Yemen - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Yemen is a low-income country that faces difficult long-term challenges to stabilizing and growing its economy, and the current conflict has only exacerbated those issues. The ongoing war has halted Yemen’s exports, pressured the currency’s exchange rate, accelerated inflation, severely limited food and fuel imports, and caused widespread damage to infrastructure. More than 80% of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance and over half are food insecure. Prior to the start of the conflict in 2014, Yemen was highly dependent on declining oil and gas resources...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 116,557,221,900 144,247,420,600 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 8,183,287,101,234 7,890,945,955,495 YER Annual
Investment 2016 116,557,221,856 144,247,420,550 YER Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 7,648,929,496,874 8,108,642,055,066 YER Annual
Government Consumption 2015 954,763 1,013,600 Mil. YER Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2012 89 87.23 Index 2005=100 Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Dec 2015 206.54 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 2,117,718 1,789,421 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 16 16.2 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 6,256,720 6,009,627 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 1999 125,828,000,000 102,663,000,000 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 1,919,272,619,778 1,823,269,651,691 YER Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 251,385,080,862 830,417,330,713 YER Annual
Exports of Goods 2015 Q4 65,944,000 58,830,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2015 Q4 1,915,388,000 1,139,404,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2015 Q4 -1,250,774,526 -477,633,563 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2015 Q4 -1,849,444,000 -1,080,574,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Jul 2014 16.05 16.05 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Dec 2002 13.13 % Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 1999 0 0 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 27,584,213 26,916,207 # Annual
Birth Rate 2015 32.22 32.78 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 6.54 6.64 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -75,010 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
North Yemen became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement and brief civil war in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to delineate their border. Fighting in the northwest between the government and the Huthis, a Zaydi Shia Muslim minority, continued intermittently from 2004 to 2010. The southern secessionist movement was revitalized in 2007.
Public rallies in Sana'a against then President SALIH - inspired by similar demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt - slowly built momentum starting in late January 2011 fueled by complaints over high unemployment, poor economic conditions, and corruption. By the following month, some protests had resulted in violence, and the demonstrations had spread to other major cities. By March the opposition had hardened its demands and was unifying behind calls for SALIH's immediate ouster. In April 2011, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), in an attempt to mediate the crisis in Yemen, proposed the GGC Initiative, an agreement in which the president would step down in exchange for immunity from prosecution. SALIH's refusal to sign an agreement led to further violence. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 2014 in October 2011 calling for an end to the violence and completing a power transfer deal. In November 2011, SALIH signed the GCC Initiative to step down and to transfer some of his powers to Vice President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI. Following HADI's uncontested election victory in February 2012, SALIH formally transferred his powers. In accordance with the GCC initiative, Yemen launched a National Dialogue Conference (NDC) in March 2013 to discuss key constitutional, political, and social issues. HADI concluded the NDC in January 2014 and planned to begin implementing subsequent steps in the transition process, including constitutional drafting, a constitutional referendum, and national elections.
The Huthis, perceiving their grievances were not addressed in the NDC, joined forces with SALIH and expanded their influence in northwestern Yemen, culminating in a major offensive against military units and rival tribes and enabling their forces to overrun the capital, Sanaa, in September 2014. In January 2015, the Huthis surrounded the presidential palace, HADI's residence, and key government facilities, prompting HADI and the cabinet to submit their resignations. HADI fled to Aden in February 2015 and rescinded his resignation. He subsequently escaped to Oman and then moved to Saudi Arabia and asked the GCC to intervene militarily in Yemen to protect the legitimate government from the Huthis. In March, Saudi Arabia assembled a coalition of Arab militaries and began airstrikes against the Huthis and Huthi-affiliated forces. Ground fighting between Huthi-aligned forces and resistance groups backed by the Saudi-led coalition continued through 2016. The UN brokered a cessation of hostilities (COH) that reduced airstrikes and fighting across the country for several months in mid-2016. Meanwhile, UN-backed peace talks in Kuwait broke down in August 2016 without agreement. The conflict escalated, and subsequent attempts to declare a COH or resume peace talks have failed. The Huthis and SALIH’s political party announced a Supreme Political Council in August 2016 and a National Salvation Government, including a prime minister and several dozen cabinet members, in November 2016, to govern in Sanaa and further challenge the legitimacy of HADI’s government.

Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 48 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 527,968 sq km
land: 527,968 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
country comparison to the world: 51
Area - comparative:
almost four times the size of Alabama; slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,601 km
border countries (2): Oman 294 km, Saudi Arabia 1,307 km
Coastline:
1,906 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Elevation:
mean elevation: 999 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,666 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Land use:
agricultural land: 44.5%
arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 41.7%
forest: 1%
other: 54.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
6,800 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the vast majority of the population is found in the Asir Mountains (part of the larger Sarawat Mountain system), located in the far western region of the country
Natural hazards:
sandstorms and dust storms in summer
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century
Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

People & Society

Population:
28,036,829 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Nationality:
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni
Ethnic groups:
predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
Languages:
Arabic (official)
note: a distinct Socotri language is widely used on Socotra Island and Archipelago; Mahri is still fairly widely spoken in eastern Yemen
Religions:
Muslim 99.1% (official; virtually all are citizens, an estimated 65% are Sunni and 35% are Shia), other 0.9% (includes Jewish, Baha'i, Hindu, and Christian; many are refugees or temporary foreign residents) (2010 est.)
religious affiliation:
Age structure:
0-14 years: 39.83% (male 5,681,084/female 5,485,959)
15-24 years: 21.21% (male 3,015,232/female 2,930,329)
25-54 years: 32.27% (male 4,625,967/female 4,422,418)
55-64 years: 3.94% (male 506,759/female 598,973)
65 years and over: 2.75% (male 353,953/female 416,155) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 76.8
youth dependency ratio: 71.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.5 years
male: 19.3 years
female: 19.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Population growth rate:
2.28% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Birth rate:
28.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Net migration rate:
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Population distribution:
the vast majority of the population is found in the Asir Mountains (part of the larger Sarawat Mountain system), located in the far western region of the country
Urbanization:
urban population: 35.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
SANAA (capital) 2.962 million; Aden 882,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.4 years
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
385 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Infant mortality rate:
total: 46 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.9 years
male: 63.7 years
female: 68.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Total fertility rate:
3.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
33.5% (2013)
Health expenditures:
5.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 120
Physicians density:
0.31 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 72% of population
rural: 46.5% of population
total: 54.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 28% of population
rural: 53.5% of population
total: 45.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 92.5% of population
rural: 34.1% of population
total: 53.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.5% of population
rural: 65.9% of population
total: 46.7% of population (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,900 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<500 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
17.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 120
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
39.9% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 3
Education expenditures:
4.6% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 67
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.1%
male: 85.1%
female: 55% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 33.7%
male: 26%
female: 74% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman
former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
etymology: name derivation remains unclear but may come from the Arab term "yumn" (happiness) and be related to the region's classical name "Arabia Felix" (Fertile or Happy Arabia); the Romans referred to the rest of the peninsula as "Arabia Deserta" (Deserted Arabia)
Government type:
in transition
Capital:
name: Sanaa
geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
22 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan (Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah (Sanaa City), 'Amran, Arkhabil Suqutra (Socotra Archipelago), Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz
Independence:
22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
Constitution:
history: adopted by referendum 16 May 1991 (following unification); amended several times, last in 2009; note - after the National Dialogue ended in January 2015, a presidentially appointed Constitutional Drafting Committee worked to prepare a new draft constitution that was expected to be put to a national referendum before being adopted; however, the president’s resignation in January 2015 and subsequent conflict have interrupted the process (2016)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Yemen; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (since 21 February 2012); Vice President Ali Mohsin al-AHMAR, Gen. (since 3 April 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmad Obaid bin DAGHIR (since 3 April 2016)
cabinet: appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2012 (next election NA); note - a special election was held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH under the terms of a Gulf Cooperation Council-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011; vice president appointed by the president; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (GPC) elected as a consensus president with about 50% popular participation; no other candidates
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis consists of the Shura Council or Majlis Alshoora (111 seats; members appointed by the president; member tenure NA) and the House of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwaab (301 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (next scheduled for April 2009 but postponed indefinitely)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party - GPC 58.0%, Islah 22.6%, YSP 3.8%, Unionist Party 1.9%, other 13.7%; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 46, YSP 8, Nasserist Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party 2, independent 4
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president of the Court, 2 deputies, and nearly 50 judges; court organized into constitutional, civil, commercial, family, administrative, criminal, military, and appeals scrutiny divisions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council, chaired by the president of the republic and consisting of 10 high-ranking judicial officers; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: appeal courts; district or first instance courts; commercial courts
Political parties and leaders:
General People's Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH]
National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party [Qassem Salam SAID]
Nasserist Unionist People's Organization [Abdulmalik al-MEKHLAFI]
Yemeni Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah al-YADUMI]
Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Dr. Abd al-Rahman Umar al-SAQQAF]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Huthis
Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
International organization participation:
AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, EITI (temporarily suspended), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmad Awadh BIN MUBARAK (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew H. TUELLER (since 10 June 2014)
embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa; note - Embassy closed in March 2015; relocated to Jeddah, Saudia Arabia
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
National symbol(s):
golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black
National anthem:
name: "al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida" (United Republic)
lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA'MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI
note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990

