Indonesia - Economic Indicators

Global Outlook: Passing the Peak

Sep 05, 2018

View the Moody's Analytics Global Forecast. The global economic environment remains upbeat, but has likely passed its peak for this cycle. Escalating trade tensions have stressed the economic relationship between the U.S. and China; there are rising adverse implications for the global economy and heightened downside risks to the outlook. Risks stemming from Brexit, emerging markets contagion fears, and oil price swings also remain in the spotlight. Despite...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Private Consumption 2018 Q2 1,394,700 1,373,537 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2018 Q2 193,600 146,088 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q2 828,500 820,589 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q2 2,603,700 2,498,413 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Private Consumption 2018 Q1 1,991,109 1,962,437 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2018 Q1 221,044 427,050 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q1 1,126,044 1,181,082 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q1 3,505,296 3,490,608 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Real Investment 2017 3,344,143,874,579,240 3,174,986,767,436,910 NCU Annual
Investment 2017 4,545,073,681,673,230 4,199,071,691,026,270 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 134.07 134.14 2012=100, NSA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index Aug 2018 165.04 166.01 Index 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 39,620,487 39,897,046 # Annual
Tertiary Industries Employment 2017:2 58,167,473 59,338,789 #, NSA Annual
Unemployment 2017:2 7,040,323 7,005,262 #, NSA Annual
Primary Industries Employment 2017:2 35,923,886 39,678,453 # NSA Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017:2 5.5 5.33 %, NSA Annual
Labor Force 2017:2 128,062,746 131,544,111 #, NSA Annual
Labor Force Employment 2017:2 121,022,423 124,538,849 #, NSA Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 11,986,721,560,000 11,153,394,872,489 IDR Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods Aug 2018 15,818 16,290 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Imports of Goods Aug 2018 16,839 18,297 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Balance of Goods Aug 2018 -1,021 -2,006 Mil. USD, NSA Monthly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q2 550,500 555,852 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Real Net Exports 2018 Q2 24,600 32,116 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q2 525,900 523,735 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 -8,028 -5,716 Mil. US$, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 728,778 743,997 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Net Exports 2018 Q1 11,483 1,558 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 740,261 745,556 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2018 Q2 355,740 359,313 Mil. US$, NSA Quarterly
Government Revenues 2016 1,555,934 1,508,020 Bil. Rupees, NSA Annual
Outstanding Public Debt - Foreign 2016 -10,420 15,250 Bil. Rupees, NSA Annual
Government Expenditures 2016 1,864,275 1,806,515 Bil. Rupees, NSA Annual
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic 2016 344,923 307,858 Bil. Rupees, NSA Annual
Outstanding Public Debt 2016 334,503 323,108 Bil. Rupees, NSA Annual
Government Budget Balance 2016 -308,341 -298,495 Bil. Rupees, NSA Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate 19 Sep 2018 5.5 5.5 %, NSA Daily
Stock Market Index 18 Sep 2018 5,811 5,824 Index, NSA Daily
Average Long-term Government Bond Aug 2018 1,821,406 1,782,356 Bil. IDR, NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate May 2018 4.32 4.07 %, NSA Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
House Price Index 2018 Q2 205.77 204.21 Index 2002Q1=100, NSA Quarterly
Building Completions 2017 870,663,102,000 784,651,210,000 Ths. IDR Annual
Housing Starts 2017 158,016 142,852 # Annual
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Retail Sales Aug 2018 207.8 216 Index 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Retail Sales Aug 2018 207.8 216 Index 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Consumer Confidence Aug 2018 121.6 124.8 Weighted Index, NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Business Confidence 2018 Q3 17.73 17.99 weighted net balance Index,NSA Quarterly
Industrial Production Jul 2018 150.54 133.31 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Real Change in Inventories 2018 Q1 68,765 -31,005 Bil. 2010 IDR, NSA Quarterly
Change in Inventories 2018 Q1 119,355 -64,618 Bil. IDR, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2018 265,015 261,890 Ths., NSA Annual
Birth Rate 2016 18.99 19.35 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 7.12 7.1 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -835,000 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 16
Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km
Coastline:
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation:
mean elevation: 367 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
agricultural land: 31.2%
arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
forest: 51.7%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
67,220 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated
Natural hazards:
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Environment - current issues:
large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

