Bhutan - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Bhutan's small economy is based largely on hydropower, agriculture, and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than half the population. Because rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive, industrial production is primarily of the cottage industry type. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and is dependent on India for financial assistance and migrant laborers for development projects, especially for road construction. Bhutan also signed a...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 80,552,000,000 81,814,440,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 35,105,000,000 33,748,450,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 35,105,000,000 34,115,160,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 69,398,187,480 59,776,583,936 BTN Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 141,429,730,702 125,783,523,008 BTN Annual
Investment 2016 88,509,468,905 75,925,153,743 BTN Annual
Government Consumption 2015 23,465 20,194 Mil. INR Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2014 123.94 96.29 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Nov 2017 160.08 159.68 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 224,939 220,096 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 2.43 2.44 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2017 396,046 387,786 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 17,813,000,000 18,215,780,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 32,828,000,000 32,543,680,000 NCU Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 186,412,764 191,707,090 BoP; current USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 1,024,902,168 1,029,908,145 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2017 554,623,776 496,545,208 USD Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 81,591,673,223 74,716,667,801 BTN Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 42,233,624,226 43,766,408,951 BTN Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Jun 2007 3.5 % - End of period Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2016 886,080,000 -348,700,000 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2016 366,710,000 -150,230,000 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 0 # Annual
Population 2017 807,610 797,765 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 18.16 18.46 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.02 6.04 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Following Britain’s victory in the 1865 Duar War, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding land to British India. Ugyen WANGCHUCK - who had served as the de facto ruler of an increasingly unified Bhutan and had improved relations with the British toward the end of the 19th century - was named king in 1907. Three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs, and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. Bhutan negotiated a similar arrangement with independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned to Bhutan a small piece of the territory annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. Under a succession of modernizing monarchs beginning in the 1950s, Bhutan joined the UN in 1971 and slowly continued its engagement beyond its borders.
In March 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the government's draft constitution - which introduced major democratic reforms - and held a national referendum for its approval. In December 2006, the King abdicated the throne in favor of his son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK. In early 2007, India and Bhutan renegotiated their treaty, eliminating the clause that stated that Bhutan would be "guided by" India in conducting its foreign policy, although Thimphu continues to coordinate closely with New Delhi. Elections for seating the country's first parliament were completed in March 2008; the king ratified the country's first constitution in July 2008. Bhutan experienced a peaceful turnover of power following parliamentary elections in 2013, which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent party. The disposition of some 8,500 refugees of the more than 100,000 who fled or were forced out of Bhutan in the 1990s - and who are housed in two UN refugee camps in Nepal - remains unresolved.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates:
27 30 N, 90 30 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 38,394 sq km
land: 38,394 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 137
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Maryland; about one-half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries:
total: 1,136 km
border countries (2): China 477 km, India 659 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain:
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Elevation:
mean elevation: 2,220 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangeme Chhu 97 m
highest point: Gangkar Puensum 7,570 m
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
Land use:
agricultural land: 13.6%
arable land 2.6%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 85.5%
other: 0.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards:
violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Environment - current issues:
soil erosion; limited access to potable water; wildlife conservation; industrial pollution; waste disposal; climate change; and biodiversity
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

