Tajikistan - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include...

Continue reading View Factbook for Tajikistan

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2016 16,952,100,000 13,973,900,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 16,739,300,000 13,671,400,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 54,471,100,000 48,401,600,000 TJS Annual
Real Investment 2013 292,397,900 278,439,800 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2013 279,906,500 266,422,500 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) May 2017 8.64 8.1 % Y/Y, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 1,767,208 1,700,747 # Annual
Labor Force 2017 3,422,976 3,351,931 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2004 79,107,000 59,128,000 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -48,804,226 -52,950,321 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 584,281,831 709,051,540 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -389,627,209 -468,602,431 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 194,654,622 240,449,109 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 9,597,679,300 7,231,987,900 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 24,981,810,600 23,297,503,800 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2013 4,925,068,500 4,651,645,600 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2013 4,379,884,900 4,150,155,400 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Jun 2017 16 16 % Monthly
Money Market Rate May 2016 24.42 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 8,921,343 8,734,951 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 28.84 29.34 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.16 5.19 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -99,999 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. In September 2015, government security forces rebuffed attacks led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power during the civil war, used the attacks to ban the main opposition political party in Tajikistan. In May 2016, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself designated "Leader of the Nation" with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, eligible to run for president in 2020. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade emanating from neighboring Afghanistan.

Geography

Location:
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
country comparison to the world: 97
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total: 4,130 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:
mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation:
mean elevation: 3,186 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:
agricultural land: 34.7%
arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%
forest: 2.9%
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
7,420 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
Natural hazards:
earthquakes; floods
Environment - current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

People & Society

Population:
8,468,555 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Nationality:
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:
Tajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
Languages:
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.33% (male 1,393,804/female 1,343,825)
15-24 years: 18.61% (male 799,736/female 776,417)
25-54 years: 40.12% (male 1,683,228/female 1,714,507)
55-64 years: 5.62% (male 219,043/female 257,066)
65 years and over: 3.32% (male 116,511/female 164,418) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 62.5
youth dependency ratio: 57.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.5 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 25.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Population growth rate:
1.62% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Birth rate:
23.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Net migration rate:
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Population distribution:
the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
Urbanization:
urban population: 27% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.72% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
DUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.9 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Infant mortality rate:
total: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.1 years
male: 64.9 years
female: 71.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Total fertility rate:
2.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
27.9% (2012)
Health expenditures:
6.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 85
Physicians density:
1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
4.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 95% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.2% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
14,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<1000 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
14.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 128
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
13.3% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 56
Education expenditures:
5.2% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 114
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 16.7%
male: 19.2%
female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence:
9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one-third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval by the president or approval by at least at least two-thirds of the Assembly of Representatives membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; note – constitutional articles including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (unlimited terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOYEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [SaidjafFar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Ovezmammed MAMMEDOV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Group 24 [Suhrob ZAFAR] (banned)
New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV (jailed since 2013)] (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV - jailed in 2015] (banned)
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI - in exile] (banned)
International organization participation:
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kevin COVERT (since 31 August 2017)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag description:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
National symbol(s):
crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green
National anthem:
name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

Economy

Economy - overview:
Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.
Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2014 were equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.
Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian, Iranian and Chinese investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun Dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project is a sensitive issue for downstream neighbors and faces large financing shortfalls. In 2016, Tajikistan contracted with the Italian firm Salini Impregilo to build the dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion, and has yet to finance most of the project.
Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. The dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan started showing small increases in 2017 after dropping by almost 65% in 2015. The government spent almost $500 million in 2016 to bail out the country’s banking sector, which is still troubled, and the government is facing challenges financing a public debt that is equivalent to approximately 50% of GDP. The National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent its reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter additional economic shocks.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$27.67 billion (2017 est.)
$26.48 billion (2016 est.)
$24.77 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 136
GDP (official exchange rate):
$7.234 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,100 (2017 est.)
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 192
Gross national saving:
11.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 103.2%
government consumption: 16.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.3%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 13.4%
imports of goods and services: -48.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 28.6%
industry: 25.5%
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Labor force:
2.295 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
country comparison to the world: 22
Population below poverty line:
31.5% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.6 (2006 est.)
34.7 (1998 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Budget:
revenues: $2.214 billion
expenditures: $2.316 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
30.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Public debt:
41.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.9% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Central bank discount rate:
16% (20 March 2017 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
30% (31 December 2017 est.)
25.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Stock of narrow money:
$936 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.108 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Stock of broad money:
$1.065 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-458 million (2017 est.)
$-265 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Exports:
$794.7 million (2017 est.)
$691.1 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Exports - commodities:
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners:
Turkey 27.8%, Russia 15.6%, China 14.7%, Switzerland 9.8%, Iran 6.5%, Algeria 6.5%, Italy 5.8% (2016)
Imports:
$2.725 billion (2017 est.)
$2.604 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Russia 31.2%, China 13.9%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Uzbekistan 5.2%, Iran 5.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$642.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Debt - external:
$5.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.76 (2017 est.)
7.84 (2016 est.)
7.84 (2015 est.)
6.16 (2014 est.)
4.93 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
16.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Electricity - consumption:
12.94 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Electricity - exports:
NA kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports:
63 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
5.5 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
93% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Crude oil - production:
180 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Crude oil - exports:
78.6 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Crude oil - proved reserves:
12 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Refined petroleum products - production:
445.8 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Refined petroleum products - imports:
21,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Natural gas - production:
20 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Natural gas - consumption:
189 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Natural gas - imports:
212 million cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 468,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 9.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Telephone system:
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
Internet country code:
.tj
Internet users:
total: 1,705,345
percent of population: 20.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 802,470
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 105,376 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
EY (2016)
Airports:
24 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 131
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 103
Roadways:
total: 27,767 km (2000)
country comparison to the world: 97
Waterways:
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 98

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.19% of GDP (2017)
1.25% of GDP (2016)
1.22% of GDP (2015)
1.13% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 97
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 17,002 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
Tajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates

Economic Indicators for Tajikistan including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Tajikistan economy.