cameroon economy.