People & Society

Population:
758,288 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese
Ethnic groups:
Ngalop (also known as Bhote) 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Languages:
Sharchhopka 28%, Dzongkha (official) 24%, Lhotshamkha 22%, other 26% (includes foreign languages) (2005 est.)
Religions:
Lamaistic Buddhist 75.3%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 22.1%, other 2.6% (2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.8% (male 99,977/female 95,652)
15-24 years: 18.81% (male 72,634/female 70,018)
25-54 years: 43.07% (male 173,310/female 153,314)
55-64 years: 6.03% (male 24,482/female 21,206)
65 years and over: 6.29% (male 24,874/female 22,821) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 40.4
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9
potential support ratio: 14.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.6 years
male: 28.2 years
female: 27.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Population growth rate:
1.07% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Birth rate:
17.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Urbanization:
urban population: 40.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
THIMPHU (capital) 152,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
148 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Infant mortality rate:
total: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.6 years
male: 69.6 years
female: 71.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
65.6% (2010)
Health expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 169
Physicians density:
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density:
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 77.9% of population
rural: 33.1% of population
total: 50.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 66.9% of population
total: 49.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
6.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 167
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
12.8% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 59
Education expenditures:
7.4% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 86
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.9%
male: 73.1%
female: 55% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 10.7%
male: 8.2%
female: 12.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan
local long form: Druk Gyalkhap
local short form: Druk Yul
etymology: named after the Bhotia, the ethnic Tibetans who migrated from Tibet to Bhutan; "Bod" is the Tibetan name for their land; the Bhutanese name "Druk Yul" means "Land of the Thunder Dragon"
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Thimphu
geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 38 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Dagana, Gasa, Haa, Lhuentse, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatshel, Punakha, Samdrup Jongkhar, Samtse, Sarpang, Thimphu, Trashigang, Trashi Yangtse, Trongsa, Tsirang, Wangdue Phodrang, Zhemgang
Independence:
17 December 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king)
National holiday:
National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Constitution:
history: previous governing documents were various royal decrees; first constitution drafted November 2001 - March 2005, ratified 18 July 2008
amendments: proposed as a motion by simple majority vote in a joint session of Parliament; passage requires at least a three-fourths majority vote in a joint session of the next Parliament and assented to by the king; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal system:
civil law based on Buddhist religious law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son
head of government: Prime Minister Tshering TOBGAY (since 27 July 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-third vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Chi Tshog consists of the non-partisan National Council or Gyelyong Tshogde (25 seats; 20 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 members appointed by the king; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Tshogdu (47 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council election last held on 23 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly election first round held on 31 May 2013 and second round on 13 July 2013 ((next to be held in 2018)
election results: National Council - seats by party - independent 20 (all candidates required to run as independents); National Assembly - percent of vote by party in first round - DPT 44.5%; PDP 32.5%; DNT 17.0%; DCT 5.9%; percent of vote in second round - PDP 54.9%, DPT 45.1%; seats by party - PDP 32, DPT 15
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court has sole jurisdiction in constitutional matters
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the National Judicial Commission, a 4-member body to include the Legislative Committee of the National Assembly, the attorney general, the Chief Justice of Bhutan and the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; other judges (drangpons) appointed by the monarch from among the High Court judges selected by the National Judicial Commission; chief justice serves a 5-year term or until reaching age 65 years, whichever is earlier; the 4 other judges serve 10-year terms or until age 65, whichever is earlier
subordinate courts: High Court (first appellate court); District or Dzongkhag Courts; sub-district or Dungkhag Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Bhutan Kuen-Nyam Party or BKP [Dasho Neten ZANGMO]
Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT [Pema GYAMTSHO]
Druk Chirwang Tshogpa or DCT [Lily WANGCHUK]
Druk Nymarup Tshogpa or DNT [Tandin DORJI]
People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tshering TOBGAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Druk National Congress or DNC [Gedun CHOEPHEL] (group in exile)
United Front for Democracy or UFD (group in exile)
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD [Jatuporn PROMPAN, chairman]
other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepali-Bhutanese organizations (exiled)
International organization participation:
ADB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none; note - the Permanent Mission to the UN for Bhutan has consular jurisdiction in the US; the permanent representative to the UN is Kunzang C. NAMGYEL (since February 2014); address: 343 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 682-2268; FAX [1] (212) 661-0551
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although frequent informal contact is maintained via the US embassy in New Delhi (India) and Bhutan's Permanent Mission to the UN
Flag description:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side; the dragon, called the Druk (Thunder Dragon), is the emblem of the nation; its white color stands for purity and the jewels in its claws symbolize wealth; the background colors represent spiritual and secular powers within Bhutan: the orange is associated with Buddhism, while the yellow denotes the ruling dynasty
National symbol(s):
thunder dragon known as Druk Gyalpo; national colors: orange, yellow
National anthem:
name: "Druk tsendhen" (The Thunder Dragon Kingdom)
lyrics/music: Gyaldun Dasho Thinley DORJI/Aku TONGMI
note: adopted 1953