Economy

Economy - overview:
Yemen is a low-income country that faces difficult long-term challenges to stabilizing and growing its economy, and the current conflict has only exacerbated those issues. The ongoing war has halted Yemen’s exports, pressured the currency’s exchange rate, accelerated inflation, severely limited food and fuel imports, and caused widespread damage to infrastructure. More than 80% of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance and over half are food insecure.
Prior to the start of the conflict in 2014, Yemen was highly dependent on declining oil and gas resources for revenue. Oil and gas earnings accounted for roughly 25% of GDP and 65% of government revenue. The Yemeni Government regularly faced annual budget shortfalls and tried to diversify the Yemeni economy through a reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In July 2014, the government continued reform efforts by eliminating some fuel subsidies and in August 2014, the IMF approved a three-year, $570 million Extended Credit Facility for Yemen.
However, the conflict that began in 2014 stalled these reform efforts and ongoing fighting continues to accelerate the country’s economic decline. In September 2016, President HADI announced the move of the main branch of Central Bank of Yemen from Sanaa to Aden where his government could exert greater control over the central bank’s dwindling resources. Regardless of which group controls the main branch, the central bank system is struggling to function. Yemen’s Central Bank’s foreign reserves, which stood at roughly $5.2 billion prior to the conflict, have declined to negligible amounts. The Central Bank can no longer fully support imports of critical goods or the country’s exchange rate. The country also is facing a growing liquidity crisis and rising inflation. The private sector is hemorrhaging, with almost all businesses making substantial layoffs. Access to food and other critical commodities such as medical equipment is limited across the country due to security issues on the ground. The Social Welfare Fund, a cash transfer program for Yemen’s neediest, is no longer operational and has not made any disbursements since late 2014.
Yemen will require significant international assistance during and after the protracted conflict to stabilize its economy. Long-term challenges include a high population growth rate, high unemployment, declining water resources, and severe food scarcity.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$69.17 billion (2016 est.)
$75.7 billion (2015 est.)
$104.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 97
GDP (official exchange rate):
$27.32 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
-9.8% (2016 est.)
-28.1% (2015 est.)
-0.2% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,400 (2016 est.)
$2,700 (2015 est.)
$3,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 200
Gross national saving:
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
6.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 115.2%
government consumption: 9.8%
investment in fixed capital: 1.1%
investment in inventories: -7%
exports of goods and services: 1.3%
imports of goods and services: -20.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 21.8%
industry: 9.8%
services: 68.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
Industries:
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production
Industrial production growth rate:
-48.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Labor force:
7.418 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Labor force - by occupation:
note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Unemployment rate:
27% (2014 est.)
35% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Population below poverty line:
54% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37.9 (2009 est.)
37.3 (1999 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Budget:
revenues: $1.684 billion
expenditures: $4.917 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
6.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-11.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Public debt:
119.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
85.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (2016 est.)
29.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
Central bank discount rate:
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
27% (31 December 2016 est.)
25% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Stock of narrow money:
$6.718 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.202 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Stock of broad money:
$11.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Stock of domestic credit:
$4.515 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.727 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-1.532 billion (2016 est.)
$-3.026 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Exports:
$163.6 million (2016 est.)
$1.439 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Exports - commodities:
crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas
Exports - partners:
Egypt 26%, Saudi Arabia 15.4%, Oman 11.3%, Malaysia 9.8%, Thailand 5.8%, UAE 4.9% (2016)
Imports:
$3.117 billion (2016 est.)
$6.423 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Imports - commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
UAE 12.8%, China 12%, Turkey 8%, Saudi Arabia 8%, Indonesia 6.8%, Brazil 6.6%, India 4.8% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$592.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.035 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Debt - external:
$7.181 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.287 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar -
214.9 (2016 est.)
214.9 (2015 est.)
228 (2014 est.)
214.89 (2013 est.)
214.35 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 13,300,000
electrification - total population: 48%
electrification - urban areas: 79%
electrification - rural areas: 33% (2013)
Electricity - production:
5.006 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Electricity - consumption:
3.634 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 220
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.534 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Crude oil - production:
21,670 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Crude oil - exports:
49,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Crude oil - proved reserves:
3 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 31
Refined petroleum products - production:
56,840 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
140,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Refined petroleum products - exports:
27,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Refined petroleum products - imports:
84,340 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Natural gas - production:
2.85 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Natural gas - consumption:
1.19 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Natural gas - exports:
8.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Natural gas - proved reserves:
478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 33
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
22 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1.213 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 17.536 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Telephone system:
general assessment: cell phone penetration growing rapidly
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line teledensity remains low by regional standards but mobile cellular use expanding apace
international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run TV with 2 stations; state-run radio with 2 national radio stations and 5 local stations; stations from Oman and Saudi Arabia can be accessed (2007)
Internet country code:
.ye
Internet users:
total: 6,732,928
percent of population: 24.6% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,387,999
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
7O (2016)
Airports:
57 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 84
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 641 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,370 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 71,300 km
paved: 6,200 km
unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)
country comparison to the world: 67
Merchant marine:
total: 5
by type: chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 14 (Moldova 4, Panama 4, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 1, unknown 3) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 127
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
3.97% of GDP (2014)
4.08% of GDP (2013)
4.57% of GDP (2012)
4.93% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 12
Military branches:
Land Forces, Naval and Coastal Defense Forces (includes Marines), Air and Air Defense Force (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Yemeniya), Border Guards, Strategic Reserve Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Maritime threats:
the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden are high risk for piracy; numerous vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crew, passengers, and cargo are held for ransom; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators reduced the incidence of piracy in that body of water; one attack was reported in 2016 and one reported during the first half of 2017
Military - note:

