Denmark - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

This thoroughly modern market economy features a high-tech agricultural sector, advanced industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping, and in renewable energy, and a high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food, oil, and gas and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus, but depends on imports of raw materials for the manufacturing sector. Danes enjoy a high standard of living, and the Danish economy is characterized by extensive government welfare measures and an equitable distribution of income. An aging population...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2017 Q4 253.77 251.38 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Real Private Consumption 2017 Q4 232.28 229.48 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2017 Q4 134.97 134.33 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 539.06 533.27 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 111.56 110.37 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 499.42 494.86 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2017 Q4 130.63 129.37 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 104.57 103.7 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Producer Price Index (PPI) Apr 2018 110.7 109.8 Index 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2018 102.2 101.7 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index 2016 106.15 107.66 Index 2010 = 100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Rate Mar 2018 4.1 4 % of Labor Force, SA Monthly
Unemployment Mar 2018 111,806 110,334 #, SA Monthly
Total Employment 2018 Q1 2,771 2,755 Ths., SA Quarterly
Labor Force Employment 2018 Q1 2,771 2,755 Ths., SA Quarterly
Labor Force 2018 Q1 2,918 2,912 Ths., SA Quarterly
Primary Industries Employment 2017 Q4 72,306 71,996 #, SA Quarterly
Wage & Salaries 2017 Q4 285,226 279,393 Mil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Secondary Industries Employment 2017 582,219 581,005 # Annual
Tertiary Industries Employment 2017 2,377,396 2,372,438 # Annual
Agriculture Employment 2017 72,777 75,651 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods Mar 2018 3,900 5,922 Mil. DKK, SA Monthly
Imports of Goods Mar 2018 51,377 50,906 Mil. DKK, SA Monthly
Exports of Goods Mar 2018 55,277 56,828 Mil. DKK, SA Monthly
Current Account Balance Mar 2018 738 10,384 Mil. DKK, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 295.63 293.92 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 257.09 251.61 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 261.63 257.9 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 285.75 282.29 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt Apr 2018 663.75 656.95 Bil. DKK, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic Apr 2018 661.97 655.16 Bil. DKK, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt - Foreign Apr 2018 1.78 1.79 Bil. DKK, NSA Monthly
Government Budget Balance 2017 Q4 6,226 3,439 Mil. DKK, NSA Quarterly
Government Expenditures 2017 Q4 285,374 274,225 Mil. DKK, NSA Quarterly
Government Revenues 2017 Q4 291,600 277,663 Mil. DKK, NSA Quarterly
Gross External Debt 2017 Q3 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Monetary Policy Rate 25 May 2018 0.05 0.05 percent, NSA Daily
Stock Market Index 24 May 2018 990.11 1,000 Index, NSA Daily
Average Long-term Government Bond Apr 2018 0.45 0.15 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Apr 2018 0 0 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Non-residential - Industrial - Vacancy 2018 Q1 2,395,300 2,342,200 m², NSA Quarterly
Non-residential - Office - Vacancy 2018 Q1 1,702,700 1,763,000 m², NSA Quarterly
Non-residential - Commercial & Retail - Vacancy 2018 Q1 676,700 713,800 m², NSA Quarterly
House Price Index 2017 Q4 121 121 Index 2006=100, NSA Quarterly
Housing Starts Dec 2017 671 1,100 #, SA Monthly
Building Permits 2017 Q4 1,217,756 1,303,924 M², NSA Quarterly
Residential Building Completions Dec 2017 1,872 2,061 #, SA Monthly
Residential Building Permits Dec 2017 1,310 2,088 #, SA Monthly
Residential Housing Starts 2017 Q4 1,811 2,224 #, NSA Quarterly
Non-residential Building Permits 2017 Q4 146 142 #, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for New Homes 2017 Q4 100.22 99.93 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for Existing Homes 2017 Q4 109.2 111.06 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence May 2018 9.3 7.1 %, NSA Monthly
Retail Sales Feb 2018 102.4 102 Index 2010=100, SA Monthly
Personal Income 2016 1,051,620,050 1,026,867,344 Ths. DKK Annual
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q2 81.1 81.1 %, SA Quarterly
Business Confidence Apr 2018 100.01 100 Index long term avg=100, SA Monthly
Industrial Production Mar 2018 108.2 102.3 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Real Change in Inventories 2017 Q4 4.93 0.22 Bil. Ch. 2010 DKK, SA Quarterly
Change in Inventories 2017 Q4 5.4 1.59 Bil. DKK, SA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Births 2018 Q1 14,788 15,240 #, NSA Quarterly
Deaths 2018 Q1 15,605 13,407 #, NSA Quarterly
Population 2018 Q1 5,785,864 5,781,190 #, NSA Quarterly
Birth Rate 2015 10.2 10.1 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 9.2 9.1 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 106,841 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the EU's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union, European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.

