Chad - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking. Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2016 1,389,702,156,400 1,842,445,961,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 943,286,492,200 1,232,100,100,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 1,344,929,924,900 1,800,741,184,500 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 875,536,100,400 1,169,920,200,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 5,984,079,807,281 6,474,072,970,347 XAF Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2009 101.24 101.09 Index 1985=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2016 111.23 111.49 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 4,291,533 4,145,274 # Annual
Labor Force 2017 5,602,524 5,411,585 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 5.8 5.7 % of total labor force Annual
Total Employment 2011 4,255,659 4,141,260 ages 15+ Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 2,165,376,193,400 2,403,377,900,100 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 1,706,499,835,600 1,921,266,714,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 2,017,262,998,200 2,162,125,400,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 1,671,173,092,200 1,936,469,400,000 NCU Annual
Balance of Goods 1994 -76,762,679 -63,451,180 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 1994 135,299,648 151,789,124 USD Annual
Current Account Balance 1994 -37,744,637 -116,639,705 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 1994 212,062,327 215,240,305 USD Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance 2010 -206,800,000,000 -331,600,000,000 current LCU Annual
Government Revenues 2010 969,700,000,000 655,200,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Apr 2013 4 4 % Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 14,452,543 14,009,413 # Annual
Birth Rate 2015 43.86 44.41 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 13.22 13.52 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 100,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2016 was reelected to his fifth term in an election that was peaceful but flawed. In December 2015, Chad completed a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council. In January 2017, DEBY completed a one-year term as President of the African Union.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
country comparison to the world: 22
Area - comparative:
almost nine times the size of New York state; slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 6,406 km
border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation:
mean elevation: 543 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,445 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use:
agricultural land: 39.6%
arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7%
forest: 9.1%
other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
300 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
Natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea

People & Society

Population:
12,075,985 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Nationality:
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups:
Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 29.9%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.7%, Arab 9.6%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7.5%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.6%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Tupuri/Kera 2.1%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.9%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.2%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.4%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Religions:
Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
Demographic profile:
Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.
As of October 2017, more than 320,000 refugees from Sudan and more than 75,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.02% (male 2,634,817/female 2,560,790)
15-24 years: 21.46% (male 1,267,944/female 1,324,115)
25-54 years: 28.62% (male 1,574,782/female 1,881,183)
55-64 years: 3.88% (male 206,627/female 261,586)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 150,364/female 213,777) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 100.2
youth dependency ratio: 95.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.8 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 18.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
Population growth rate:
1.86% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Birth rate:
35.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Death rate:
13.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Net migration rate:
-3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Population distribution:
the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 22.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
17.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Infant mortality rate:
total: 85.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 90.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 79.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.6 years
male: 49.4 years
female: 51.9 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 224
Total fertility rate:
4.34 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
5.7% (2014/15)
Health expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 169
Physicians density:
0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 12.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
110,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
2,800 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
6.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 171
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
28.8% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 13
Education expenditures:
2.9% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 160
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 22.3%
male: 31.3%
female: 14% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence:
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996
amendments: proposed as a revision by the president of the republic after a Council of Ministers (cabinet) decision or by the National Assembly; approval for consideration of a revision requires at least three-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval by referendum or at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended 2005, 2013 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad
dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in 1 round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19
note: the National Assembly mandate was extended, reportedly due to a lack of funding for the scheduled 2015 election
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Political parties and leaders:
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDAR]
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic or CAP-SUR [Joseph Djimrangar DADNADJI]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
Party for Unity and Reconciliation
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
RNDT/Le Reveil
Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power or PDSA
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow (gold) of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; gold represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: almost identical to the flag of Romania but with a darker shade of blue; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design based on the flag of France
National symbol(s):
goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem:
name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960

Economy

Economy - overview:
Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.
Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.
Although high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.
In 2017, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2017, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$28.96 billion (2016 est.)
$30.56 billion (2015 est.)
$29.71 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 132
GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.1 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
-6.4% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
6.9% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,400 (2016 est.)
$2,700 (2015 est.)
$2,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 199
Gross national saving:
7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 74.1%
government consumption: 4.6%
investment in fixed capital: 32.5%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 29.2%
imports of goods and services: -40.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 57.8%
industry: 13.9%
services: 28.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industries:
oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
-5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Labor force:
5.443 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Population below poverty line:
46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
43.3 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Budget:
revenues: $1.055 billion
expenditures: $1.522 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
10.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Public debt:
59% of GDP (2016 est.)
49.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.1% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 89
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Stock of narrow money:
$1.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.457 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Stock of broad money:
$1.418 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.608 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.387 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.898 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-927 million (2016 est.)
$-1.346 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Exports:
$2.187 billion (2016 est.)
$2.629 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Exports - commodities:
oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
Exports - partners:
US 57%, India 8.9%, China 6.7%, France 6.4%, UAE 4.3%, Japan 4.1% (2016)
Imports:
$1.988 billion (2016 est.)
$2.572 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
France 19.8%, China 15.7%, Cameroon 15.1%, India 6.1%, US 5.4%, Belgium 4.4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$20.92 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$380.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Debt - external:
$1.281 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.617 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 10,477,071
electrification - total population: 4%
electrification - urban areas: 14%
electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)
Electricity - production:
215 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Electricity - consumption:
200 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
47,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Crude oil - production:
110,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Crude oil - exports:
105,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Crude oil - proved reserves:
1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 41
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
2,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Refined petroleum products - imports:
2,215 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
country comparison to the world: 124
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 14,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 6,231,009
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density
domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
1 state-owned TV station; 2 privately-owned TV stations; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; over 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2017)
Internet country code:
.td
Internet users:
total: 592,623
percent of population: 5.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 28,332
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: mt-km (2015)
Airports:
59 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 82
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Pipelines:
oil 582 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 40,000 km
note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
country comparison to the world: 88
Waterways:
(Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.79% of GDP (2016)
2.03% of GDP (2015)
2.82% of GDP (2014)
5.61% of GDP (2013)
Military branches:
Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 322,866 (Sudan); 75,635 (Central African Republic); 9,191 (Nigeria) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 118,804 (majority are in the east) (2017)

Economic Indicators for Chad including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Chad economy.