Cuba - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process,...

Continue reading View Factbook for Cuba

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2015 8,166,600,000 6,139,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2015 7,531,100,000 5,891,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2015 87,132,800,000 80,656,100,000 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 54,500,100,000 52,184,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2015 7,973,000,000 6,742,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2015 7,376,000,000 6,379,000,000 NCU Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 676,004 685,833 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 2.6 2.5 % of total labor force Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2015 14,014,800,000 14,028,000,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2015 14,941,000,000 17,812,000,000 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2015 12,591,200,000 13,865,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2015 11,186,500,000 10,158,000,000 NCU Annual
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2015 635,500,000 248,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2015 597,000,000 363,000,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Birth Rate 2015 10.97 11.04 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 7.9 7.78 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -73,271 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. On 8-9 September 2017, Hurricane Irma passed along the north coast of Cuba causing extensive damage to structures, roads, and power supplies.
The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4-6 billion annually. Cuba at times portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source of its difficulties. Over the past decade, there has been growing communication with the Cuban Government to address national interests. As a result of efforts begun in December 2014 to re-establish diplomatic relations with the Cuban Government, which were severed in January 1961, the US and Cuba reopened embassies in their respective countries on 20 July 2015. However, the embargo remains in place.
Illicit migration of Cuban nationals to the US via maritime and overland routes has been a longstanding challenge. In FY 2016, the US Coast Guard interdicted 5,228 Cuban nationals at sea. Also in FY 2016, 44,553 Cuban migrants presented themselves at various land border ports of entry throughout the US. On 12 January 2017, the US and Cuba signed a Joint Statement ending the so-called “wet-foot, dry-foot” policy – by which Cuban nationals who reached US soil were permitted to stay – facilitating the repatriation of Cuban migrants. Illicit Cuban migration has since dropped significantly.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Geographic coordinates:
21 30 N, 80 00 W
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total: 110,860 sq km
land: 109,820 sq km
water: 1,040 sq km
country comparison to the world: 107
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 28.5 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 28.5 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and remains part of Cuba
Coastline:
3,735 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
Elevation:
mean elevation: 108 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Turquino 1,974 m
Natural resources:
cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 60.3%
arable land 33.8%; permanent crops 3.6%; permanent pasture 22.9%
forest: 27.3%
other: 12.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
8,700 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
large population clusters found throughout the country, the more significant ones being in the larger towns and cities, particularly the capital of Havana
Natural hazards:
the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles

People & Society

Population:
11,147,407 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Nationality:
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban
Ethnic groups:
white 64.1%, mulatto or mixed 26.6%, black 9.3%
note: data represent racial self-identification from Cuba's 2012 national census (2012 est.)
Languages:
Spanish (official)
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jewish, Santeria
note: prior to CASTRO assuming power
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.57% (male 950,870/female 896,476)
15-24 years: 12.22% (male 706,882/female 655,446)
25-54 years: 44.43% (male 2,490,483/female 2,462,250)
55-64 years: 11.84% (male 640,150/female 679,603)
65 years and over: 14.94% (male 763,058/female 902,189) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 43.3
youth dependency ratio: 23.3
elderly dependency ratio: 19.9
potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.5 years
male: 40.1 years
female: 42.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Population growth rate:
-0.29% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Birth rate:
10.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Death rate:
8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Net migration rate:
-4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Population distribution:
large population clusters found throughout the country, the more significant ones being in the larger towns and cities, particularly the capital of Havana
Urbanization:
urban population: 77.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
HAVANA (capital) 2.137 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
39 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.8 years
male: 76.5 years
female: 81.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Total fertility rate:
1.71 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
73.7% (2014)
Health expenditures:
11.1% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 12
Physicians density:
7.52 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
5.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.4% of population
rural: 89.8% of population
total: 94.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.6% of population
rural: 10.2% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 94.4% of population
rural: 89.1% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.6% of population
rural: 10.9% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
25,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<200 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 56
Education expenditures:
12.8% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 2
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 6.1%
male: 6.4%
female: 5.6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
People - note:
illicit emigration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and overland via the southwest border; the number of Cubans migrating to the US has surged since the beginning of improved US-Cuban relations in late December 2014

