Burundi - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for more than half of foreign exchange earnings. Thus, Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rest primarily on favorable weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices, although exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors, as well...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 839,571,180,700 799,134,952,079 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 230,625,079,800 226,103,019,500 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 230,625,079,800 226,103,019,500 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 4,872,194,509,323 4,501,411,702,396 BIF Annual
Investment 2016 467,308,669,064 519,580,073,051 BIF Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 5,192,318,545,165 4,723,455,209,563 BIF Annual
Government Consumption 2015 724,700 674,300 Mil. BIF Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2013 113.76 108.55 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 185.45 186.27 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 4,310,269 4,177,525 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 1.55 1.59 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2017 4,713,510 4,572,248 # Annual
Unemployment 1999 0.67 2.78 Ths. Annual
Labor Force Employment 1991 44.74 47.26 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 161,981,780,000 160,378,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 747,566,934,500 701,940,783,600 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 1,292,725,304,958 1,552,052,434,537 BIF Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 286,836,262,638 264,510,774,806 BIF Annual
Balance of Goods 2016 -417,759,192 -482,990,206 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2016 527,176,200 603,828,555 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2016 109,417,008 120,838,349 USD Annual
Current Account Balance 2016 -354,821,671 -373,267,970 USD Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2016 6,252,842,463,700 5,952,817,523,380 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2005 -89,673,912,489 -72,640,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Feb 2013 13.44 14.77 % Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Dec 2006 8.84 8.16 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2012 0 0 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2012 0 0 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 10,864,245 10,524,117 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 42.25 42.66 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 10.79 11.03 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -70,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Burundi is a small country in Central-East Africa bordered by Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Lake Tanganyika. Burundi gained its independence from Belgium in 1962. Much of its history has been marked by political violence and non-democratic transfers of power; Burundi's first democratically elected president, a Hutu, was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office. The internationally brokered Arusha Agreement, signed in 2000, and subsequent ceasefire agreements with armed movements ended the 1993-2005 civil war. Burundi’s second democratic elections were held in 2005. Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president in 2005 and 2010, and again in a controversial election in 2015. Burundi continues to face many economic and political challenges.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,680 sq km
water: 2,150 sq km
country comparison to the world: 147
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total: 1,140 km
border countries (3): Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km, Rwanda 315 km, Tanzania 589 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrain:
hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,504 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
Natural resources:
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land use:
agricultural land: 73.3%
arable land 38.9%; permanent crops 15.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
forest: 6.6%
other: 20.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
230 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
one of Africa's most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil
Natural hazards:
flooding; landslides; drought
Environment - current issues:
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

People & Society

Population:
11,466,756
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Nationality:
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groups:
Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Languages:
Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official); French and other language 0.3%, Swahili; Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official); English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9%
note: data represent language read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is nearly universal (2008 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
Demographic profile:
Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.
Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 45.57% (male 2,628,767/female 2,596,719)
15-24 years: 19.15% (male 1,095,213/female 1,100,314)
25-54 years: 28.74% (male 1,643,319/female 1,651,679)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 212,074/female 237,324)
65 years and over: 2.63% (male 129,482/female 171,865) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 89.6
youth dependency ratio: 84.8
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.1 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 223
Population growth rate:
3.25% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Birth rate:
41.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Death rate:
8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Population distribution:
one of Africa's most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil
Urbanization:
urban population: 12.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.48% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
BUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Infant mortality rate:
total: 58.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.9 years
male: 59.2 years
female: 62.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Total fertility rate:
5.99 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
31.7% (2012)
Health expenditures:
7.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 63
Hospital bed density:
0.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
84,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
2,900 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 178
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
29.1% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 16
Education expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 50
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi, German East Africa, Kingdom of Burundi
etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Bujumbura
geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest ratified by referendum 28 February 2005
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic after consultation with the government or by absolute majority support of the membership in both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Senate membership and at least four-fifths majority vote by the National Assembly; the president can opt to submit amendment bills to a referendum; constitutional articles including those on national unity, the secularity of Burundi, its democratic form of government, and its sovereignty cannot be amended; note - in December 2017, the president began promoting a campaign for a referendum to amend the constitution (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015(next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament
election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (Hope of Burundians - Amizerio y'ABARUNDI) 19%, other 11.6%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (43 seats in the July 2015 election; 36 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and a simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 4 seats reserved for former heads of state, 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 30% of all votes reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members; 60% of seats allocated to Hutu and 40% to Tutsi; 3 seats reserved for Twas; 30% of total seats reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be held in 2019); National Assembly - last held on 29 June 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 33, FRODEBU 2, CNDD 1, former heads of state 4, Twas 3, women 8; National Assembly - percent of vote by party (provisional results) - CNDD-FDD 60.3%, Independents of Hope 11.2%, UPRONA 2.5%, other 26%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 77, Independents of Hope 21, UPRONA 2, women 18, Twas 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Court Against Corruption; Commercial Court; Commerce Court
Political parties and leaders:
Front for Democracy in Burundi or FRODEBU [Keffa NIBIZI]
Hope of Burundians (Amizero y'Abarundi) [Agathon RWASA and Charles NDITIJE]
Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Alexis SINDUHIJE]
National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE]
National Liberation Forces or FNL [Jacques BIGITIMANA]
Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Abel GASHATSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC (civil society umbrella organization) [Vital NSHIMIRIMANA]
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D’Affaires Benjamin MANIRAKIZA (since 7 December 2017)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne S. CASPER (since 20 October 2016)
embassy: Avenue Des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B.P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 22-207-000
FAX: [257] 22-222-926
Flag description:
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
National symbol(s):
lion; national colors: red, white, green
National anthem:
name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
note: adopted 1962

