Belarus - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

As part of the former Soviet Union, Belarus had a relatively well-developed, though aging industrial base; it retained this industrial base - which is now outdated, energy inefficient, and dependent on subsidized Russian energy and preferential access to Russian markets - following the breakup of the USSR. The country also has a broad agricultural base which is largely inefficient and dependent on government subsidies. After an initial burst of capitalist reform between 1991 and 1994, including privatization of smaller state enterprises and some service sector businesses, creation...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2017 Q4 15,179,200,000 15,601,600,000 BYR, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 29,024,800,000 28,531,900,000 BYR, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2017 Q4 9,328,400,000 6,730,600,000 BYR, NSA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 716,801,800 860,506,200 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 22,584,800,000 25,763,040,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 749,488,000 863,933,200 NCU Annual
Government Consumption 2016 Q4 4.47 3.36 Bil. BYB Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 Q4 100.32 114.98 Index 2005=100 Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Producer Price Index (PPI) Mar 2018 0.41 0.47 % Y/Y, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Rate Mar 2018 0.5 0.5 %, NSA Monthly
Unemployment Mar 2018 23,400 23,900 #, NSA Monthly
Labor Force Employment Mar 2018 4,346,600 4,343,800 #, NSA Monthly
Agriculture Employment 2017 498,374 496,299 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 8,323,900,000 9,372,500,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 7,796,400,000 7,934,200,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -527,500,000 -1,438,300,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -1,294,700,000 -637,200,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 20,217,800,000 18,199,900,000 BYR, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 21,523,900,000 18,011,700,000 BYR, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 1,805,453,900 1,844,181,900 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 1,368,196,000 1,330,930,600 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2017 Q4 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Jun 2017 13 14 % Monthly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Personal Income Mar 2018 107.6 107.5 Index CPPY=100 YTD, NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production Jun 2018 13,300,000,000 13,600,000,000 2010 USD, NSA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2016 1,234,700,000 342,000,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 9,468,338 9,480,042 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 12.4 12.5 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 12.6 12.6 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Deaths 2014 121,542 125,326 #, NSA Annual
Net Migration 2012 75,799 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than have any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his election in July 1994 as the country's first and only directly elected president, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian means and a centralized economic system. Government restrictions on political and civil freedoms, freedom of speech and the press, peaceful assembly, and religion have remained in place.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, east of Poland
Geographic coordinates:
53 00 N, 28 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 207,600 sq km
land: 202,900 sq km
water: 4,700 sq km
country comparison to the world: 87
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Kentucky; slightly smaller than Kansas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 3,642 km
border countries (5): Latvia 161 km, Lithuania 640 km, Poland 418 km, Russia 1,312 km, Ukraine 1,111 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Terrain:
generally flat with much marshland
Elevation:
mean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
Natural resources:
timber, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
Land use:
agricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 27.2%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 15.9%
forest: 42.7%
other: 13.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,140 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
Natural hazards:
large tracts of marshy land
Environment - current issues:
soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes

People & Society

Population:
9,549,747 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Nationality:
noun: Belarusian(s)
adjective: Belarusian
Ethnic groups:
Belarusian 83.7%, Russian 8.3%, Polish 3.1%, Ukrainian 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 0.9% (2009 est.)
Languages:
Russian (official) 70.2%, Belarusian (official) 23.4%, other 3.1% (includes small Polish- and Ukrainian-speaking minorities), unspecified 3.3% (2009 est.)
