Brazil - Economic Indicators

LatAm Update: Remembering the Caudillo

Jul 20, 2018

After three decades of democratic consolidation in Mexico and Brazil, populist political leaders are ascendant. Whether they pose a threat to democratic institutions and economic stability is an open question. Mexican President-elect Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador rode a wave of popular discontent to a sweeping mandate that will leave his coalition in charge of both chambers of Congress, the first such victory in more than two decades. Jair Bolsonaro,...

Continue reading on Economy.com View Factbook for Brazil

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2018 Q1 1,046,311 1,089,471 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Real Private Consumption 2018 Q1 174.88 174.09 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, SA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q1 166.2 165.46 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, SA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q1 1,641,110 1,702,593 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2018 Q1 305,454 370,787 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2018 Q1 263,155 268,026 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2018 Q1 146.59 147.16 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, SA Quarterly
Real Investment 2018 Q1 146.59 145.68 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, SA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 1,026,820,000,000 1,085,281,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 313,699,342,200 349,202,881,300 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Jun 2018 5,044 4,981 Index Dec1993=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Jun 1979 391.28 377.73 1975=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force May 2018 104,122 104,146 Ths. # 3-mo MA, NSA Monthly
Unemployment May 2018 13,235 13,413 Ths. # 3-mo MA, NSA Monthly
Unemployment Rate May 2018 12.7 12.9 % 3-mo MA, NSA Monthly
Agriculture Employment 2017 10,763,593 10,509,254 # Annual
Total Employment 2015 53,541,695 55,263,992 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods May 2018 5,557 5,394 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Current Account Balance May 2018 729.23 520.25 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods May 2018 19,185 19,778 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Imports of Goods May 2018 13,628 14,383 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 210,278 205,424 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 319.92 315.9 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, SA Quarterly
Real Net Exports 2018 Q1 303.02 298.67 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 208,400 202,246 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Net Exports 2018 Q1 1,878 3,178 Mil. BRL, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 245.31 239.31 Ch. Vol. Index 1995=100, SA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt May 2018 3,416,686 3,448,113 Mil. BRL, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt - Foreign May 2018 -1,139,294 -1,057,951 Mil. BRL, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic May 2018 4,555,980 4,506,064 Mil. BRL, NSA Monthly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Average Long-term Government Bond Jul 2018 6.56 6.6 % per annum, NSA Monthly
Lending Rate 23 Jul 2018 6.5 6.5 Percent,NSA Daily
Stock Market Index 19 Jul 2018 77,486 77,362 Index, NSA Daily
Money Market Rate Apr 2018 6.4 6.58 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Apr 2018 6.14 6.18 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Monetary Policy Rate Jun 2017 10.25 11.25 % - End of period Monthly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence Jun 2018 99.43 99.87 Index Long term avg=100, SA Monthly
Retail Sales May 2018 93.9 94.5 Vol. Index 2014=100, SA Monthly
Real Retail Sales May 2018 114.1 114.4 Index 2014=100, SA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Business Confidence Jun 2018 100.44 100.51 Index long term avg=100, SA Monthly
Industrial Production May 2018 80 89.8 Index 2012=100, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2017 Q4 -28,869,400,000 1,437,400,000 BRL, NSA Quarterly
Real Change in Inventories 2013 0 0 NCU Annual
Capacity Utilization 2009 81.4 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Births 2016 2,793,995 2,945,445 #, NSA Annual
Deaths 2016 1,268,646 1,226,594 #, NSA Annual
Birth Rate 2016 14.16 14.4 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.16 6.09 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Population 2015 204,860 203,191 Thousands, NSA Annual
Net Migration 2012 15,924 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 1 January 2019, completing her second term.