Economy

Economy - overview:
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for more than half of foreign exchange earnings. Thus, Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rest primarily on favorable weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices, although exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors, as well as foreign exchange earnings from participation in the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM). Foreign aid represented 48% of Burundi's national income in 2015, one of the highest percentages in Sub-Saharan Africa, but decreased to 33.5% in 2016 due to political turmoil surrounding President NKURUNZIZA’s bid for a third term. Burundi joined the East African Community (EAC) in 2009.
The 1993-2005 civil war resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Political stability, aid flows, and economic activity improved following the war’s end, but underlying weaknesses – low governmental capacity, a high poverty rate, poor educational levels, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, and overburdened utilities – have prevented the implementation of planned economic reforms. Government corruption has also hindered the development of a private sector. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept pace with inflation, which reached approximately 18% in 2017.
Real GDP growth dropped precipitously following political events in 2015 and has yet to recover to pre-conflict levels. Continued isolation by donors and the international community will restrict Burundi’s economic growth as the country deals with a large current account deficit.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$7.985 billion (2017 est.)
$7.985 billion (2016 est.)
$8.069 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 164
GDP (official exchange rate):
$3.393 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0% (2017 est.)
-1% (2016 est.)
-4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$800 (2017 est.)
$800 (2016 est.)
$900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 227
Gross national saving:
-5.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 80.5%
government consumption: 21.3%
investment in fixed capital: 15.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 5.5%
imports of goods and services: -22.9% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 16%
services: 44.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cotton, tea, corn, beans, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Industries:
light consumer goods (sugar, shoes, soap, beer); cement, assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing (fruits)
Industrial production growth rate:
-5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Labor force:
5.012 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Population below poverty line:
64.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 28% (2006 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42.4 (1998 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Budget:
revenues: $607.6 million
expenditures: $748.9 million (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
17.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Public debt:
40.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Central bank discount rate:
11.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
10% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Stock of narrow money:
$498.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$456.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Stock of broad money:
$663.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$612.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$955.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-422 million (2017 est.)
$-411 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Exports:
$100.3 million (2017 est.)
$109.7 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Exports - commodities:
coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 30.6%, UAE 15.7%, Kenya 14.5%, Rwanda 7.2% (2016)
Imports:
$442.1 million (2017 est.)
$509.4 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Imports - commodities:
capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
China 13.3%, India 13%, Tanzania 8.6%, Saudi Arabia 7.9%, Kenya 7.5%, UAE 5.2%, Uganda 5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$79.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$95.17 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Debt - external:
$619.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$622.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Exchange rates:
Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
1,731 (2017 est.)
1,654.63 (2016 est.)
1,654.63 (2015 est.)
1,571.9 (2014 est.)
1,546.7 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 9,700,000
electrification - total population: 5%
electrification - urban areas: 28%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)
Electricity - production:
230 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Electricity - consumption:
303.9 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Electricity - imports:
90 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
68,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
13.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
83.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
4.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,636 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 19,540
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 5,357,816
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Telephone system:
general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is approaching 50 per 100 persons
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-controlled Radio Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates a TV station and a national radio network; 3 private TV stations and about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2017)
Internet country code:
.bi
Internet users:
total: 574,236
percent of population: 5.2% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Transportation

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
9U (2016)
Airports:
7 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 165
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2012)
Roadways:
total: 12,322 km
paved: 1,500 km
unpaved: 10,822 km (2016)
country comparison to the world: 128
Waterways:
(mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
Ports and terminals:
lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.21% of GDP (2016)
2.14% of GDP (2015)
2.01% of GDP (2014)
2.24% of GDP (2013)
2.39% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 44
Military branches:
National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, air wing), National Police (Police Nationale du Burundi) (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement ages: 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), 55 (officers), and 60 (officers with the rank of general) (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 72,212 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
IDPs: 169,374 (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015) (2018)
stateless persons: 974 (2016)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, informal commerce, fishing, or collecting river stones for construction; sometimes family, friends, and neighbors are complicit in exploiting children, at times luring them in with offers of educational or job opportunities
tier rating: Tier 3 – Burundi does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; corruption, a lack of political will, and limited resources continue to hamper efforts to combat human trafficking; in 2014, the government did not inform judicial and law enforcement officials of the enactment of an anti-trafficking law or how to implement it and approved – but did not fund – its national anti-trafficking action plan; authorities again failed to identify trafficking victims or to provide them with adequate protective services; the government has focused on transnational child trafficking but gave little attention to its domestic child trafficking problem and adult trafficking victims (2015)

Economic Indicators for Burundi including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Burundi economy.