Nepal - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Nepal is among the least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for only one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 162,902,396,700 185,706,470,700 NCU Annual
Real Government Consumption 2016 83,736,197,500 84,089,285,200 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 647,293,862,100 595,822,567,700 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 346,716,235,300 314,079,566,800 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 2,248,691,111,339 2,120,470,128,131 NPR Annual
Investment 2016 562,457,745,832 588,344,922,418 NPR Annual
Private Consumption 2016 1,884,373,420,057 1,701,514,046,525 NPR Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 123.55 122.86 Index 2000=100 Annual
Government Consumption 2016 246,146 232,532 Mil. NPR Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 175.02 174.94 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 12,234,187 12,062,578 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 2.74 3.06 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 16,689,928 16,259,985 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -934,365,338 -518,203,230 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 215,398,380 225,535,989 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 3,299,335,399 2,613,363,042 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -3,083,937,018 -2,387,827,053 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 379,742,907,800 369,549,130,900 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 87,617,535,800 101,474,110,600 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 885,049,335,022 883,443,900,000 NPR Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 239,664,495,920 247,564,700,000 NPR Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Apr 2018 4.98 4.7 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Jun 2017 6 6 % Monthly
Lending Rate Jun 2017 7 7 % Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Change in Inventories 2016 183,813,838,600 128,373,096,100 NCU Annual
Change in Inventories 2016 110,385,811,100 236,159,982,500 NCU Annual
Capacity Utilization 2013 70.4 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 29,304,998 28,982,771 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 19.71 19.97 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.28 6.33 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -372,369 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
During the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepalese Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkhas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.
An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and the re-assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which the Nepali Congress won the largest share of seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in September 2015, at which point the CA became the Parliament. Khagda Prasad Sharma OLI served as the first post-constitution prime minister from October 2015-August 2016, when a new coalition led by Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (aka "Prachanda") took over the premiership. The constitution provided for a transitional period during which three sets of elections – local, provincial, and national – needed to take place. The first local elections in 20 years occurred in three phases between May and September 2017, while state and federal elections proceeded in two phases in November and December 2017. A coalition led by OLI and DAHAL swept the elections, and OLI was sworn in as prime minister in February 2018.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates:
28 00 N, 84 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 147,181 sq km
land: 143,351 sq km
water: 3,830 sq km
country comparison to the world: 96
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than New York state
Land boundaries:
total: 3,159 km
border countries (2): China 1,389 km, India 1,770 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Terrain:
Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
Elevation:
mean elevation: 2,565 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
Natural resources:
quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use:
agricultural land: 28.8%
arable land 15.1%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 12.5%
forest: 25.4%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
13,320 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
most of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low
Natural hazards:
severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Environment - current issues:
deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively

People & Society

Population:
29,384,297 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Nationality:
noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepali
Ethnic groups:
Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)
Languages:
Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)
Religions:
Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.2% (male 4,610,861/female 4,264,580)
15-24 years: 21.73% (male 3,220,431/female 3,164,292)
25-54 years: 36.58% (male 4,847,427/female 5,900,442)
55-64 years: 6.32% (male 897,999/female 959,405)
65 years and over: 5.17% (male 753,771/female 765,089) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 61.4
youth dependency ratio: 52.5
elderly dependency ratio: 8.8
potential support ratio: 11.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.1 years
male: 22.8 years
female: 25.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Population growth rate:
1.16% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Birth rate:
19.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Death rate:
5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Net migration rate:
-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Population distribution:
most of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low
Urbanization:
urban population: 19.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.08% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
KATHMANDU (capital) 1.183 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
258 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Infant mortality rate:
total: 27.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 71.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Total fertility rate:
2.12 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
49.6% (2014)
Health expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 110
Physicians density:
0.6 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 90.9% of population
rural: 91.8% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9.1% of population
rural: 8.2% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 43.5% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 56.5% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
32,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,700 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 187
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
30.1% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 17
Education expenditures:
3.7% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 87
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.9%
male: 76.4%
female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 3.5%
male: 4.2%
female: 2.9% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word
Government type:
federal parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence:
1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 20 September (2015); note - marks the promulgation of Nepal’s constitution in 2015, and replaces the previous 28 May Republic Day as the official national day in Nepal; the Gregorian day fluctuates based on Nepal’s Hindu calendar
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015
amendments: proposed as a “bill” by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended January 2016 (2017)
Legal system:
English common law and Hindu legal concepts; note - new criminal and civil codes come into effect mid-August 2018
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
head of state: President Bidhya Devi BANDHARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Khadga Prasad (KP) Sharma OLI (since 15 February 2018); deputy prime ministers (vacant); note - Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA resigned on 15 February 2018
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the CPN-UML and MC
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament
election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI reelected president; electoral vote - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML 39,275, Kumari Laxmi RAI (NC) 11,730
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years) and the House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: first election for the National Assembly held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held in 2024); first election for House of Representatives held on 26 November and 7 December 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-ML 27, CPN-MC 13, NC 12, FSFN 2, RJPN 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-UML 121, NC 63, CPN-MC 53, RJPN 17, FSFN 16, other 4, independent 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member,high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice term of office is 6 years; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; district courts
note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
Political parties and leaders:
note: the Election Commission of Nepal granted ballot access under the proportional system to 88 political parties for the November-December 2017 House of Representatives election to the Federal Parliament; of these, the following 9 parties and 1 independent won seats
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) or CPN-MC [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]
Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Khadga Prasad Sharma OLI]
Federal Socialist Forum Nepal or FSFN [Upendra YADAV]
Naya Shakti Party [Baburam BHATTARAI]
Nepali Congress or NC [Sher Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepal Workers Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Rastriya Janamorcha or RJM [Chitra BAHADUR]
Rastriya Janata Party Nepal or RJPN [Rajendra MAHATO]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Kamal THAPA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
National Federation of Indigenous Nationalities
Tharu Kalyankari Sabha (Tharus rights advocacy group)
International organization participation:
ADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alaina B. TEPLITZ (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal
mailing address: US Embassy, Maharajgunj Chakrapath, Kathmandu, Nepal 44600
telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
Flag description:
crimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
National symbol(s):
rhododendron blossom; national color: red
National anthem:
name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king