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba
etymology: name derives from the Taino Indian designation for the island "coabana" meaning "great place"
Government type:
communist state
Capital:
name: Havana
geographic coordinates: 23 07 N, 82 21 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November; note - Cuba has been known to alter the schedule of DST on short notice in an attempt to conserve electricity for lighting
Administrative divisions:
15 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Artemisa, Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Mayabeque, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Independence:
20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Cuban Government as a day of independence
National holiday:
Triumph of the Revolution (Liberation Day), 1 January (1959)
Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 February 1976, effective 24 February 1976; amended 1978, 1992, 2002 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system based on Spanish civil code
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 24 February 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 24 February 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National Assembly; it is subordinate to the 31-member Council of State, which is elected by the Assembly to act on its behalf when it is not in session
elections/appointments: president and vice presidents indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (may be reelected for another 5-year term); election last held on 24 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (PCC) reelected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%; Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (PCC) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular (614 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the National Candidature Commission submits a slate of approved candidates; to be elected, candidates must receive more than 50% of valid votes otherwise the seat remains vacant or the Council of State can declare another election
elections: last held on 3 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Cuba's Communist Party is the only legal party, and officially sanctioned candidates run unopposed
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): People's Supreme Court (consists of court president, vice president, 41 professional justices, and NA lay judges); organization includes the State Council, criminal, civil, administrative, labor, crimes against the state, and military courts)
judge selection and term of office: professional judges elected by the National Assembly are not subject to a specific term; lay judges nominated by workplace collectives and neighborhood associations and elected by municipal or provincial assemblies; lay judges appointed for 5-year terms and serve up to 30 days per year
subordinate courts: People's Provincial Courts; People's Regional Courts; People's Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Raul CASTRO Ruz]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation (CCDHRN)
Ladies in White (Damas de Blanco)
Patriotic Union of Cuba or UNPACU
other: political dissidents and bloggers
International organization participation:
ACP, ALBA, AOSIS, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Ramon CABANAS Rodriguez (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518
FAX: NA
consulate(s) general: NA
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Scott HAMILTON (since 13 July 2017)
embassy: Calzada between L & M Streets, Vedado, Havana
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [53] (7) 839-4100
FAX: NA
Flag description:
five equal horizontal bands of blue (top, center, and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center; the blue bands refer to the three old divisions of the island: central, occidental, and oriental; the white bands describe the purity of the independence ideal; the triangle symbolizes liberty, equality, and fraternity, while the red color stands for the blood shed in the independence struggle; the white star, called La Estrella Solitaria (the Lone Star) lights the way to freedom and was taken from the flag of Texas
note: design similar to the Puerto Rican flag, with the colors of the bands and triangle reversed
National symbol(s):
royal palm; national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem:
name: "La Bayamesa" (The Bayamo Song)
lyrics/music: Pedro FIGUEREDO
note: adopted 1940; Pedro FIGUEREDO first performed "La Bayamesa" in 1868 during the Ten Years War against the Spanish; a leading figure in the uprising, FIGUEREDO was captured in 1870 and executed by a firing squad; just prior to the fusillade he is reputed to have shouted, "Morir por la Patria es vivir" (To die for the country is to live), a line from the anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. Approximately 476,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed.
The Cuban regime has updated its economic model to include permitting the private ownership and sale of real estate and new vehicles, allowing private farmers to sell agricultural goods directly to hotels, allowing the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives, adopting a new foreign investment law, and launching a “Special Development Zone” around the Mariel port.
Since late 2000, Venezuela has provided petroleum products to Cuba on preferential terms, supplying nearly 100,000 barrels per day. Cuba has been paying for the oil, in part, with the services of Cuban personnel in Venezuela, including some 30,000 medical professionals.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$132.9 billion (2016 est.)
$134.2 billion (2015 est.)
$128.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 78
GDP (official exchange rate):
$81.56 billion (2013 est.)
note: data are in Cuban Pesos at 1 CUP = 1 US$; official exchange rate
GDP - real growth rate:
-0.9% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
1% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$11,900 (2016 est.)
$12,200 (2015 est.)
$11,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 126
Gross national saving:
11% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 58.3%
government consumption: 32%
investment in fixed capital: 9.7%
investment in inventories: -1.3%
exports of goods and services: 14.8%
imports of goods and services: -13.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 22%
services: 74.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock
Industries:
petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar
Industrial production growth rate:
-4.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Labor force:
4.686 million
note: state sector 72.3%, non-state sector 27.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 10%
services: 72% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
note: data are official rates; unofficial estimates are about double the official figures
country comparison to the world: 14
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $50.83 billion
expenditures: $56.48 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
62.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Public debt:
32.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (2016 est.)
4.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Central bank discount rate:
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA%
Stock of narrow money:
$21.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Stock of broad money:
$48.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Stock of domestic credit:
$NA
Current account balance:
$2.008 billion (2016 est.)
$1.941 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Exports:
$2.535 billion (2016 est.)
$3.572 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Exports - commodities:
petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee
Exports - partners:
Russia 22.9%, Venezuela 15.4%, Spain 10.3% (2016)
Imports:
$10.28 billion (2016 est.)
$11.75 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Imports - commodities:
petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
China 29.2%, Spain 14%, Italy 5.1%, Brazil 4.7%, Mexico 4.4%, Russia 4.3%, Canada 4.1%, US 4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Debt - external:
$20.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.54 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$4.138 billion (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Exchange rates:
Cuban pesos (CUP) per US dollar -
1 (2016 est.)
1 (2015 est.)
1 (2014 est.)
22.7 (2013 est.)
1 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 95% (2013)
Electricity - production:
19.12 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - consumption:
15.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
6.711 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
90.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
8.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Crude oil - production:
49,830 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Crude oil - imports:
101,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Crude oil - proved reserves:
124 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 71
Refined petroleum products - production:
102,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
180,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Refined petroleum products - exports:
25,540 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Refined petroleum products - imports:
51,970 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Natural gas - production:
1.25 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Natural gas - consumption:
2.063 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Natural gas - proved reserves:
70.79 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 59
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
26 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,322,002
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 3,987,900
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Telephone system:
general assessment: fixed-line and mobile services run by the state-run ETESCA; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos; Cuban Government has opened several hundred Wi-Fi hotspots around the island, which are expensive, and launched a new residential Internet pilot in Havana
domestic: fixed-line density remains low at about 10 per 100 inhabitants; mobile-cellular service expanding but remains only about 35 per 100 persons
international: country code - 53; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Cuba, Jamaica, and Venezuela; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); several US telecommunication companies have signed voice and data deals to serve their customers while in Cuba (2017)
Broadcast media:
government owns and controls all broadcast media with private ownership of electronic media prohibited; however, several online independent news sites exist and those that are not openly critical of the government are often tolerated; government operates 5 national TV networks and many local TV stations; government operates 6 national radio networks, an international station, and many local radio stations; Radio-TV Marti is beamed from the US (2017)
Internet country code:
.cu
Internet users:
total: 4,334,022
percent of population: 38.8%
note: private citizens are prohibited from buying computers or accessing the Internet without special authorization; foreigners may access the Internet in large hotels but are subject to firewalls; some Cubans buy illegal passwords on the black market or take advantage of public outlets to access limited email and the government-controlled "intranet" (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,294,458
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 20,919,645 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
CU (2016)
Airports:
133 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 43
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 64
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 27 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 58 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 41 km; oil 230 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 8,367 km
standard gauge: 8,195 km 1.435-m gauge (105 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 172 km 1.000-m gauge
note: 70 km of standard gauge track is not for public use (2015)
country comparison to the world: 26
Roadways:
total: 60,858 km
paved: 29,820 km (includes 639 km of expressways)
unpaved: 31,038 km (2001)
country comparison to the world: 69
Waterways:
240 km (almost all navigable inland waterways are near the mouths of rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 94
Merchant marine:
total: 3
by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 1
registered in other countries: 5 (Curacao 1, Panama 2, unknown 2) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 136
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Antilla, Cienfuegos, Guantanamo, Havana, Matanzas, Mariel, Nuevitas Bay, Santiago de Cuba