Geography

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes several major islands (Sjaelland, Fyn, and Bornholm)
Geographic coordinates:
56 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,434 sq km
water: 660 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
country comparison to the world: 134
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total: 140 km
border countries (1): Germany 140 km
Coastline:
7,314 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Terrain:
low and flat to gently rolling plains
Elevation:
mean elevation: 34 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj 171 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, fish, arable land, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand
Land use:
agricultural land: 63.4%
arable land 58.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 4.4%
forest: 12.9%
other: 23.7%
note: highest percentage of arable land for any country in the world (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
4,350 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
with excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland
Natural hazards:
flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
Environment - current issues:
air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People & Society

Population:
5,605,948 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Nationality:
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish
Ethnic groups:
Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, Turkish, Polish, Syrian, German, Iraqi (2017 est.)
Languages:
Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran (official) 76%, Muslim 4%, other (denominations of less than 1% each, includes Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, and Buddhist) 20% (2017 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.41% (male 472,106/female 447,997)
15-24 years: 13.08% (male 374,379/female 358,927)
25-54 years: 38.76% (male 1,080,118/female 1,092,503)
55-64 years: 12.52% (male 349,091/female 352,903)
65 years and over: 19.23% (male 483,519/female 594,405) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 56
youth dependency ratio: 26.3
elderly dependency ratio: 29.7
potential support ratio: 3.4 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 42.2 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Population growth rate:
0.22% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Birth rate:
10.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Death rate:
10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Net migration rate:
2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Population distribution:
with excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland
Urbanization:
urban population: 88% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.58% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
COPENHAGEN (capital) 1.268 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.1 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.5 years
male: 77.1 years
female: 82.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Health expenditures:
10.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 16
Physicians density:
3.65 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density:
3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
19.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 111
Education expenditures:
8.6% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 8
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 12%
male: 13.1%
female: 10.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark
etymology: the name derives from the words "Dane(s)" and "mark"; the latter referring to a march (borderland) or forest
Government type:
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Copenhagen
geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components
Administrative divisions:
metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden (Capital), Midtjylland (Central Jutland), Nordjylland (North Jutland), Sjaelland (Zealand), Syddanmark (Southern Denmark)
note: an extensive local government reform merged 271 municipalities into 98 and 13 counties into five regions, effective 1 January 2007
Independence:
ca. 965 (unified and Christianized under HARALD I Gormson); 5 June 1849 (became a parliamentary constitutional monarchy)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 5 June (1849); note - closest equivalent to a national holiday
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 5 June 1953
amendments: proposed by the Folketing with consent of the government; passage requires approval by the next Folketing following a general election, approval by simple majority vote of at least 40% of voters in a referendum, and assent by the chief of state; changed several times, last in 2009 (Danish Act of Succession) (2016)
Legal system:
civil law; judicial review of legislative acts
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born on 26 May 1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Lars LOKKE RASMUSSEN (since 28 June 2015)
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 representing Greenland and 2 representing the Faroe Islands; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)
elections: last held on 18 June 2015 (next to be held by June 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 26.3%, DF 21.1%, V 19.5%, EL 7.8%, LA 7.5%, AP 4.8%, SLP 4.6%, SF 4.2%, C 3.4%, other 0.9%; seats by party - SDP 47, DF 37, V 34, EL 14, LA 13, AP 9, SLP 8, SF 7, C 6; note - does not include each of the 2 seats from Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Minister of Justice with the advice of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Special Court of Indictment and Revision; 2 High Courts; Maritime and Commercial Court; county courts
Political parties and leaders:
The Alternative A or AP [Uffe ELBAEK]
Conservative People's Party or DKF or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN]
Danish People's Party or DF or O [Kristian THULESEN DAHL]
Liberal Alliance or LA [Anders SAMUELSEN]
Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Lars LOKKE RA/SMUSSEN]
Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, spokesperson Pernille SKIPPER]
Social Democrats or A [Mette FREDERIKSEN]
Social Liberal Party or B [Morten OSTERGAARD]
Socialist People's Party or SF [Pia OLSEN DYHR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [Jacob HOLBRAAD]
Confederation of Danish Industries or DI [Karsten DYBVAD]
Confederation of Danish Labor Unions or LO [Lizette RISGAARD]
DaneAge Association [Bjarne HASTRUP]
Danish Shipowners' Association [Anne STEFFENSEN]
Danish Bankers Association [Ulrik NODGAARD]
Danish Society for Nature Conservation or DN [Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]
other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lars Gert LOSE (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Laura LOCHMAN (since 2 January 2017)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen 0
mailing address: Unit 5280, DPO, AE 09716
telephone: [45] 33 41 71 00
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23
Flag description:
red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side; the banner is referred to as the Dannebrog (Danish flag) and is one of the oldest national flags in the world; traditions as to the origin of the flag design vary, but the best known is a legend that the banner fell from the sky during an early-13th century battle; caught up by the Danish king before it ever touched the earth, this heavenly talisman inspired the royal army to victory; in actuality, the flag may derive from a crusade banner or ensign
note: the shifted cross design element was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
National symbol(s):
lion, mute swan; national colors: red, white
National anthem:
name: "Der er et yndigt land" (There is a Lovely Land); "Kong Christian" (King Christian)
lyrics/music: Adam Gottlob OEHLENSCHLAGER/Hans Ernst KROYER; Johannes EWALD/unknown
note: Denmark has two national anthems with equal status; "Der er et yndigt land," adopted 1844, is a national anthem, while "Kong Christian," adopted 1780, serves as both a national and royal anthem; "Kong Christian" is also known as "Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast" (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and "Kongesangen" (The King's Anthem); within Denmark, the royal anthem is played only when royalty is present and is usually followed by the national anthem; when royalty is not present, only the national anthem is performed; outside Denmark, the royal anthem is played, unless the national anthem is requested