Economy

Economy - overview:
Nepal is among the least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for only one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.
Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity. Nepal and India signed trade and investment agreements in 2014 that increase Nepal’s hydropower potential, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment.
Nepal was hit by massive earthquakes in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Political gridlock in the past several years and recent public protests, predominantly in the southern Tarai region, have hindered post-earthquake recovery and prevented much-needed economic reform. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, and underdeveloped transportation infrastructure.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$78.55 billion (2017 est.)
$73.07 billion (2016 est.)
$72.77 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 95
GDP (official exchange rate):
$24.07 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.5% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,700 (2017 est.)
$2,500 (2016 est.)
$2,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 195
Gross national saving:
42.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
40% of GDP (2016 est.)
44% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 76.2%
government consumption: 11.7%
investment in fixed capital: 33.8%
investment in inventories: 10.5%
exports of goods and services: 9.8%
imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 13.5%
services: 51.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
Industries:
tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
Industrial production growth rate:
10.9% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Labor force:
15.6 million
note: severe lack of skilled labor (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 69%
industry: 12%
services: 19% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3.3% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Population below poverty line:
25.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.8 (2010 est.)
47.2 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Budget:
revenues: $5.954 billion
expenditures: $5.974 billion (FY2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
24.7% of GDP (FY2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-0.1% of GDP (FY2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Public debt:
27.3% of GDP (FY2017 est.)
25.2% of GDP (FY2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Fiscal year:
16 July - 15 July
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (2017 est.)
9.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Central bank discount rate:
7% (30 July 2017 est.)
7% (30 July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9% (31 December 2017 est.)
8.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Stock of narrow money:
$5.834 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.871 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Stock of broad money:
$27.12 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Stock of domestic credit:
$21.93 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$14.03 billion (31 October 2017 est.)
$11.81 billion (31 October 2016 est.)
$9.574 billion (31 October 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Current account balance:
$-88 million (2017 est.)
$1.339 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Exports:
$818.7 million (2017 est.)
$761.6 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Exports - commodities:
clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
Exports - partners:
India 56.6%, US 11.5%, Turkey 4% (2016)
Imports:
$11.03 billion (2017 est.)
$8.757 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
Imports - partners:
India 70.1%, China 10.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.668 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.506 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Debt - external:
$5.948 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.321 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
104 (2017 est.)
107.38 (2016 est.)
107.38 (2015 est.)
102.41 (2014 est.)
99.53 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 6,600,000
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
Electricity - production:
3.342 billion kWh (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Electricity - consumption:
3.746 billion kWh (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Electricity - exports:
3.25 million kWh (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Electricity - imports:
1.758 billion kWh (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
838,100 kW (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
6.3% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
89.8% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
3.6% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Crude oil - exports:
2.016 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
32,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Refined petroleum products - imports:
30,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 858,237
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 32,120,305
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Telephone system:
general assessment: mountainous topography hinders development of telecom infrastructure; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
domestic: mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area; disparity between high coverage in cities and coverage available in underdeveloped rural regions
international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 88 independent TV channels are registered with only 25 in regular operation; 672 FM radio stations are licensed with 588 operational (2016)
Internet country code:
.np
Internet users:
total: 5,716,419
percent of population: 19.7% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 15
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 510,341
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,536,371 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
9N (2016)
Airports:
47 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 95
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 29 (2013)
Railways:
total: 53 km
narrow gauge: 53 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 131
Roadways:
total: 27,990 km
paved: 11,890 km
unpaved: 16,100 km (2016)
country comparison to the world: 132

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.52% of GDP (2016)
1.54% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.43% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 70
Military branches:
Nepali Army (2018)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 13,509 (Tibet/China) (2016); 9,804 (Bhutan) (2017)
IDPs: 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region; 2015 earthquakes) (2016)
stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to address the large number of individuals lacking citizenship certificates in Nepal; smaller numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotshampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West

Economic Indicators for Nepal including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Nepal economy.