Niger - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 25% of GDP and provides livelihood for 87% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding. Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 1,069,038,135,000 1,028,261,781,500 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 1,065,712,135,000 1,040,981,781,500 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 1,591,106,229,100 1,513,536,705,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 3,168,202,748,498 2,986,016,887,584 XOF Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 4,440,533,941,643 4,268,887,000,000 XOF Annual
Investment 2016 1,757,480,223,669 1,808,410,612,140 XOF Annual
Government Consumption 2015 704.61 610.28 Bil. XOF Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2014 127.9 119.64 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 114.21 114.9 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 6,380,531 6,155,125 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 0.35 0.34 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 8,119,915 7,825,852 # Annual
Total Employment 2011 5,038,953 4,860,341 ages 15+ Annual
Unemployment 1991 20.93 20.95 Ths. Annual
Labor Force Employment 1991 24.13 25.24 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 1,190,612,000,000 1,165,864,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 665,154,000,000 621,095,617,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 765,173,406,973 788,400,000,000 XOF Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 1,644,414,188,268 1,743,887,450,000 XOF Annual
Imports of Goods 2016 1,715,357,630 1,975,643,778 USD Annual
Current Account Balance 2016 -1,180,857,760 -1,485,618,854 USD Annual
Balance of Goods 2016 -683,765,486 -888,336,085 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2016 1,031,592,144 1,087,307,693 USD Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2017 5,498,735,294,200 5,279,331,340,500 NCU Annual
Government Revenues 2007 277,516,457,517 247,308,945,538 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2005 -149,000,000,000 -101,100,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Mar 2017 2.5 2.5 % - End of period Monthly
Money Market Rate Feb 2017 5.17 5.01 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 21,477,348 20,672,987 # Annual
Death Rate 2016 9.7 9.94 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2016 48.14 48.44 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2002 -28,497 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.

Geography

Location:
Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
16 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 23
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 5,834 km
border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1,196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1,608 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain:
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation:
mean elevation: 474 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
Natural resources:
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land use:
agricultural land: 35.1%
arable land 12.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 22.7%
forest: 1%
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,000 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin
Natural hazards:
recurring droughts
Environment - current issues:
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture

People & Society

Population:
19,245,344 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Nationality:
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groups:
Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
Languages:
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Religions:
Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
Demographic profile:
Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.
Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.
For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.
More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 49.01% (male 4,757,806/female 4,674,437)
15-24 years: 19.1% (male 1,815,689/female 1,860,230)
25-54 years: 25.97% (male 2,495,927/female 2,501,362)
55-64 years: 3.28% (male 328,082/female 304,030)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 259,046/female 248,735) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 111.6
youth dependency ratio: 106.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 15.4 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 15.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 229
Population growth rate:
3.19% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Birth rate:
44.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Death rate:
11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Net migration rate:
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Population distribution:
majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin
Urbanization:
urban population: 19.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.49% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
NIAMEY (capital) 1.09 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.1 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Infant mortality rate:
total: 81.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 85.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 76.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.9 years
male: 54.7 years
female: 57.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Total fertility rate:
6.49 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
16.9% (2016)
Health expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 112
Physicians density:
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 37.9% of population
rural: 4.6% of population
total: 10.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.1% of population
rural: 95.4% of population
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
48,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,400 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5.5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 176
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
37.9% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 4
Education expenditures:
6% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 101
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 5 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 2.3%
male: 4.4%
female: 0.8% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
Government type:
semi-presidential republic
Capital:
name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence:
3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitution:
history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup d’Etat cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]
note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric P. WHITAKER (since 26 January 2018)
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
telephone: [227] 20-72-26-61
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people
note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
National symbol(s):
zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
National anthem:
name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET
note: adopted 1961

Economy

Economy - overview:
Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 25% of GDP and provides livelihood for 87% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.
Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity and kidnappings near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.
Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY17, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.
Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$21.62 billion (2017 est.)
$20.75 billion (2016 est.)
$19.76 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 146
GDP (official exchange rate):
$7.892 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.2% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,200 (2017 est.)
$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 222
Gross national saving:
23.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 66.8%
government consumption: 14.4%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 16.4%
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 44.3%
industry: 14.9%
services: 40.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Industries:
uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Labor force:
6.5 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 87%
industry: 4%
services: 9% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.6% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Population below poverty line:
45.4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34 (2007 est.)
50.5 (1995 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Budget:
revenues: $1.68 billion
expenditures: $2.235 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
21.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Public debt:
45.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Stock of narrow money:
$1.767 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.535 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Stock of broad money:
$2.322 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.454 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.267 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-1.471 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.159 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Exports:
$1.177 billion (2017 est.)
$1.101 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Exports - commodities:
uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners:
France 31.3%, Thailand 11.6%, Malaysia 11.1%, Nigeria 9.5%, Mali 5.6%, China 5.3% (2016)
Imports:
$2.194 billion (2017 est.)
$2.031 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners:
France 28.3%, China 16.1%, US 7.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Thailand 5.8% (2016)
Debt - external:
$3.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 15,200,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 62%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
Electricity - production:
499.4 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Electricity - consumption:
1.072 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Electricity - imports:
782 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
179,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
96.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
4.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Crude oil - production:
13,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Crude oil - proved reserves:
150 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Refined petroleum products - production:
16,570 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
13,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Refined petroleum products - exports:
6,187 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Refined petroleum products - imports:
2,465 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 160,848
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 8,719,981
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 50 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.ne
Internet users:
total: 805,702
percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,242
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
5U (2016)
Airports:
30 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 115
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Roadways:
total: 18,949 km
paved: 3,912 km
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 114
Waterways:
300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 93
Merchant marine:
total: 2
by type: oil tanker 1, other 1 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 169

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
4% of GDP (2016)
5.46% of GDP (2015)
3.45% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 15
Military branches:
Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 108,470 (Nigeria) (2017); 57,327 (Mali) (2018)
IDPs: 144,000 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2017)

Economic Indicators for Niger including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Niger economy.