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,877 (Ethiopia) (2016); 256,169 (Somalia) (2017)
IDPs: 2,014,026 (conflict in Sa'ada Governorate; clashes between al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula and government forces) (2017)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Yemen is a source and, to a lesser extent, transit and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; trafficking activities grew in Yemen in 2014, as the country’s security situation deteriorated and poverty worsened; armed groups increased their recruitment of Yemeni children as combatants or checkpoint guards, and the Yemeni military and security forces continue to use child soldiers; some other Yemeni children, mostly boys, migrate to Yemeni cities or Saudi Arabia and, less frequently Oman, where they end up as beggars, drug smugglers, prostitutes, or forced laborers in domestic service or small shops; Yemeni children increasingly are also subjected to sex trafficking in country and in Saudi Arabia; tens of thousands of Yemeni migrant workers deported from Saudi Arabia and thousands of Syrian refugees are vulnerable to trafficking; additionally, Yemen is a destination and transit country for women and children from the Horn of Africa who are looking for work or receive fraudulent job offers in the Gulf states but are subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor upon arrival; reports indicate that adults and children are still sold or inherited as slaves in Yemen
tier rating: Tier 3 – Yemen does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; weak government institutions, corruption, economic problems, security threats, and poor law enforcement capabilities impeded the government’s ability to combat human trafficking; not all forms of trafficking are criminalized, and officials continue to conflate trafficking and smuggling; the status of an anti-trafficking law drafted with assistance from an international organization remains unknown following the dissolution of the government in January 2015; the government did not report efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict anyone of trafficking or slavery offenses, including complicit officials, despite reports of officials willfully ignoring trafficking crimes and using child soldiers in the government’s armed forces; the government acknowledged the use of child soldiers and signed a UN action plan to end the practice in 2014 but made no efforts to release child soldiers from the military and provide them with rehabilitative services; authorities failed to identify victims and refer them to protective services; the status of a draft national anti-trafficking strategy remains unknown (2015)

Economic Indicators for Yemen including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Yemen economy.