Economy

Economy - overview:
Bhutan's small economy is based largely on hydropower, agriculture, and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than half the population. Because rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive, industrial production is primarily of the cottage industry type. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and is dependent on India for financial assistance and migrant laborers for development projects, especially for road construction. Bhutan also signed a pact in December 2014 to expand duty-free trade with Bangladesh.
Multilateral development organizations administer most educational, social, and environment programs, and take into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by environmentally conscientious tourists. Complicated controls and uncertain policies in areas such as industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
Bhutan’s largest export - hydropower to India - could spur sustainable growth in the coming years if Bhutan resolves chronic delays in construction. Bhutan’s hydropower exports comprise 40% of total exports and 25% of the government’s total revenue. Bhutan currently taps only 6.5% of its 24,000-megawatt hydropower potential and is behind schedule in building 12 new hydropower dams with a combined capacity of 10,000 megawatts by 2020 in accordance with a deal signed in 2008 with India. The high volume of imported materials to build hydropower plants has expanded Bhutan's trade and current account deficits. Bhutan also signed a memorandum of understanding with Bangladesh and India in July 2017 to jointly construct a new hydropower plant for exporting electricity to Bangladesh.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$7.011 billion (2017 est.)
$6.621 billion (2016 est.)
$6.232 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 169
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.321 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.9% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$8,700 (2017 est.)
$8,400 (2016 est.)
$8,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 146
Gross national saving:
34.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
32% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 50.1%
government consumption: 15.9%
investment in fixed capital: 49.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 25.9%
imports of goods and services: -41.4% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 15.7%
industry: 42.6%
services: 41.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
rice, corn, root crops, citrus; dairy products, eggs
Industries:
cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
8.9% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Labor force:
353,000
note: major shortage of skilled labor (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 58%
industry: 20%
services: 22% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.2% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Population below poverty line:
13.3% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.6% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
38.8 (2012 est.)
38.1 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Budget:
revenues: $692.6 million
expenditures: $818.8 million
note: the government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget expenditures (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
29.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Public debt:
93.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
106.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Central bank discount rate:
6%
note: this is the policy rate of Bhutan's central bank
country comparison to the world: 70
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.15% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Stock of narrow money:
$963.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$769 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Stock of broad money:
$1.69 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.379 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.434 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$401.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$340.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$355.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Current account balance:
$-682 million (2017 est.)
$-618 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Exports:
$580 million (2017 est.)
$495.3 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Exports - commodities:
electricity (to India), ferrosilicon, cement, cardamom, calcium carbide, steel rods/bars, dolomite, gypsum
Exports - partners:
India 95.7% (2016)
Imports:
$1.1 billion (2017 est.)
$1.033 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Imports - commodities:
fuel and lubricants, airplanes, machinery and parts, rice, motor vehicles
Imports - partners:
India 91.1% (2016)
Debt - external:
$2.71 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$185.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$168.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Exchange rates:
ngultrum (BTN) per US dollar -
64.97 (2017 est.)
67.2 (2016 est.)
67.2 (2015 est.)
64.15 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 187,531
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 53% (2012)
Electricity - production:
7.732 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Electricity - consumption:
2.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Electricity - exports:
5.308 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Electricity - imports:
200 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.631 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
1% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
99% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Refined petroleum products - imports:
3,135 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
260,300 Mt (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 21,081
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 698,373
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Telephone system:
general assessment: urban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications services
domestic: domestic service inadequate, especially in rural areas; mobile-cellular service, begun in 2003, is now widely available; Internet services widely available
international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-owned TV station established in 1999; cable TV service offers dozens of Indian and other international channels; first radio station, privately launched in 1973, is now state-owned; 5 private radio stations are currently broadcasting (2012)
Internet country code:
.bt
Internet users:
total: 313,347
percent of population: 41.8% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 162,864
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 538,041 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
A5 (2016)
Airports:
2 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 198
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)
Roadways:
total: 10,578 km
paved: 2,975 km (includes 2,180 km of national highways)
unpaved: 7,603 km (2013)
note: a more recent figure for 2015 lists 11,177 km for total roadway length, but no breakdown of paved or unpaved
country comparison to the world: 135

Military & Security

Military branches:
Royal Bhutan Army (includes Royal Bodyguard and Royal Bhutan Police) (2009)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; militia training is compulsory for males aged 20-25, over a 3-year period (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China’s Chumbi salient

Economic Indicators for Bhutan including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Bhutan economy.