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
3.08% of GDP (2015)
3.54% of GDP (2014)
3.51% of GDP (2013)
3.94% of GDP (2012)
3.08% of GDP (2011)
Military branches:
Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, FAR): Revolutionary Army (Ejercito Revolucionario, ER, includes Territorial Militia Troops (Milicia de Tropas de Territoriales, MTT)), Revolutionary Navy (Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria, MGR, includes Marine Corps), Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Forces (Defensas Anti-Aereas y Fuerza Aerea Revolucionaria, DAAFAR); Youth Labor Army (Ejercito Juvenil del Trabajo, EJT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
17-28 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation for males, optional for females (2017)
Military - note:
the collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the Cuban military of its major economic and logistic support and had a significant impact on the state of Cuban equipment; the army remains well trained and professional in nature; the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment has increasingly affected operational capabilities (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Cuba is a source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; child sex trafficking and child sex tourism occur in Cuba, while some Cubans are forced into prostitution in South America and the Caribbean; allegations have been made that some Cubans have been forced or coerced to work at Cuban medical missions abroad; assessing the scope of trafficking within Cuba is difficult because of the lack of information
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cuba does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Cuba’s penal code does not criminalize all forms of human trafficking, but the government reported that it is in the process of amending its criminal code to comply with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol, to which it acceded in 2013; the government in 2014 prosecuted and convicted 13 sex traffickers and provided services to the victims in those cases but does not have shelters specifically for trafficking victims; the government did not recognize forced labor as a problem and took no action to address it; state media produced newspaper articles and TV and radio programs to raise public awareness about sex trafficking (2015)
Illicit drugs:
territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for US- and European-bound drugs; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

Economic Indicators for Cuba including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Cuba economy.