Ethiopia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, Ethiopia grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP. Ethiopia has...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 460,550,675,200 416,491,803,300 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 460,550,675,200 416,491,803,300 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 608,758,738,600 527,897,440,500 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 1,037,277,158,166 896,208,303,808 ETB Annual
Investment 2016 588,705,089,767 511,618,173,435 ETB Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 1,528,044,233,000 1,297,961,440,000 ETB Annual
Government Consumption 2016 148,837 116,995 Mil. ETB Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 177.99 165.47 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 274.48 270.04 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 35,099,116 34,258,914 # Annual
Labor Force 2017 51,449,891 49,661,396 # Annual
Total Employment 2011 39,728,478 38,595,943 ages 15+ Annual
Unemployment 1999 25.69 29.49 Ths. Annual
Labor Force Employment 1993 682.88 Ths. Annual
Unemployment Rate 1993 62.94 70.86 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 64,783,500,000 70,525,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 303,197,100,000 303,051,700,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 112,222,627,211 121,356,834,302 ETB Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 424,528,000,000 393,189,000,000 ETB Annual
Balance of Goods 2016 Q4 -2,941,075,945 -2,956,109,929 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2016 Q4 -1,932,065,249 -2,122,832,416 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2016 Q4 3,516,159,503 3,615,233,110 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2016 Q4 575,083,558 659,123,181 USD, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2013 90,509,054,155 82,732,336,489 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 29,364,750,329 23,730,042,595 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Dec 2008 0.87 0.84 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Dec 2008 4 4 % Monthly
Lending Rate Jun 1996 12 12 % - End of period Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 104,957,438 102,403,196 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 31.78 32.3 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.82 7 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -60,001 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 28
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 5,925 km
border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain:
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,330 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,550 m
Natural resources:
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 36.3%
arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 12.2%
other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,900 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
highest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated
Natural hazards:
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; loss of biodiversity; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management; industrial pollution, hazardous chemicals and pesticides, contribute to air, water, and soil pollution
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

People & Society

Population:
105,350,020
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groups:
Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
Languages:
Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Religions:
Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
Demographic profile:
Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.
Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.
Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.47% (male 22,963,502/female 22,826,957)
15-24 years: 20.11% (male 10,516,591/female 10,669,695)
25-54 years: 29.58% (male 15,464,171/female 15,702,104)
55-64 years: 3.91% (male 1,998,711/female 2,115,210)
65 years and over: 2.94% (male 1,391,339/female 1,701,740) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 82.1
youth dependency ratio: 75.8
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.9 years
male: 17.7 years
female: 18.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Population growth rate:
2.85% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Birth rate:
36.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Death rate:
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Net migration rate:
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Population distribution:
highest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 20.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.64% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
20 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Infant mortality rate:
total: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.6 years
male: 60.1 years
female: 65.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Total fertility rate:
4.99 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
39.2% (2016)
Health expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 145
Physicians density:
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 27.2% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 28% of population
unimproved:
urban: 72.8% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
710,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
20,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 185
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
23.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 15
Education expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 85
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 26.7%
male: 22%
female: 30.4% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word "Aethiopia," which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
Government type:
federal parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence:
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
National holiday:
Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995
amendments: proposals submitted for discussion require two-thirds majority approval in either house of Parliament or majority approval of one-third of the State Councils; passage of amendments other than constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms and the initiation and amendment of the constitution requires two-thirds majority vote in a joint session of Parliament and majority vote by two-thirds of the State Councils; passage of amendments affecting rights and freedoms and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote in each house of Parliament and majority vote by all the State Councils (2017)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister ABIY Ahmed (since 2 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen (since 29 November 2012); note - Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012) resigned on 15 February 2018
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president; Parliament vote - 659 (unanimous)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDUP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
Political parties and leaders:
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Taha AHMED]
Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Party or BGPDUP
Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Solomon TESSEMA, spokesman]
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum or MEDREK [Beyene PETROS] (a 4-party alliance)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [ABIY Ahmed] (includes Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM, Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Ginbot 7 Movement
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kassa TEKLEBERHAN Gebrehiwet (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
consulate(s): Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RAYNOR (since 3 October 2017)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
National symbol(s):
Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
National anthem:
name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992

