Kyrgyzstan - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle...

Continue reading View Factbook for Kyrgyzstan

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 11,131,268,000 10,845,291,200 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 11,461,850,700 11,028,994,700 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 157,826,800,000 153,366,900,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q1 86,143,100,000 142,595,800,000 KGS, NSA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q1 156.36 261.48 Index 2005=100 Quarterly
Private Consumption 2016 Q3 118,799,700,000 93,826,800,000 KGS, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2016 Q3 36,061,300,000 30,198,200,000 KGS, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2016 Q3 17,575 24,502 Mil. KGS Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Jan 2018 154.78 153.92 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Jun 2017 133.59 131.62 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index 2016 130.29 122.43 Index 2010 = 100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 695,382 687,370 # Annual
Unemployment May 2017 61,637 60,311 #, NSA Monthly
Labor Force Employment Mar 2017 533,500 528,812 #, NSA Monthly
Labor Force 2016 2,566,837 2,561,573 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 53,161,900,000 46,937,900,000 NCU Annual
Unemployment Rate 2016 2.26 2.32 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -697,777,118 -594,078,534 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 1,083,083,474 1,132,289,471 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -384,366,649 -169,092,831 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 385,306,355 538,210,937 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 7,391,654,800 7,169,403,300 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 12,518,579,000 12,735,075,300 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q1 42,579,200,000 48,749,243,000 KGS, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q1 88,310,769,000 101,902,208,000 KGS, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2016 175,613,100,000 157,239,400,000 KGS Annual
Government Revenues 2016 157,822,100,000 153,111,700,000 KGS Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Jun 2018 5.96 6.25 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate Jun 2018 0 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate 2017 19.82 24.53 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 6,045,117 5,955,734 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 26 27.4 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.5 5.8 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -137,902 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the country’s first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Rosa OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyz president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in the country’s constitution. Former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbai JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in the country’s history, although international and local election observers noted cases of vote buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyz Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, and nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.

Geography

Location:
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
country comparison to the world: 88
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total: 4,573 km
border countries (4): China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrain:
peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
Elevation:
mean elevation: 2,988 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resources:
abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use:
agricultural land: 55.4%
arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%
forest: 5.1%
other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
10,233 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
Natural hazards:
major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices; air pollution due to rapid increase of traffic
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

People & Society

Population:
5,789,122 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Nationality:
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groups:
Kyrgyz 73.2%, Uzbek 14.6%, Russian 5.8%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.3% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2017 est.)
Languages:
Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
Religions:
Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.3% (male 899,545/female 854,745)
15-24 years: 16.79% (male 493,924/female 478,217)
25-54 years: 39.84% (male 1,130,422/female 1,175,729)
55-64 years: 7.8% (male 196,856/female 254,694)
65 years and over: 5.27% (male 116,584/female 188,406) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 54.7
youth dependency ratio: 48.1
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.1 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 26.5 years
male: 25.4 years
female: 27.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Population growth rate:
1.05% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Birth rate:
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Net migration rate:
-5.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Population distribution:
the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
Urbanization:
urban population: 36% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
BISHKEK (capital) 865,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.2 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
76 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Infant mortality rate:
total: 25.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.9 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 75.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Total fertility rate:
2.61 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
42% (2014)
Health expenditures:
6.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 91
Physicians density:
1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
4.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 86.2% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 13.8% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 95.6% of population
total: 93.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 4.4% of population
total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
8,500 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<500 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
16.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 121
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.8% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 101
Education expenditures:
6% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 25
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 15%
male: 12.5%
female: 19.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the Forty Tribes"; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitution:
history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - constitutional amendments that transferred some presidential powers to the prime minister passed in a referendum in December 2016 and became effective December 2017
amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two-thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017 (2017)
Legal system:
civil law system, which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 24 November 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Mukhammedkalyy ABYLGAZIEV (since 20 April 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV (since 20 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Jengish RAZAKOV (since 20 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Altynay OMURBEKOVA (since 20 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Zamirbek ASKAROV (since 20 April 2018)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2023); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council
election results: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (SDPK) 54.2%, Omurbek BABANOV (Respublika) 33.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (Butun Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, Temir SARIYEV (Akshumar) 2.5%, other 3.2%; note - Sapar ISAKOV elected prime minister; Supreme Council vote - 97 to 5
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (120 seats; parties directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members selected from party lists to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.7%, other 14.1%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
Political parties and leaders:
Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV]
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAIMANOV]
Butun Kyrgyzstan (United Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BAATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Respublika (Republic) [Ruslan KAZAKBAEV]
Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Ruslan KAZAKBAEV] (parliamentary faction)
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Aikol Ala-Too [Meerbek MISKENBAEV(former MP, SDPK Faction)]
Bir Duino [Tolekan ISMAILOVA] (formerly Citizens Against Corruption)
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Azamat ADILOV]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA] (human rights)
Meken Sheiiteri [Arstanbek SAGYNDYKOV]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
International organization participation:
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
FAX: [1] (202) 449-8275
honorary consulate(s): Maple Valley, WA
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alan MELTZER (since 4 August 2017)
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
Flag description:
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
National symbol(s):
white falcon; national colors: red, yellow
National anthem:
name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
note: adopted 1992