People & Society

Population:
260,580,739 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Religions:
Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.02% (male 33,205,805/female 31,994,844)
15-24 years: 16.99% (male 22,537,842/female 21,738,210)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 56,493,414/female 53,980,979)
55-64 years: 8.58% (male 10,192,430/female 12,177,931)
65 years and over: 7.01% (male 7,954,795/female 10,304,489) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 49.2
youth dependency ratio: 41.6
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 30.2 years
male: 29.6 years
female: 30.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Population growth rate:
0.86% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Birth rate:
16.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Net migration rate:
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Population distribution:
major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 55.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
JAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Infant mortality rate:
total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 75.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Total fertility rate:
2.11 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
61.1% (2015)
Health expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 184
Physicians density:
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density:
1.2 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 79.5% of population
total: 87.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 20.5% of population
total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 72.3% of population
rural: 47.5% of population
total: 60.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27.7% of population
rural: 52.5% of population
total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
620,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
38,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
6.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 162
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
19.9% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 31
Education expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 143
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.2%
female: 93.6% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 22.6%
male: 22.3%
female: 23.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones
Administrative divisions:
31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence:
17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution:
history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959
amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly when at least two-thirds of its members are present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002 (2017)
Legal system:
civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 46.8%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 33 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Council has no legislative authority
elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.0%, Golkar 14.8%, Gerindra 11.8%, PD 10.2%, PKB 9.0%, PAN 2.6%, PKS 6.8%, NasDem 6.7%, PPP 6.5%, Hanura 5.3%, other 7.9%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PAN 48, PKB 47, PKS 40, PPP 39, NasDem 36, Hanura 16
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or Nasdem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Muhammad Sohibul IMAN]
United Development Party or PPP [Muhammad ROMAHURMUZIY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
Islamic Defenders Front or FPI
International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph R. DONOVAN, Jr. (since 12 January 2017)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
consulate: Medan
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
National symbol(s):
garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
National anthem:
name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945

Economy

Economy - overview:
Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 34% today. In May 2017 Standard & Poor’s became the last major ratings agency to upgrade Indonesia’s sovereign credit rating to investment grade.
Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.243 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.084 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.937 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 8
GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.011 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.2% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$12,400 (2017 est.)
$11,900 (2016 est.)
$11,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 124
Gross national saving:
32.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
32.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 57.5%
government consumption: 8.9%
investment in fixed capital: 32.1%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 19.2%
imports of goods and services: -18.4% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 13.9%
industry: 40.3%
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
3.8% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Labor force:
126.1 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 21%
services: 47% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.4% (2017 est.)
5.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Population below poverty line:
10.9% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.8 (2009 est.)
39.4 (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Budget:
revenues: $130.6 billion
expenditures: $154.8 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
12.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Public debt:
33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
31.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Central bank discount rate:
6.37% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.46% (31 December 2009 est.)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
country comparison to the world: 65
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
11.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
country comparison to the world: 73
Stock of narrow money:
$107.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$92.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Stock of broad money:
$407.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$372.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Stock of domestic credit:
$436.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$397.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$428.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$353.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$422.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Current account balance:
$-17.03 billion (2017 est.)
$-16.77 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Exports:
$157.8 billion (2017 est.)
$144.4 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Exports - commodities:
mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
Exports - partners:
China 22.1%, Japan 14.7%, US 13.6%, India 10.8%, Singapore 10%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 5.1% (2017)
Imports:
$142.3 billion (2017 est.)
$129 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Imports - commodities:
mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
China 22.9%, Singapore 10.8%, Japan 9.6%, Thailand 6.4%, US 5.4%, Malaysia 5.4%, South Korea 5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$122.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Debt - external:
$322.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$316.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$247.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$229.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$19.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$18.42 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
13,360.1 (2017 est.)
13,308.3 (2016 est.)
13,308.3 (2015 est.)
13,389.4 (2014 est.)
11,865.2 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 48,700,000
electrification - total population: 81%
electrification - urban areas: 94%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)
Electricity - production:
221.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Electricity - consumption:
199.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Electricity - imports:
13 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
57.35 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
85.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
9.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
5.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Crude oil - production:
831,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Crude oil - exports:
289,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Crude oil - imports:
507,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Crude oil - proved reserves:
3.23 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Refined petroleum products - production:
990,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.708 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Refined petroleum products - exports:
98,780 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Refined petroleum products - imports:
668,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Natural gas - production:
72.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Natural gas - consumption:
53.15 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Natural gas - exports:
30.29 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Natural gas - imports:
1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.775 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
442 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 10,752,912
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 385,573,398
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 148 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media:
mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)
Internet country code:
.id
Internet users:
total: 65,525,226
percent of population: 25.4% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 29
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 550
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 88,685,767
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 747,473,207 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
PK (2016)
Airports:
673 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 10
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
Heliports:
76 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 8,159 km
narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)
note: 4,816 km operational (2014)
country comparison to the world: 27
Roadways:
total: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 14
Waterways:
21,579 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 7
Merchant marine:
total: 8,782
by type: bulk carrier 81, container ship 194, general cargo 2,142, oil tanker 544, other 5,821 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 1
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs): Belawan (1,197,000), Tanjung Priok (5,154,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.84% of GDP (2017)
0.88% of GDP (2016)
0.89% of GDP (2015)
0.78% of GDP (2014)
0.92% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 125
Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
Maritime threats:
the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks declined dramatically from 108 incidents in 2015 to 49 in 2016, although Indonesian waters remained the most dangerous in the world; in 2016, 45 commercial vessels were boarded and one hijacked; during 2016 37 crew members were taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; Indonesia remains the most dangerous area during the first half of 2017 with more than 20% of all incidents reported world-wide

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 13,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2017) (2011)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers

Economic Indicators for Indonesia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Indonesia economy.