Libya - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Libya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 given security and political instability, disruptions in oil production, and decline in global oil prices. The Libyan dinar has lost much of its value since 2014 and the resulting gap between official and black market exchange rates has spurred the growth of a shadow economy and contributed to inflation. The country suffers from widespread power outages, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 28,425,962,457 24,562,578,735 LYD Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2009 113.08 113.93 Index 2005=100 Annual
Investment 2008 31,806,000,000 22,250,400,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2006 18,610,000,000 16,066,000,000 LYD Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2006 14,516,000,000 13,331,000,000 LYD Annual
Government Consumption 2005 6,712 5,132 Mil. LYD Annual
Real Investment 2000 4,531,521,506 constant 2000 USD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) May 2014 125.54 123.93 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force 2016 2,363,340 2,332,689 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2016 -1,902,900,000 -5,567,500,000 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2016 8,667,000,000 16,428,500,000 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2016 6,764,100,000 10,861,000,000 USD Annual
Current Account Balance 2016 -4,705,200,000 -9,346,000,000 USD Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2015 34,864,018,360 41,360,474,253 2010 USD Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2015 5,681,385,800 6,875,889,400 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2006 20,715,000,000 17,715,000,000 LYD Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2006 51,572,000,000 39,955,000,000 LYD Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Mar 2013 3 3 % - End of period Monthly
Money Market Rate Sep 2005 4 4 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production Oct 2016 898,000,000 885,000,000 2010 USD, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2008 0 350,400,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -9,997 # Annual
Population 2017 6,374,616 6,293,253 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 19.67 20.19 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.21 5.2 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli and Benghazi.
In October 2015, the UN brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and defunct-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions and the Presidency Council’s proposed cabinet of ministers. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate in an acting capacity, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and defunct-GNC-affiliated political hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hamper the LPA’s implementation. In September 2017, UN Special Representative Ghassan SALAME announced a new roadmap for national political reconciliation. SALAME’s plan called for amendments to the LPA, a national conference of Libyan leaders, and a constitutional referendum and general elections.

Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
25 00 N, 17 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 18
Area - comparative:
about 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 4,339 km
border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
Coastline:
1,770 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Climate:
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain:
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation:
mean elevation: 423 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:
agricultural land: 8.8%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
forest: 0.1%
other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
4,700 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
Natural hazards:
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:
desertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities; water pollution is a significant problem; the combined impact of sewage, oil byproducts, and industrial waste threatens Libya's coast and the Mediterranean Sea
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert

People & Society

Population:
6,653,210 (July 2017 est.)
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
country comparison to the world: 106
Nationality:
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
Ethnic groups:
Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Languages:
Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
Religions:
Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
religious affiliation:
Demographic profile:
Despite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
By the mid-2000s, domestic animosity toward African migrants and a desire to reintegrate into the international community motivated QADHAFI to impose entry visas on Arab and African immigrants and to agree to joint maritime patrols and migrant repatriations with Italy, the main recipient of illegal migrants departing Libya. As his regime neared collapse in 2011, QADHAFI reversed his policy of cooperating with Italy to curb illegal migration and sent boats loaded with migrants and asylum seekers to strain European resources. Libya’s 2011 revolution decreased immigration drastically and prompted nearly 800,000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market.
While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants – primarily from East and West Africa – continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers. In addition, more than 200,000 people were displaced internally as of August 2017 by fighting between armed groups in eastern and western Libya and, to a lesser extent, by inter-tribal clashes in the country’s south.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.84% (male 879,311/female 839,824)
15-24 years: 17.09% (male 584,117/female 552,680)
25-54 years: 47.28% (male 1,651,362/female 1,494,106)
55-64 years: 5.48% (male 185,679/female 179,224)
65 years and over: 4.31% (male 141,867/female 145,040) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 49.1
youth dependency ratio: 42.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 28.9 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 28.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Population growth rate:
1.58% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Birth rate:
17.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Death rate:
3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Net migration rate:
1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Population distribution:
well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
Urbanization:
urban population: 79% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
TRIPOLI (capital) 1.126 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Infant mortality rate:
total: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.7 years
male: 74.9 years
female: 78.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Total fertility rate:
2.04 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
41.9% (2007)
Health expenditures:
5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 143
Physicians density:
2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
3.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
32.5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 16
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
5.6% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 86
Education expenditures:
NA
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 96.7%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 48.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 67.8% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Libya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Dawiat Libiya
local short form: Libiya
etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
Government type:
in transition
Capital:
name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
22 districts (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi (Benghazi), Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus (Tripoli), Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
Independence:
24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Constitution:
history: previous 1951, 1977; drafting of a new constitution by the Constitution Drafting Assembly continued into 2017 (2017)
Legal system:
Libya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
cabinet: GNA Presidency Council (awaiting approval by the House of Representatives)
elections/appointments: NA
election results: NA
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral House of Representatives (HoR) or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA); note - the High Council of State serves as an advisory group for the HoR
elections: election last held in June 2014; note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the HoR election unconstitutional, but the HoR and the international community rejected the ruling
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the HoR also boycotted the election
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie T. WILLIAMS (since 23 January 2018)
note: the embassy closed in July 2014 due to major fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil war; embassy staff and operations temporarily have moved to Tunis, Tunisia
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli (temporarily closed)
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
National symbol(s):
star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
National anthem:
name: "Libya, Libya, Libya"
lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: also known as "Ya Beladi" or "Oh, My Country!"; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was "Allahu Akbar," (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War