Economy

Economy - overview:
This thoroughly modern market economy features a high-tech agricultural sector, advanced industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping, and in renewable energy, and a high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food, oil, and gas and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus, but depends on imports of raw materials for the manufacturing sector. Danes enjoy a high standard of living, and the Danish economy is characterized by extensive government welfare measures and an equitable distribution of income. An aging population will be a long-term issue.
Denmark is a member of the EU; Danish legislation and regulations conform to EU standards on almost all issues. Despite previously meeting the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union, Denmark has negotiated an opt-out with the EU and is not required to adopt the euro. Within the EU, Denmark is among the strongest supporters of trade liberalization.
Denmark is experiencing a modest economic expansion. The economy grew by 1.6% in 2015 and an estimated 1.3% in 2016. The expansion is expected to continue at similar rates in 2017 and 2018. The labor market has strengthened since 2013, and unemployment stood at 4.2% in early 2017, based on the national measure. By early 2017, some sectors were experiencing difficulties attracting qualified labor. Productivity growth was significantly below the OECD average from the mid-1990s until 2011, but has increased in recent years. Improvement in productivity is needed to ensure continued growth.
Denmark maintained a healthy budget surplus for many years up to 2008, but the global financial crisis swung the budget balance into deficit. The 2016 deficit was 1.4%. The government projects lower deficits in 2017 and 2018, and public debt (EMU debt) as a share of GDP is expected to decline. In 2015, household indebtedness remained relatively high at more than 292% of net disposable income, while household net worth - from private pension schemes and other assets - amounted to 497% of net disposable income.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$275.3 billion (2016 est.)
$267.3 billion (2015 est.)
$260.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 60
GDP (official exchange rate):
$306.7 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.7% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
1.7% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$48,200 (2016 est.)
$47,800 (2015 est.)
$47,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 33
Gross national saving:
28.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 47.5%
government consumption: 25.4%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 53.4%
imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 23.6%
services: 75.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish
Industries:
iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate:
3.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Labor force:
2.953 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79.3% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.2% (2016 est.)
4.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Population below poverty line:
13.4% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.8 (2015 est.)
25.7 (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Budget:
revenues: $162.3 billion
expenditures: $164.3 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
52.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-0.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Public debt:
37.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
39.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 140
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.3% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Central bank discount rate:
0.05% (2016)
0.05% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 147
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.42% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Stock of narrow money:
$159.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$151.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Stock of broad money:
$173.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$168.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Stock of domestic credit:
$637.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$632.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$224.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$179.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$231.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Current account balance:
$24.09 billion (2016 est.)
$27.58 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Exports:
$103.6 billion (2016 est.)
$102.6 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Exports - commodities:
machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture and design, windmills
Exports - partners:
Germany 16.3%, Sweden 11.9%, US 8.2%, UK 6.5%, Norway 6.1%, Netherlands 5.1%, China 4.4% (2016)
Imports:
$86.39 billion (2016 est.)
$87.55 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Germany 21.4%, Sweden 12.2%, Netherlands 8%, China 7.3%, Norway 5.5%, UK 4.2% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$64.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$65.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Debt - external:
