Nicaragua - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Nicaragua, the poorest country in Central America and the second poorest in the Western Hemisphere, has widespread underemployment and poverty. GDP growth of 4.5% in 2017 was insufficient to make a significant difference. Textiles and agriculture combined account for nearly 50% of Nicaragua's exports. Beef, coffee, and gold are Nicaragua’s top three export commodities. The Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement has been in effect since April 2006 and has expanded export opportunities for many Nicaraguan agricultural and manufactured goods. In...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 58,544,773,300 57,578,952,900 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 116,675,083,400 110,637,342,900 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 58,993,571,000 59,841,925,100 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 297,158,053,437 271,002,783,093 NIO Annual
Investment 2016 111,744,617,756 105,771,348,260 NIO Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 378,661,482,604 347,462,641,618 NIO Annual
Government Consumption 2016 57,939 49,595 Mil. NIC Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 136.67 130.53 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 154.23 154.59 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 862,905 855,745 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 2,882,540 2,818,687 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 22,735,860,000 20,546,840,000 NIO Annual
Unemployment Rate 2011 6.3 7.86 % Annual
Unemployment 2011 189.6 220.15 Ths. Annual
Labor Force Employment 2011 2,807 2,591 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -459,400,000 -898,200,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 1,601,700,000 1,801,000,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 1,142,300,000 902,800,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 27,600,000 -445,100,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 77,108,842,900 69,995,665,700 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 125,459,398,100 121,388,429,500 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 215,706,495,155 202,197,466,171 NIO Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 147,550,946,653 138,920,554,965 NIO Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate May 1995 10.15 10.15 % - End of period Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production Jun 2014 93.09 107.55 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -106,342 # Annual
Population 2017 6,217,581 6,149,928 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 19.51 19.92 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 4.78 4.77 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Pacific coast of Nicaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama in the early 16th century. Independence from Spain was declared in 1821 and the country became an independent republic in 1838. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast in the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region in subsequent decades. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas led by Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador prompted the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. After losing free and fair elections in 1990, 1996, and 2001, former Sandinista President Daniel ORTEGA was elected president in 2006, 2011, and most recently in 2016. Municipal, regional, and national-level elections since 2008 have been marred by widespread irregularities. Nicaragua's infrastructure and economy - hard hit by the earlier civil war and by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 - are being rebuilt, but democratic institutions have weakened under the ORTEGA administration as the president has garnered full control over all four branches of government: the presidency, the judicial, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Electoral Council.

Geography

Location:
Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras
Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 85 00 W
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total: 130,370 sq km
land: 119,990 sq km
water: 10,380 sq km
country comparison to the world: 99
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than New York state
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,253 km
border countries (2): Costa Rica 313 km, Honduras 940 km
Coastline:
910 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural prolongation
Climate:
tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Terrain:
extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Elevation:
mean elevation: 298 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mogoton 2,085 m
Natural resources:
gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Land use:
agricultural land: 42.2%
arable land 12.5%; permanent crops 2.5%; permanent pasture 27.2%
forest: 25.3%
other: 32.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,990 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the overwhelming majority of the population resides in the western half of the country, with much of the urban growth centered in the capital city of Managua; coastal areas also show large population clusters
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes; volcanoes; landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Cerro Negro (728 m), which last erupted in 1999, is one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes; its lava flows and ash have been known to cause significant damage to farmland and buildings; other historically active volcanoes include Concepcion, Cosiguina, Las Pilas, Masaya, Momotombo, San Cristobal, and Telica
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest country in Central America; contains the largest freshwater body in Central America, Lago de Nicaragua