Economy

Economy - overview:
Libya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 given security and political instability, disruptions in oil production, and decline in global oil prices. The Libyan dinar has lost much of its value since 2014 and the resulting gap between official and black market exchange rates has spurred the growth of a shadow economy and contributed to inflation. The country suffers from widespread power outages, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing have all declined since 2011. Oil production in 2017 reached a five-year high, driving GDP growth, with daily average production rising to 879,000 barrels per day. However, oil production levels remain below the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day.
The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 17% of GDP in 2017. Low consumer confidence in the banking sector and the economy as a whole has driven a severe liquidity shortage.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$63.14 billion (2017 est.)
$40.72 billion (2016 est.)
$41.96 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 107
GDP (official exchange rate):
$33.31 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
55.1% (2017 est.)
-3% (2016 est.)
-10.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,800 (2017 est.)
$6,400 (2016 est.)
$6,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 141
Gross national saving:
1.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-11% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 76.1%
government consumption: 19.4%
investment in fixed capital: 2.8%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 39.7%
imports of goods and services: -39.5% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 63.8%
services: 34.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Industries:
petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
76.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Labor force:
1.114 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Population below poverty line:
NA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $16.33 billion
expenditures: $22.32 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
49% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-18% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Public debt:
5.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
32.8% (2017 est.)
27.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 224
Central bank discount rate:
9.52% (31 December 2010 est.)
3% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
6% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Stock of narrow money:
$76.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$62.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Stock of broad money:
$77.89 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$63.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Stock of domestic credit:
$16.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$591 million (2017 est.)
$-4.575 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Exports:
$19.72 billion (2017 est.)
$11.99 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Exports - commodities:
crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Italy 24.2%, Egypt 21.1%, Spain 9.5%, France 7.8%, Croatia 5%, Netherlands 5%, China 4.3% (2016)
Imports:
$12.66 billion (2017 est.)
$11.01 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Imports - commodities:
machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Imports - partners:
China 14.4%, South Korea 13.3%, Turkey 10.4%, Italy 5.9% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$69.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$66.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Debt - external:
$2.927 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.116 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$19.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$18.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$22.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Exchange rates:
Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.41 (2017 est.)
1.39 (2016 est.)
1.39 (2015 est.)
1.38 (2014 est.)
1.27 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 13,083
electrification - total population: 99.8%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)
Electricity - production:
35.45 billion kWh
note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - consumption:
8.131 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Electricity - imports:
88 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
9.46 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Crude oil - production:
384,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Crude oil - exports:
383,500 bbl/day
note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Crude oil - proved reserves:
48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Refined petroleum products - production:
102,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
262,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Refined petroleum products - exports:
16,450 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Refined petroleum products - imports:
169,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Natural gas - production:
11.6 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Natural gas - consumption:
7.55 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Natural gas - exports:
7.11 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
57 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,374,408
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 7,660,068
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Telephone system:
general assessment: political and security instability in Libya has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2018)
Broadcast media:
state-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
Internet country code:
.ly
Internet users:
total: 1,326,194
percent of population: 20.3% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 8
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 23
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,566,465
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,833,542 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
5A (2016)
Airports:
146 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 41
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Heliports:
2 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
country comparison to the world: 47
Merchant marine:
total: 98
by type: general cargo 2, oil tanker 16, other 80 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 86
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
oil terminal(s): Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf
LNG terminal(s) (export): Marsa el Brega

Military & Security

Military branches:
note - in transition; Libyan Government of National Accord has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,298 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2018)
IDPs: 184,612 (conflict between pro-QADHAFI and anti-QADHAFI forces in 2011; post-QADHAFI tribal clashes 2014) (2018)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Libya is a destination and transit country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; migrants who seek employment in Libya as laborers and domestic workers or who transit Libya en route to Europe are vulnerable to forced labor; private employers also exploit migrants from detention centers as forced laborers on farms and construction sites, returning them to detention when they are no longer needed; some sub-Saharan women are reportedly forced to work in Libyan brothels, particularly in the country’s south; since 2013, militia groups and other informal armed groups, including some affiliated with the government, are reported to conscript Libyan children under the age of 18; large-scale violence driven by militias, civil unrest, and increased lawlessness increased in 2014, making it more difficult to obtain information on human trafficking
tier rating: Tier 3 - the Libyan Government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government’s capacity to address human trafficking was hampered by the ongoing power struggle and violence; the judicial system was not functioning, preventing any efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict traffickers, complicit detention camp guards or government officials, or militias or armed groups that used child soldiers; the government failed to identify or provide protection to trafficking victims, including child conscripts, and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; no public anti-trafficking awareness campaigns were conducted (2015)

Economic Indicators for Libya including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Libya economy.