Economy

Economy - overview:
Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, Ethiopia grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.
Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in 30 years in 2015-16, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.
The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.
Ethiopia’s foreign exchange earnings are led by the services sector - primarily the state-run Ethiopian Airlines - followed by exports of several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represented less than 8% of total exports in 2016, but manufacturing exports should increase in future years due to a growing international presence.
The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted roughly $8.5 billion in foreign direct investment, mostly from China, Turkey, India and the EU; US FDI is $567 million. Investment has been primarily in infrastructure, construction, agriculture/horticulture, agricultural processing, textiles, leather and leather products.
In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-20 five-year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan II, which emphasizes developing manufacturing in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8,320 MW, up from a capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy. In 2017, the government devalued the birr by 15% to increase exports and alleviate a chronic foreign currency shortage in the country.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$195.8 billion (2017 est.)
$180.5 billion (2016 est.)
$167.2 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 65
GDP (official exchange rate):
$79.74 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
8.5% (2017 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
10.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,100 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 205
Gross national saving:
28.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
32% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 70.5%
government consumption: 10.5%
investment in fixed capital: 41.9%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.1%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 35.8%
industry: 22.2%
services: 42% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Industries:
food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
10.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Labor force:
52.82 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 72.7%
industry: 7.4%
services: 19.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate:
17.5% (2012 est.)
18% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Population below poverty line:
29.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33 (2011 est.)
30 (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Budget:
revenues: $12.11 billion
expenditures: $14.63 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
15.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Public debt:
60.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
54.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Fiscal year:
8 July - 7 July
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.1% (2017 est.)
7.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Central bank discount rate:
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Stock of narrow money:
$14.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.56 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Stock of broad money:
$28.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$28.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Stock of domestic credit:
$39.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$36.37 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-6.592 billion (2017 est.)
$-7.206 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Exports:
$3.076 billion (2017 est.)
$2.814 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Exports - commodities:
coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
Exports - partners:
US 9.7%, Saudi Arabia 9.6%, Germany 8.5%, Switzerland 7.5%, China 5.1%, UAE 4.9%, Pakistan 4.4% (2016)
Imports:
$16.76 billion (2017 est.)
$16.03 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Imports - commodities:
machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
Imports - partners:
China 28.8%, US 8%, India 6.7%, Kuwait 5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.147 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.022 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Debt - external:
$29.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$24.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Exchange rates:
birr (ETB) per US dollar -
25 (2017 est.)
21.73 (2016 est.)
21.73 (2015 est.)
21.55 (2014 est.)
19.8 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 71,200,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 10% (2013)
Electricity - production:
10.08 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - consumption:
8.143 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Electricity - exports:
166 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
2.704 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
7.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
79.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
13.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Crude oil - proved reserves:
428,000 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
65,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Refined petroleum products - imports:
64,380 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Natural gas - proved reserves:
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1.147 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 51.224 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Telephone system:
general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 50 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)
Internet country code:
.et
Internet users:
total: 15,731,741
percent of population: 15.4% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 75
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,074,779
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,228,738,320 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
ET (2016)
Airports:
57 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 83
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Railways:
total: 659 km (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
standard gauge: 659 km 1.435-m gauge
note: electric railway with redundant power supplies; under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia and managed by a Chinese contractor (2017)
country comparison to the world: 106
Roadways:
total: 110,414 km
paved: 14,354 km
unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
country comparison to the world: 44
Merchant marine:
total: 11
by type: general cargo 9, oil tanker 2 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 146
Ports and terminals:
Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.67% of GDP (2016)
0.71% of GDP (2015)
0.77% of GDP (2014)
0.81% of GDP (2013)
0.87% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 134
Military branches:
Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 440,147 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 255,720 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 167,969 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 45,252 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
IDPs: 1,737,752 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Somali and Oromia regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2018)
Illicit drugs:
transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center

Economic Indicators for Ethiopia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Ethiopia economy.