Religions:
Orthodox 48.3%, Catholic 7.1%, other 3.5%, non-believers 41.1% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.78% (male 774,995/female 732,191)
15-24 years: 10.29% (male 505,420/female 477,123)
25-54 years: 44.76% (male 2,104,170/female 2,170,515)
55-64 years: 14.21% (male 599,630/female 757,744)
65 years and over: 14.95% (male 457,766/female 970,193) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 23.2
elderly dependency ratio: 20.6
potential support ratio: 4.9 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 40 years
male: 37.1 years
female: 43.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Population growth rate:
-0.22% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Birth rate:
10.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Death rate:
13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Net migration rate:
0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Population distribution:
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
Urbanization:
urban population: 77.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.04% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
MINSK (capital) 1.915 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
25.7 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73 years
male: 67.5 years
female: 78.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Total fertility rate:
1.48 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
63.1% (2012)
Health expenditures:
5.7% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 117
Physicians density:
4.07 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
11 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.9% of population
rural: 99.1% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.1% of population
rural: 0.9% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 94.1% of population
rural: 95.2% of population
total: 94.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.9% of population
rural: 4.8% of population
total: 5.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
19,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<200 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 58
Education expenditures:
5% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 71
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 12.5%
male: 12.4%
female: 12.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
conventional short form: Belarus
local long form: Respublika Byelarus'/Respublika Belarus'
local short form: Byelarus'/Belarus'
former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name is a compound of the Belarusian words "bel" (white) and "Rus" (the Old East Slavic ethnic designation) to form the meaning White Rusian or White Ruthenian
Government type:
presidential republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship
Capital:
name: Minsk
geographic coordinates: 53 54 N, 27 34 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest, Homyel' (Gomel'), Horad Minsk* (Minsk City), Hrodna (Grodno), Mahilyow (Mogilev), Minsk, Vitsyebsk (Vitebsk)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers; Russian spelling provided for reference when different from Belarusian
Independence:
25 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1991 and early 1994, signed 15 March 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through petition to the National Assembly or by petition of least 150,000 eligible voters; approval required by at least two-thirds majority vote in both chambers or by simple majority of votes cast in a referendum (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system; note - nearly all major codes (civil, civil procedure, criminal, criminal procedure, family, and labor) were revised and came into force in 1999 and 2000
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belarus
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: president Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
head of government: prime minister Andrey KOBYAKOV (since 27 December 2014); first deputy prime minister Vasiliy MATYUSHEVSKIY (since 27 December 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); first election took place on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999; however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run and win in a third (19 March 2006), fourth (19 December 2010), and fifth election (11 October 2015); next election in 2020; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly
election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (independent) 83.5%, Tatstyana KARATKEVICH (Tell the Truth) 4.4%, Sergey GAYDUKEVICH (LDP) 3.3%, other 8.8%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Council of the Republic or Sovet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members indirectly elected by regional and Minsk city councils and 8 members appointed by the president; members serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - the US does not recognize the legitimacy of the National Assembly
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 11 September 2016 (next to be held in 2020); OSCE observers determined that the election was neither free nor impartial and that vote counting was problematic in a number of polling stations; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won virtually every seat, with only the UCP member and one independent forming alternative representation in the House; international observers determined that the previous elections, on 28 September 2008 and 23 September 2012, also fell short of democratic standards, with pro-LUKASHENKO candidates winning every seat
