Moldova - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, wheat, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.5 billion - more than 20% of GDP - from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q3 45,523,495,796 34,251,171,041 MDL, NSA Quarterly
Private Consumption 2017 Q3 39,015,226,460 30,985,926,394 MDL, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2017 Q3 9,662,563,515 7,449,164,352 MDL, NSA Quarterly
Real Investment 2016 7,891,482,600 7,354,597,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 30,021,536,000 29,512,611,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 7,058,056,300 7,276,346,700 NCU Annual
Government Consumption 2016 Q4 6,897 5,254 Mil. RUR Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Feb 2018 159.13 158.83 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 421,528 431,705 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 Q1 6.3 3.77 % Quarterly
Labor Force 2016 1,281,185 1,320,946 # Annual
Total Employment 2016 1,238 1,203 Ths. Annual
Unemployment 2016 Q4 44.94 38.69 Ths. Quarterly
Labor Force Employment 2016 Q4 1,148 1,298 Ths. Quarterly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 606,980,000 475,660,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -93,030,000 -206,830,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 1,288,860,000 1,165,560,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -681,880,000 -689,900,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 58,667,900,000 52,462,516,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 31,169,131,400 28,648,098,700 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 37,573,231,700 35,479,916,600 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 96,497,350,000 90,529,200,000 NCU Annual
Net Exports 2016 Q4 -9,702 -9,432 Mil. RUR Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2017 Q4 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Apr 2018 9 9.35 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Apr 2018 4.22 4.46 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate Apr 2017 9 9 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Monetary Policy Rate 2016 9 19.5 % - End of period Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 4,051,212 4,059,608 # Annual
Death Rate 2016 11.48 11.42 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2016 10.32 10.52 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Deaths 2014 39,494 38,060 #, NSA Annual
Net Migration 2012 -9,529 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the breakaway region of Transnistria, whose population is roughly equally composed of ethnic Ukrainians, Russians, and Moldovans.
Years of Communist Party rule in Moldova post-independence ultimately ended with election-related violent protests and a rerun of parliamentary elections in 2009. Since then, a series of pro-European ruling coalitions have governed Moldova. As a result of the country's most recent legislative election in November 2014, the three pro-European parties that entered Parliament won a total of 55 of the body's 101 seats. Infighting among coalition members led to prolonged legislative gridlock and political instability, as well as the collapse of four governments, all ruled by pro-European coalitions centered around the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM) and the Democratic Party (PDM). A political impasse ended in January 2016 when a new parliamentary majority led by PDM, joined by defectors from the Communists and PLDM, supported PDM member Pavel FILIP as prime minister.
Moldova remains Europe's poorest economy, but has made steps toward expanding its market access by signing and ratifying an Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which fully entered into force in July 2016 after ratification by all EU member states. Igor DODON won Moldova's first direct presidential election in over 20 years in November 2016.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 33,851 sq km
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km
country comparison to the world: 140
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Maryland
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,885 km
border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1,202 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain:
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation:
mean elevation: 139 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 74.9%
arable land 55.1%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 11.9%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,283 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti
Natural hazards:
landslides
Environment - current issues:
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

People & Society

Population:
3,474,121 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Nationality:
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups:
Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)
Languages:
Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.)
note: data represent mother tongue
Religions:
Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic <.1%, atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.9% (2014 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.18% (male 325,501/female 305,931)
15-24 years: 12.32% (male 221,582/female 206,458)
25-54 years: 43.4% (male 760,511/female 747,352)
55-64 years: 13.46% (male 214,565/female 252,924)
65 years and over: 12.64% (male 171,347/female 267,950) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 34.5
youth dependency ratio: 21.2
elderly dependency ratio: 13.4
potential support ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 36.7 years
male: 34.9 years
female: 38.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Population growth rate:
-1.05% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 227
Birth rate:
11.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Death rate:
12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Net migration rate:
-9.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Population distribution:
pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti
Urbanization:
urban population: 45.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.36% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
CHISINAU (capital) 725,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
24 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Infant mortality rate:
total: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71 years
male: 67.1 years
female: 75.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Total fertility rate:
1.57 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
59.5% (2012)
Health expenditures:
10.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 22
Physicians density:
3.2 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
5.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.9% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 88.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.1% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 87.8% of population
rural: 67.1% of population
total: 76.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12.2% of population
rural: 32.9% of population
total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
15,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<500 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
18.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 115
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.2% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 111
Education expenditures:
6.7% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 10
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 12.8%
male: 12.4%
female: 13.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
Independence:
27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution:
history: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994
amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by one-third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2010; note – in early 2016, the Moldovan Constitutional Court decision returned the country to direct presidential elections, reversing a 2000 constitutional amendment that allowed Parliament to select the president (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Igor DODON (since 23 December 2016); note – in 2017-18, DODON was three times temporarily suspended by the Moldovan Constitutional Court for rejecting ministerial appointments and for refusing to sign a law; Parliamentary Chairman, Andrian CANDU, has assumed some of the presidential functions
head of government: Prime Minister Pavel FILIP (since 20 January 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2020); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament
election results: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote - Igor DODON (PSRM) 52.2%, Maia SANDU (PAS) 47.8%; Pavel FILIP (PDM) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 57 of 101
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; members directly elected in a mixed electoral system: 50 members elected in a single, nationwide constituency and 51 in single-mandate districts; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 30 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 20.5%, PLDM 20.2%, PCRM 17.5%, PDM 15.8%, PL 9.7%, other 16.3%; seats by party - PSRM 25, PLDM 23, PCRM 21, PDM 19, PL 13
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistracy (an 11-member body of judicial officials); all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy for 6-year terms; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:
represented in Parliament:
Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
Democratic Party of Moldova or PDM [Vladimir PLAHOTNIUC]
European People’s Party of Moldova or EPPM [Iurie LEANCA]
Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova or PLDM [Viorel CIBOTARU]
Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]
Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Zinaida GRECEANII]
not represented in Parliament, participated in recent elections (2014-2016):
Action and Solidarity Party or PAS [Maia SANDU]
Anti-Mafia Movement or MPA [Sergiu MOCANU]
Centrist Union of Moldova or UCM [Mihai PETRACHE]
Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Victor CIOBANU]
Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]
Democracy at Home Party or PDA [Vasile COSTIUC]
Democratic Action Party or PAD [Mihai GODEA]
Dignity and Truth Platform or PPDA [Andrei NASTASE]
Ecologist Green Party or PVE [Anatolie PROHNITCHI]
Law and Justice Party or PLD [Nicolae ALEXEI]
"Motherland" Party or PP [Emilian CIOBU]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]
Our Home Moldova or PCNM [Grigore PETRENCO]
Our Party or PN [Renato USATII]
Party of National Unity [Anatol SALARU]
People’s Party of Moldova or PPRM [Alexandru OLEINIC]
Regions Party of Moldova or PRM [Alexandr KALININ]
Shor Party or PS [Ilan SHOR]
Socialist People’s Party of Moldova or PPSM [Victor STEPANIUC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Tatiana SOLOMON
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James D. PETTIT (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of Prussian blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of dark gold (brown) outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag displays a mirrored image of the coat of arms
note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia
National symbol(s):
aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem:
name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
note: adopted 1994