Geography

Location:
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map references:
South America
Area:
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
country comparison to the world: 6
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than the US
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
Coastline:
7,491 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climate:
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation:
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land use:
agricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
54,000 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
Natural hazards:
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment - current issues:
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina

People & Society

Population:
207,353,391 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groups:
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
Languages:
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Religions:
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Demographic profile:
Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 22.33% (male 23,599,867/female 22,696,756)
15-24 years: 16.36% (male 17,212,048/female 16,721,295)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,114,076/female 45,836,147)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 8,931,065/female 9,974,723)
65 years and over: 8.33% (male 7,356,838/female 9,910,576) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 32.4
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 32 years
male: 31.1 years
female: 32.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Population growth rate:
0.73% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Birth rate:
14.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Death rate:
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Net migration rate:
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Population distribution:
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
Urbanization:
urban population: 86.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Infant mortality rate:
total: 17.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74 years
male: 70.5 years
female: 77.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
80.2% (2013)
Health expenditures:
8.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 51
Physicians density:
1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density:
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
830,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
14,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
22.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 82
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.2% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 121
Education expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 49
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 16.1%
male: 13.8%
female: 21.2% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government type:
federal presidential republic
Capital:
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Administrative divisions:
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence:
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitution:
several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
Suffrage:
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and the illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER is serving as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ends 1 January 2019
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Political parties and leaders:
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Landless Workers' Movement or MST [Joao Pedro STEDILE]
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participation:
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael MCKINLEY (since 19 December 2016)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Flag description:
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National symbol(s):
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
National anthem:
name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted

Economy

Economy - overview:
Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.
Economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 78% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.
Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.
Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments too difficult to enact.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.219 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.195 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.314 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 9
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.081 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.7% (2017 est.)
-3.6% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$15,500 (2017 est.)
$15,500 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 107
Gross national saving:
16.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 11.8%
imports of goods and services: -11.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 6.2%
industry: 21%
services: 72.8%
(2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Industries:
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Labor force:
111.6 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13.1% (2017 est.)
11.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Population below poverty line:
3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
49.7 (2014 est.)
55.3 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Budget:
revenues: $726.6 billion
expenditures: $749 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
34.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Public debt:
78.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2017 est.)
8.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Central bank discount rate:
13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
48.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
52.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Stock of narrow money:
$106.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$106.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Stock of broad money:
$761.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$727.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.237 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.138 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Current account balance:
$-28.99 billion (2017 est.)
$-23.53 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Exports:
$215.4 billion (2017 est.)
$184.5 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Exports - commodities:
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
Exports - partners:
China 19%, US 12.6%, Argentina 7.3%, Netherlands 5.6% (2016)
Imports:
$151.9 billion (2017 est.)
$139.4 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Imports - commodities:
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Imports - partners:
US 17.6%, China 16.9%, Argentina 6.7%, Germany 6.6%, South Korea 4.4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$377.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Debt - external:
$554.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$551.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$828.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$763.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$327.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$319.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Exchange rates:
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.21 (2017 est.)
3.49 (2016 est.)
3.49 (2015 est.)
3.33 (2014 est.)
2.35 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
Electricity - production:
559.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Electricity - consumption:
500.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Electricity - exports:
219 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Electricity - imports:
34.64 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
155.6 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
25.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
59.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
16% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Crude oil - production:
2.515 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Crude oil - exports:
518,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Crude oil - imports:
350,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Crude oil - proved reserves:
13 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Refined petroleum products - production:
2.899 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3.102 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Refined petroleum products - exports:
269,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Refined petroleum products - imports:
559,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Natural gas - production:
20.41 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Natural gas - consumption:
43.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Natural gas - exports:
100 million cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Natural gas - imports:
18.98 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Natural gas - proved reserves:
429.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
535 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 41,842,233
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 244,067,356
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Telephone system:
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)
Internet country code:
.br
Internet users:
total: 122,841,218
percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 9
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
PP (2016)
Airports:
4,093 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 2
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
Heliports:
13 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 29,849.9 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 9
Roadways:
total: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
country comparison to the world: 4
Waterways:
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 3
Merchant marine:
total: 766
by type: bulk carrier 14, container ship 16, general cargo 48, oil tanker 37, other 651 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 28
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,780,000) (2015)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.32% of GDP (2016)
1.36% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 88
Military branches:
Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Military service age and obligation:
18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 52,622 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018)
Illicit drugs:
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area

Economic Indicators for Brazil including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Brazil economy.