election results: Council of the Republic - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KPB 8, Belarusian Patriotic Party 3, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 3, LDP 1, UCP 1, independent 94
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman and deputy chairman and organized into several specialized panels, including economic and military; number of judges set by the president of the republic and the court chairman); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 judges including a chairman and deputy chairman)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Council of the Republic; judges initially appointed for 5 years and evaluated for life appointment; Constitutional Court judges - 6 appointed by the president and 6 elected by the Council of the Republic; the presiding judge directly elected by the president and approved by the Council of the Republic; judges can serve for 11 years with an age limit of 70
subordinate courts: provincial (including Minsk city) courts; first instance (district) courts; economic courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders:
pro-government parties:
Belarusian Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKIY]
Belarusian Patriotic Party [Nikolai ULAKHOVICH]
Belarusian Social Sport Party [Vladimir ALEKSANDROVICH]
Communist Party of Belarus or KPB [Aleksei SOKOL]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]
Republican Party [Vladimir BELOZOR]
Republican Party of Labor and Justice [Vasiliy ZADNEPRYANIY]
opposition parties:
Belarusian Christian Democracy Party [Paval SEVIARYNETS] (unregistered)
Belarusian Party of the Green [Anastasiya DOROFEYEVA]
Belarusian Party of the Left "Just World" [Sergey KALYAKIN]
Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Ryhor KASTUSEU]
Belarusian Social-Democratic Assembly [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]
Belarusian Social Democratic Party ("Assembly") or BSDPH [Ihar BARYSAU]
Belarusian Social Democratic Party (People's Assembly) [Mikalay STATKEVICH] (unregistered)
Christian Conservative Party or BPF [Zyanon PAZNYAK]
United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH] (unregistered)
Belarusian Association of Journalists [Andrei BASTUNETS]
Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions or BRDP [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]
Belarusian Helsinki Committee or BHC [Aleh HULAK]
Belarusian Language Society [Aleh TRUSAU, Alena ANISIM]
Center-Right Coalition [Vital RYMASHEUSKI, ANATOLY LEBEDKO, YURAS HUBAREVICH]
Congress of Democratic Forces [Mikalay STATKEVICH]
For Freedom Movement [Yuras HUBAREVICH]
Malady Front (Young Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH] (unregistered)
Perspektiva [Anatoliy SHUMCHENKO] (small business association)
"Tell the Truth" Movement [Tatsyana KARATKEVICH, Andrei DMITRIYEV]
Vyasna (Spring) human rights center [Ales BELYATSKIY] (unregistered)
Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]
International organization participation:
BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CEI, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant; recalled by Belarus in 2008); Charge d'Affaires Pavel SHIDLOVSKIY (since 23 April 2014)
chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-1606
FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant; left in 2008 upon insistence of Belarusian Government); Charge d'Affaires Robert RILEY (since 22 August 2016)
embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya Street, Minsk 220002
mailing address: Unit 7010 Box 100, DPO AE 09769
telephone: [375] (17) 210-1283
FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
Flag description:
red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red; the red band color recalls past struggles from oppression, the green band represents hope and the many forests of the country
National symbol(s):
no clearly defined current national symbol, the mounted knight known as Pahonia (the Chaser) is the traditional Belarusian symbol; national colors: green, red, white
National anthem:
name: "My, Bielarusy" (We Belarusians)
lyrics/music: Mikhas KLIMKOVICH and Uladzimir KARYZNA/Nester SAKALOUSKI
note: music adopted 1955, lyrics adopted 2002; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Belarus kept the music of its Soviet-era anthem but adopted new lyrics; also known as "Dziarzauny himn Respubliki Bielarus" (State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus)

Economy

Economy - overview:
As part of the former Soviet Union, Belarus had a relatively well-developed, though aging industrial base; it retained this industrial base - which is now outdated, energy inefficient, and dependent on subsidized Russian energy and preferential access to Russian markets - following the breakup of the USSR. The country also has a broad agricultural base which is largely inefficient and dependent on government subsidies. After an initial burst of capitalist reform between 1991 and 1994, including privatization of smaller state enterprises and some service sector businesses, creation of institutions of private property, and development of entrepreneurship, Belarus' economic development greatly slowed. About 80% of all industry remains in state hands, and non-Russian foreign investment has been hindered by a reluctance to welcome private investment absent joint ownership or affiliation with the state. A few businesses, which had been privatized after independence, were renationalized. State banks account for 75% of the banking sector.