Economy

Economy - overview:
Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, wheat, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.5 billion - more than 20% of GDP - from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries.
With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $6 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. Moldova plans to build a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers. Moldova also seeks to connect with the European power grid by 2022.
The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2014 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. During fall 2014, Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU, connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. Still, a $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; a subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu and a minor recession. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption, which costs the country 8-13% of its annual GDP, and Russian restrictions on imports of Moldova’s agricultural products. The government’s push to restore stability and implement meaningful reform led to the approval in 2016 of a $179 million three-year IMF program focused on improving the banking and fiscal environments, along with additional assistance programs from the EU, World Bank, and Romania.
Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, energy import dependence, Russian political and economic pressure, heavy dependence on agricultural exports, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$20.07 billion (2017 est.)
$19.29 billion (2016 est.)
$18.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 148
GDP (official exchange rate):
$7.945 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
-0.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,700 (2017 est.)
$5,400 (2016 est.)
$5,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 166
Gross national saving:
18.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 90%
government consumption: 19.1%
investment in fixed capital: 23%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 51%
imports of goods and services: -83.1% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14.2%
industry: 21%
services: 64.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
Industries:
sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Labor force:
1.295 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 33.7%
industry: 12.1%
services: 54.2% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.3% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Population below poverty line:
20.8% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.8 (2015 est.)
26.8 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Budget:
revenues: $2.796 billion
expenditures: $3.027 billion
note: National Public Budget (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
35.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Public debt:
43.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.5% (2017 est.)
6.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Central bank discount rate:
9% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: this is the basic rate on short-term operations
country comparison to the world: 36
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.28% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Stock of narrow money:
$1.958 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.406 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Stock of broad money:
$4.695 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.529 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.197 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.942 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$9.723 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$50.47 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$65.29 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Current account balance:
$-314 million (2017 est.)
$-258 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Exports:
$1.78 billion (2017 est.)
$1.547 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Exports - commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners:
Romania 25.5%, Russia 11.6%, Italy 9.9%, Germany 6.3%, UK 5.7%, Belarus 5.2% (2016)
Imports:
$4.01 billion (2017 est.)
$3.604 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Imports - commodities:
mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners:
Romania 13.7%, Russia 13.3%, China 9.8%, Ukraine 9.5%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 7%, Turkey 6.8% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.206 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Debt - external:
$6.503 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$3.581 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.466 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$206.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$197.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Exchange rates:
Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
18.03 (2017 est.)
19.92 (2016 est.)
19.92 (2015 est.)
19.83 (2014 est.)
14.04 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
5.741 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Electricity - consumption:
4.611 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Electricity - imports:
18 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
483,000 kW
note: excludes Transnistria (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
85.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
13.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Crude oil - imports:
20 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Refined petroleum products - production:
262 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
15,570 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Refined petroleum products - exports:
261 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Refined petroleum products - imports:
15,560 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Natural gas - production:
10 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Natural gas - consumption:
3.48 billion cu m
note: excludes breakaway Transnistria (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Natural gas - imports:
2.72 billion cu m
note: excludes breakaway Transnistria (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (42370 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.976 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1,171,287
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 3,788,490
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Telephone system:
general assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of service to outside the cities and across most of the country
domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 105 per 100 persons
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2017)
Internet country code:
.md
Internet users:
total: 2,492,444
percent of population: 71.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,005,942
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 489,630 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
ER (2016)
Airports:
7 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 169
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 1,916 km (2014)
Railways:
total: 1,171 km
broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 87
Roadways:
total: 9,352 km
paved: 8,835 km
unpaved: 517 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 138
Waterways:
558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut Rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 82
Merchant marine:
total: 172
by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 2, general cargo 130, oil tanker 8, other 27 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 68

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.37% of GDP (2017)
0.44% of GDP (2016)
0.35% of GDP (2015)
0.35% of GDP (2014)
0.33% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 145
Military branches:
National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit); Carabinieri Troops: a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that also has official status as a service of the Armed Forces during wartime (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation; note - the ultimate abolition of military conscription has been announced (2018)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 4,776 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

Economic Indicators for Moldova including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Moldova economy.