$484.8 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$519.8 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$147.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$145.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$235.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$230.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar -
6.7309 (2016 est.)
6.7309 (2015 est.)
6.7236 (2014 est.)
5.6125 (2013 est.)
5.79 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
27.34 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Electricity - consumption:
31.41 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - exports:
9.919 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Electricity - imports:
14.98 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
14.01 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
48.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
53.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Crude oil - production:
140,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Crude oil - exports:
78,370 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Crude oil - imports:
77,950 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Crude oil - proved reserves:
490.6 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 49
Refined petroleum products - production:
187,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
158,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Refined petroleum products - exports:
171,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Refined petroleum products - imports:
165,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Natural gas - production:
4.618 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Natural gas - consumption:
4.392 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Natural gas - exports:
2.192 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Natural gas - imports:
658 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Natural gas - proved reserves:
16.88 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 78
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
42 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,557,101
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 6,985,035
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Telephone system:
general assessment: excellent telephone and Internet services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network; multiple mobile-cellular communications systems
international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2015)
Broadcast media:
strong public-sector TV presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio (DR) operating 6 channels and publicly owned TV2 operating roughly a half-dozen channels; broadcasts of privately owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nationwide FM radio stations, 10 digital audio broadcasting stations, and 14 web-based radio stations; in 2010, there were 140 commercial and 187 community (non-commercial) radio stations (2012)
Internet country code:
.dk
Internet users:
total: 5,424,169
percent of population: 97.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 10
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 76
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 582,011
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
OY (2016)
Airports:
80 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 68
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 47 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 1,536 km; oil 330 km (2015)
Railways:
total: 3,476 km
standard gauge: 3,476 km 1.435-m gauge (1,756 km electrified) (2017)
country comparison to the world: 62
Roadways:
total: 74,558 km
paved: 74,558 km (includes 1,205 km of expressways) (2017)
country comparison to the world: 64
Waterways:
400 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 87
Merchant marine:
total: 666
by type: towing- and supply ships 193, container 118, product tanker 91, passenger 80, chemical tanker 64, guard ships 40, other dry bulk 33, roll on/roll off 20, liquefied gas 11, bulk carrier 7, oil tanker 5, cable ships 4 (2016)
foreign-owned: 27 (Germany 9, Greenland 1, Norway 2, Sweden 15)
registered in other countries: 582 (Antigua and Barbuda 20, Bahamas 69, Belgium 4, Brazil 3, Curacao 1, Cyprus 6, Egypt 1, France 11, Gibraltar 7, Hong Kong 42, Isle of Man 30, Italy 4, Jamaica 1, Liberia 8, Lithuania 8, Luxembourg 1, Malaysia 1, Malta 34, Marshall Islands 7, Moldova 1, Netherlands 27, Norway 7, Panama 41, Philippines 2, Portugal 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, Singapore 149, Sweden 4, UK 43, Uruguay 1, US 31, Venezuela 1, unknown 4) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 18
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Aarhus, Copenhagen, Fredericia, Kalundborg; North Sea - Esbjerg,
river port(s): Aalborg (Langerak)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Ensted (coal)
cruise port(s): Copenhagen

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.15% of GDP (2016)
1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.15% of GDP (2014)
1.23% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 71
Military branches:
Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; former conscripts are assigned to mobilization units; women eligible to volunteer for military service; in addition to full time employment, the Danish Military offers reserve contracts in all three branches (2016)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 18,215 (Syria) (2016)
stateless persons: 7,610 (2016)

Economic Indicators for Denmark including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Denmark economy.