Economic output declined for several years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but revived in the mid-2000s due to the boom in oil prices. Belarus has only small reserves of crude oil, though it imports most of its crude oil and natural gas from Russia at prices substantially below world market prices. Belarus then derives export revenue by refining Russian crude and selling it at market prices. In late 2006, Russia began a process of rolling back its subsidies on oil and gas exports to Belarus. Several times since, Russia and Belarus have had serious disagreements over the level and price of Russian energy supplies. At one point in 2010, Russia stopped the export of all subsidized oil to Belarus save for domestic needs before the two countries reached a deal to restart the export of discounted oil to Belarus. Beginning in early 2016, Russia claimed Belarus began accumulating debt – reaching $740 million by April 2017 – for paying below an agreed price for Russian natural gas. Russia decided to reduce its export of crude oil as a result of the debt. In April 2017, Belarus agreed to pay its gas debt and Russia restored the flow of crude. The agreement paved the way for resumption of cheap energy imports and financial assistance from the Eurasian Fund for Stabilization and Development.
New non-Russian foreign investment has been limited in recent years. In 2011, a financial crisis began, triggered by government-directed salary hikes, compounded by an increased cost in Russian energy inputs and an overvalued Belarusian ruble that lead to a nearly three-fold devaluation of the Belarusian ruble. In November 2011, Belarus agreed to sell to Russia its remaining shares of Beltransgaz, the Belarusian natural gas pipeline operator, in exchange for reduced prices for Russian natural gas. The situation stabilized in 2012, after Belarus received part of a $3 billion loan from the Russian-dominated Eurasian Economic Community Bailout Fund, a $1 billion loan from the Russian state-owned bank Sberbank, and $2.5 billion from the sale of Beltransgaz to Russian state-owned Gazprom; nevertheless, the Belarusian currency lost more than 60% of its value, as inflation reached new highs in 2011 and 2012, before calming in 2013. In December 2013, Russia announced a new loan for Belarus of up to $2 billion for 2014. Notwithstanding foreign assistance, the Belarusian economy continued to struggle under the weight of high external debt servicing payments and trade deficit. In mid-December 2014, structural economic shortcomings were aggravated by the devaluation of the Russian ruble, which triggered a near 40% devaluation of the Belarusian ruble.
Belarus’s economy stagnated between 2012 and 2016, which led to widening productivity and income gaps between Belarus and neighboring countries. Since 2015, the Belarusian government has tightened its macro-economic policies, allowed more flexibility to its exchange rate, taken steps towards price liberalization, and reduced subsidized government lending to state-owned industrial and agricultural enterprises, amid a drop in state budget revenues that resulted from falling global prices on key Belarusian export commodities - petroleum products and potash fertilizer. Belarus returned to weak growth in 2017, largely driven by improvement of external conditions that allowed for growth in its manufacturing sector. Belarus also issued sovereign debt for the first time since 2011 for $1.4 billion in June 2017, which provided the country with badly-needed liquidity.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$175.9 billion (2017 est.)
$174.6 billion (2016 est.)
$179.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 72
GDP (official exchange rate):
$52.78 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.7% (2017 est.)
-2.6% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$18,600 (2017 est.)
$18,400 (2016 est.)
$18,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 95
Gross national saving:
19.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 54.8%
government consumption: 16.8%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: -1.1%
exports of goods and services: 65%
imports of goods and services: -59.6% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 8.3%
industry: 40.6%
services: 51.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Industries:
metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, refrigerators, washing machines and other household appliances
Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Labor force:
4.381 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 23.4%
services: 66.8% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1% (2017 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
note: official registered unemployed; large number of underemployed workers
country comparison to the world: 7
Population below poverty line:
5.7% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.9% (2008 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.5 (2011 est.)
21.7 (1998 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Budget:
revenues: $22.8 billion
expenditures: $22.54 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
43.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Public debt:
46.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (2017 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Central bank discount rate:
14% (19 April 2017 est.)
15% (15 March 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
14% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Stock of narrow money:
$2.881 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.718 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Stock of broad money:
$6.03 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.431 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Stock of domestic credit:
$21.45 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-2.801 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.703 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Exports:
$24.2 billion (2017 est.)
$22.98 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Russia 46.3%, Ukraine 12.2%, UK 4.6%, Germany 4% (2016)
Imports:
$26.2 billion (2017 est.)