People & Society

Population:
6,025,951 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Nationality:
noun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan
Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
Languages:
Spanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5%
note: English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast (2005 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 51.6%, Evangelical 33.9%, other 1.5%, unspecified 12.9%, none 0.2% (2016 est.)
Demographic profile:
Despite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunization rates. However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua's total fertility rate has fallen from around 6 children per woman in 1980 to below replacement level today, but the high birth rate among adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment.
Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war, and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilized. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.24% (male 837,465/female 803,985)
15-24 years: 21.26% (male 644,153/female 636,787)
25-54 years: 40.24% (male 1,149,747/female 1,274,818)
55-64 years: 5.98% (male 166,782/female 193,781)
65 years and over: 5.28% (male 141,816/female 176,617) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 54.1
youth dependency ratio: 46.3
elderly dependency ratio: 7.8
potential support ratio: 12.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 25.7 years
male: 24.8 years
female: 26.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Population growth rate:
0.98% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Birth rate:
17.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Death rate:
5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Net migration rate:
-2.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Population distribution:
the overwhelming majority of the population resides in the western half of the country, with much of the urban growth centered in the capital city of Managua; coastal areas also show large population clusters
Urbanization:
urban population: 59.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.84% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
MANAGUA (capital) 956,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
150 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Infant mortality rate:
total: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.5 years
male: 71.3 years
female: 75.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Total fertility rate:
1.89 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
80.4% (2011/12)
Health expenditures:
9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 41
Physicians density:
0.91 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 69.4% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 30.6% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 76.5% of population
rural: 55.7% of population
total: 67.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 23.5% of population
rural: 44.3% of population
total: 32.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
8,900 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<500 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 63
Education expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 88
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.8%
male: 82.4%
female: 83.2% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 11.9%
male: 9.8%
female: 15.6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form: Nicaragua
local long form: Republica de Nicaragua
local short form: Nicaragua
etymology: Nicarao was the name of the largest indigenous settlement at the time of Spanish arrival; conquistador Gil GONZALEZ Davila, who explored the area (1622-23), combined the name of the community with the Spanish word "agua" (water), referring to the two large lakes in the west of the country (Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua)
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Managua
geographic coordinates: 12 08 N, 86 15 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonoma); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Costa Caribe Norte*, Costa Caribe Sur*, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 19 November 1986, effective 9 January 1987; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where bilateral agreements exist
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 6 November 2016 (next to be held by November 2021)
election results: Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 72.4%, Maximino RODRIGUEZ (PLC) 15%, Jose del Carmen ALVARADO (PLI) 4.5%, Saturnino CERRATO Hodgson (ALN) 4.3%, other 3.7%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 seats; 70 members in multi-seat constituencies and 20 members in a single nationwide constituency directly elected by proportional representation vote; 2 seats reserved for the previous president and the runner-up candidate in the previous presidential election; members serve 5-year terms;)
elections: last held on 6 November 2016 (next to be held by November 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FSLN 70, PLC 13, ALN 2, PLI 2, APRE 1, PC 1, YATAMA 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 16 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and constitutional chambers)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly to serve 5-year staggered terms
subordinate courts: Appeals Court; first instance civil, criminal, and military courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for the Republic or APRE [Carlos CANALES]
Conservative Party or PC [Alfredo CESAR]
Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Jose del Carmen ALVARADO]
Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC [Maria Haydee OSUNA]
Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Alejandro MEJIA Ferreti]
Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]
Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Ana Margarita VIJIL]
Sons of Mother Earth or YATAMA [Brooklin RIVERA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
National Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group - includes Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN)
Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN (independent labor union)
Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT (umbrella group of non-Sandinista labor unions - includes Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS)
Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
International organization participation:
BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Obadiah CAMPBELL Hooker (since 28 June 2010)
chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570, 6573
FAX: [1] (202) 939-6545
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Laura Farnsworth DOGU (since 9 November 2015)
embassy: Kilometer 5.5 Carretera Sur, Managua
mailing address: American Embassy Managua, APO AA 34021
telephone: [505] 2252-7100, 2252-7888; 2252-7100 or 8767-7100 (after hours)
FAX: [505] 2252-7250
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water
note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
National symbol(s):
turquoise-browed motmot (bird); national colors: blue, white
National anthem:
name: "Salve a ti, Nicaragua" (Hail to Thee, Nicaragua)
lyrics/music: Salomon Ibarra MAYORGA/traditional, arranged by Luis Abraham DELGADILLO
note: although only officially adopted in 1971, the music was approved in 1918 and the lyrics in 1939; the tune, originally from Spain, was used as an anthem for Nicaragua from the 1830s until 1876