Economy

Economy - overview:
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to over one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.
Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis, declining oil prices, and regional economic headwinds have damaged economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.
Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. While joining the EAEU has increased Kyrgyz labor mobility within member states, large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow in developing since accession. Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians alike often contend that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states, particularly Kazakhstan, are negatively impacting sectors of the Kyrgyz economy that enjoy a comparative advantage, such as meat and dairy production. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to conform to EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs have criticized this process as disjointed and incomplete. The keys to future growth include progress in fighting corruption, improving administrative transparency, restructuring and diversifying domestic industries, and attracting foreign aid and investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$22.64 billion (2017 est.)
$21.87 billion (2016 est.)
$21.08 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 144
GDP (official exchange rate):
$7.061 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.5% (2017 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,700 (2017 est.)
$3,600 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 184
Gross national saving:
22.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
23.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 85.8%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 32.7%
investment in inventories: 2.9%
exports of goods and services: 37.2%
imports of goods and services: -76.5% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14.3%
industry: 32.5%
services: 53.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Industries:
small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate:
17.3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Labor force:
2.841 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 48%
industry: 12.5%
services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7.4% (2017 est.)
7.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Population below poverty line:
32.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.4 (2007 est.)
29 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Budget:
revenues: $2.05 billion
expenditures: $2.304 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
29% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Public debt:
58.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
58.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.8% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Central bank discount rate:
5% (31 December 2016 est.)
8% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
20.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
22.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Stock of narrow money:
$1.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Stock of broad money:
$2.176 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.667 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.444 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$79 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Current account balance:
$-817 million (2017 est.)
$-633 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Exports:
$1.768 billion (2017 est.)
$1.544 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Exports - commodities:
gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 44.9%, Kazakhstan 10.5%, Russia 10.1%, Uzbekistan 8.7%, Turkey 6.2%, China 5.5% (2016)
Imports:
$4.326 billion (2017 est.)
$3.644 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Imports - commodities:
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
China 37.8%, Russia 20.7%, Kazakhstan 16.4%, Turkey 4.9% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.411 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Debt - external:
$8.679 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.182 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$5.86 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$675.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$655.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Exchange rates:
soms (KGS) per US dollar -
68.35 (2017 est.)
69.91 (2016 est.)
69.91 (2015 est.)
64.46 (2014 est.)
53.65 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
12.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Electricity - consumption:
10.68 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Electricity - exports:
184 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Electricity - imports:
729 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
3.89 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
20.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
79.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Crude oil - production:
1,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Crude oil - exports:
19.65 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Crude oil - imports:
100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Crude oil - proved reserves:
40 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Refined petroleum products - production:
1,776 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
33,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Refined petroleum products - exports:
2,698 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Refined petroleum products - imports:
31,960 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Natural gas - production:
30 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Natural gas - consumption:
773 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Natural gas - imports:
160 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 382,149
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 7,613,528
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Telephone system:
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; a combination of grants and loans from the World Bank are being used to develop regional digital connectivity infrastructure under the Digital Central Asia and South Asia Project (2018)
domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; 3 mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 130 per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-funded public TV broadcaster KTRK has nationwide coverage; also operates Ala-Too 24 news channel which broadcasts 24/7; ELTR is a state-owned station with national reach; the switchover to digital TV in 2017 resulted in private TV station growth; approximately 20 stations primarily rebroadcast programs from Russian channels; 3 Russian TV stations also broadcast; 1 state-funded radio station and about 10 significant private radio stations (2018)
Internet country code:
.kg
Internet users:
total: 1,976,006
percent of population: 34.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 625,294
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 69,290 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
EX (2016)
Airports:
28 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 122
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 3,566 km (2018); oil 16 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 424 km
broad gauge: 424 km 1.520-m gauge (2018)
country comparison to the world: 116
Roadways:
total: 34,000 km (2018)
country comparison to the world: 94
Waterways:
600 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 78
Ports and terminals:
lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
3.15% of GDP (2016)
3.45% of GDP (2015)
3.38% of GDP (2014)
3.2% of GDP (2013)
3.21% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 27
Military branches:
Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, National Guard, State Border Service, and State Committee on Defense Affairs (GKDO) (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,334 (2016); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgyzstan, have lived there many years, or married Kyrgyz citizens; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; between 2014 and 2016, Kyrgyzstan has resolved nearly 9,000 stateless cases; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits
Illicit drugs:
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates

Economic Indicators for Kyrgyzstan including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Kyrgyzstan economy.