$25.57 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Imports - commodities:
mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Imports - partners:
Russia 55.5%, China 7.8%, Germany 4.9%, Poland 4.4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.059 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.927 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Debt - external:
$38.75 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$6.929 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.241 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$3.547 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.649 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Exchange rates:
Belarusian rubles (BYB/BYR) per US dollar -
1.9 (2017 est.)
2 (2016 est.)
2 (2015 est.)
15,926 (2014 est.)
10,224.1 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
32.04 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Electricity - consumption:
31.75 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Electricity - exports:
3.482 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Electricity - imports:
6.104 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
10.08 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Crude oil - production:
32,670 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Crude oil - exports:
31,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Crude oil - imports:
450,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Crude oil - proved reserves:
198 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Refined petroleum products - production:
471,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
172,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Refined petroleum products - exports:
290,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Refined petroleum products - imports:
2,387 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Natural gas - production:
30 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Natural gas - consumption:
26.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Natural gas - imports:
17.3 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
70 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 4,515,382
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 11,439,866
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Telephone system:
general assessment: Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; modernization of the network progressing with over two-thirds of switching equipment now digital
domestic: state-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; the country has three major GSM mobile-cellular networks; mobile-cellular teledensity now approaches 120 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations (2017)
Broadcast media:
7 state-controlled national TV channels; Polish and Russian TV broadcasts are available in some areas; state-run Belarusian Radio operates 5 national networks and an external service; Russian and Polish radio broadcasts are available (2017)
Internet country code:
.by
Internet users:
total: 6,805,786
percent of population: 71.1% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,489,035
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1.807 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
EW (2016)
Airports:
65 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 75
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 28 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 5,386 km; oil 1,589 km; refined products 1,730 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 5,528 km
broad gauge: 5,503 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)
standard gauge: 25 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 35
Roadways:
total: 86,392 km
paved: 74,651 km
unpaved: 11,741 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 56
Waterways:
2,500 km (major rivers are the west-flowing Western Dvina and Neman Rivers and the south-flowing Dnepr River and its tributaries, the Berezina, Sozh, and Pripyat Rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 35
Merchant marine:
total: 4
by type: other 4 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 164
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Mazyr (Prypyats')

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.93% of GDP (2017)
1.2% of GDP (2016)
1.33% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 96
Military branches:
Belarus Armed Forces: Land Force, Air and Air Defense Force, Special Operations Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for compulsory military or alternative service; conscript service obligation is 12-18 months, depending on academic qualifications, and 24-36 months for alternative service, depending on academic qualifications; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2016)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its border with Belarus
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 244,621 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2017)
stateless persons: 6,182 (2016)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Belarus is a source, transit, and destination country for women, men, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; more victims are exploited within Belarus than abroad; Belarusians exploited abroad are primarily trafficked to Germany, Poland, Russian, and Turkey but also other European countries, the Middle East, Japan, Kazakhstan, and Mexico; Moldovans, Russians, Ukrainians, and Vietnamese are exploited in Belarus; state-sponsored forced labor is a continuing problem; students are forced to do farm labor without pay and military conscripts are forced to perform unpaid non-military work; the government has retained a decree forbidding workers in state-owned wood processing factories from leaving their jobs without their employers’ permission
tier rating: Tier 3 – Belarus does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and was placed on Tier 3 after being on the Tier 2 Watch List for two consecutive years without making progress; government efforts to repeal state-sponsored forced labor policies and domestic trafficking were inadequate; no trafficking offenders were convicted in 2014, and the number of investigations progressively declined from 2005-14; efforts to protect trafficking victims remain insufficient, with no identification and referral mechanism in place; care facilities were not trafficking-specific and were poorly equipped, leading most victims to seek assistance from private shelters (2015)
Illicit drugs:
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly regulated financial center; anti-money-laundering legislation does not meet international standards and was weakened further when know-your-customer requirements were curtailed in 2008; few investigations or prosecutions of money-laundering activities

Economic Indicators for Belarus including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Belarus economy.