Economy

Economy - overview:
Nicaragua, the poorest country in Central America and the second poorest in the Western Hemisphere, has widespread underemployment and poverty. GDP growth of 4.5% in 2017 was insufficient to make a significant difference. Textiles and agriculture combined account for nearly 50% of Nicaragua's exports. Beef, coffee, and gold are Nicaragua’s top three export commodities.
The Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement has been in effect since April 2006 and has expanded export opportunities for many Nicaraguan agricultural and manufactured goods.
In 2013, the government granted a 50-year concession with the option for an additional 50 years to a newly formed Chinese-run company to finance and build an inter-oceanic canal and related projects, at an estimated cost of $50 billion. The canal construction has not started.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$36.22 billion (2017 est.)
$34.66 billion (2016 est.)
$33.11 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 125
GDP (official exchange rate):
$13.69 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,800 (2017 est.)
$5,600 (2016 est.)
$5,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 164
Gross national saving:
22.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 70.8%
government consumption: 15.3%
investment in fixed capital: 29.8%
investment in inventories: 1.7%
exports of goods and services: 40.3%
imports of goods and services: -56.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 15.5%
industry: 24.4%
services: 50.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, bananas, sugarcane, rice, corn, tobacco, cotton, sesame, soya, beans, beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, lobsters, peanuts
Industries:
food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, knit and woven apparel, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood, electric wire harness manufacturing, mining
Industrial production growth rate:
5.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Labor force:
3.046 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 18%
services: 50% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
note: underemployment was 46.5% in 2008
country comparison to the world: 88
Population below poverty line:
29.6% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 47.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
47.1 (2014 est.)
45.8 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Budget:
revenues: $3.8 billion
expenditures: $4.074 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
27.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Public debt:
46% of GDP (2017 est.)
45.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions; Nicaragua rebased its GDP figures in 2012, which reduced the figures for debt as a percentage of GDP
country comparison to the world: 116
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Central bank discount rate:
3% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
12.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
11.44% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Stock of narrow money:
$1.161 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.043 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Stock of broad money:
$1.602 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.445 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Stock of domestic credit:
$6.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.159 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.568 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.209 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$995 million (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Current account balance:
$-1.154 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.133 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Exports:
$3.611 billion (2017 est.)
$3.772 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Exports - commodities:
coffee, beef, gold, sugar, peanuts, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, cigars, automobile wiring harnesses, textiles, apparel
Exports - partners:
US 51.5%, Mexico 13.8%, El Salvador 6%, Venezuela 5.9% (2016)
Imports:
$6.426 billion (2017 est.)
$6.384 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
US 19.7%, China 12.9%, Mexico 9.7%, Costa Rica 7.8%, Guatemala 6.5%, Netherlands Antilles 5.7%, El Salvador 4.8% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.521 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.448 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Debt - external:
$11.36 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.87 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Exchange rates:
cordobas (NIO) per US dollar -
30.11 (2017 est.)
28.68 (2016 est.)
28.68 (2015 est.)
27.26 (2014 est.)
26.01 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 1,400,000
electrification - total population: 78%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 43% (2013)
Electricity - production:
3.218 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Electricity - consumption:
3.177 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Electricity - exports:
17.87 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Electricity - imports:
109 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.395 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
59% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
8.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
36.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Crude oil - imports:
14,180 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Refined petroleum products - production:
14,260 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
30,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Refined petroleum products - exports:
253.3 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Refined petroleum products - imports:
16,130 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
5.2 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 366,636
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 7,745,512
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Telephone system:
general assessment: system being upgraded by foreign investment; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecommunications company
domestic: since privatization, access to fixed-line and mobile-cellular services has improved; fixed-line teledensity roughly 6 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased to almost 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 505; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
multiple terrestrial TV stations, supplemented by cable TV in most urban areas; nearly all are government-owned or affiliated; more than 300 radio stations, both government-affiliated and privately owned (2016)
Internet country code:
.ni
Internet users:
total: 1,466,152
percent of population: 24.6% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 61,031
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
YN (2016)
Airports:
147 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 40
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 135
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 119 (2013)
Pipelines:
oil 54 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 23,897 km
paved: 3,346 km
unpaved: 20,551 km (2014)
country comparison to the world: 101
Waterways:
2,220 km (navigable waterways as well as the use of the large Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua; rivers serve only the sparsely populated eastern part of the country) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 39
Merchant marine:
total: 5
by type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 1, other 3 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 163
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Bluefields, Corinto

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.55% of GDP (2016)
0.78% of GDP (2015)
0.69% of GDP (2014)
0.68% of GDP (2013)
0.67% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 142
Military branches:
National Army of Nicaragua (Ejercito Nacional de Nicaragua, ENN; includes Navy, Air Force) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; tour of duty 18-36 months; requires Nicaraguan nationality and 6th-grade education (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
the 1992 ICJ ruling for El Salvador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; Nicaragua and Costa Rica regularly file border dispute cases over the delimitations of the San Juan River and the northern tip of Calero Island to the ICJ; there is an ongoing case in the ICJ to determine Pacific and Atlantic ocean maritime borders as well as land borders; in 2009, the ICJ ruled that Costa Rican vessels carrying out police activities could not use the river, but official Costa Rican vessels providing essential services to riverside inhabitants and Costa Rican tourists could travel freely on the river; in 2011, the ICJ provisionally ruled that both countries must remove personnel from the disputed area; in 2013, the ICJ rejected Nicaragua's 2012 suit to halt Costa Rica's construction of a highway paralleling the river on the grounds of irreparable environmental damage; in 2013, the ICJ, regarding the disputed territory, ordered that Nicaragua should refrain from dredging or canal construction and refill and repair damage caused by trenches connecting the river to the Caribbean and upheld its 2010 ruling that Nicaragua must remove all personnel; in early 2014, Costa Rica brought Nicaragua to the ICJ over offshore oil concessions in the disputed region; Nicaragua filed a case against Colombia in 2013 over the delimitation of the Continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical miles from the Nicaraguan coast, as well as over the alleged violation by Colombia of Nicaraguan maritime space in the Caribbean Sea
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US and transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing

Economic Indicators for Nicaragua including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Nicaragua economy.