Bolivia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports to Brazil and Argentina. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 9,391,366,000 9,081,229,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 9,671,453,000 8,803,271,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 Q4 49,935,407,060 37,337,585,548 BOB, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2016 Q4 14,761,180,717 12,288,169,898 BOB, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 62,967,830,509 59,641,189,185 BOB, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 Q4 14,761,180,717 12,288,169,898 BOB, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2016 Q4 12,120 10,559 Mil. BOP Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 Q4 144.67 138.32 Index 2005=100 Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Dec 2017 144.61 144.13 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 1,502,523 1,485,431 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 4,984,668 4,857,556 # Annual
Total Employment 2011 Q2 2,165 2,177 Ths. Quarterly
Unemployment Rate 2011 Q2 5.51 6.17 % Quarterly
Unemployment 2011 Q2 126.28 143.14 Ths. Quarterly
Labor Force Employment 2011 Q2 2,165 2,177 Ths. Quarterly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 2,006,247,420 2,165,479,818 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -268,564,098 -60,177,063 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -715,493,516 -516,615,885 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 2,274,811,518 2,225,656,882 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 12,432,525,000 13,186,019,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 13,815,823,000 14,420,424,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 14,618,003,115 15,792,520,527 BOB, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 Q4 19,950,730,364 18,559,378,808 BOB, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate Dec 2017 2.66 2.35 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Dec 2017 2.5 2.5 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Mar 2017 0.35 0 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 10,887,882 10,724,705 # Annual
Birth Rate 2015 23.55 23.87 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 7.35 7.42 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -61,794 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production.
In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In February 2016, MORALES narrowly lost a referendum to approve a constitutional amendment that would have allowed him to compete in the 2019 presidential election. Despite the loss, MORALES has already been chosen by his party to run again in 2019, via a still-undetermined method for him to appear on the ballot.

Geography

Location:
Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates:
17 00 S, 65 00 W
Map references:
South America
Area:
total: 1,098,581 sq km
land: 1,083,301 sq km
water: 15,280 sq km
country comparison to the world: 29
Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 7,252 km
border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain:
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,192 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Natural resources:
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 34.3%
arable land 3.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 30.5%
forest: 52.5%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
3,000 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes
Natural hazards:
flooding in the northeast (March to April)
volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and the Olca-Paruma volcanic complex (5,762 m to 5,167 m)
Environment - current issues:
the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People & Society

Population:
11,138,234 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara
note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of "mestizo" and "cholo" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
Languages:
Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%
note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including some that are extinct (2001 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
Demographic profile:
Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Almost 7% of Bolivia's population lives abroad, primarily to work in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, and the United States. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the United States have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring Argentina and Brazil.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.85% (male 1,807,735/female 1,739,763)
15-24 years: 19.46% (male 1,098,097/female 1,069,950)
25-54 years: 37.48% (male 2,041,866/female 2,133,065)
55-64 years: 5.9% (male 303,409/female 353,598)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 260,424/female 330,327) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 63.7
youth dependency ratio: 53.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.6
potential support ratio: 9.4 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.3 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 25 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Population growth rate:
1.51% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Birth rate:
22 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Death rate:
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Net migration rate:
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Population distribution:
a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes
Urbanization:
urban population: 69.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.11% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Santa Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Infant mortality rate:
total: 35.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.5 years
male: 66.7 years
female: 72.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Total fertility rate:
2.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
60.5% (2008)
Health expenditures:
6.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 99
Physicians density:
0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density:
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 60.8% of population
rural: 27.5% of population
total: 50.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 39.2% of population
rural: 72.5% of population
total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
19,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<1000 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
20.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 104
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.6% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 95
Education expenditures:
7.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 24
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 96.5%
female: 88.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 6.9%
male: 6.4%
female: 7.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia
etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a 19th-century leader in the South American wars for independence
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional [legislative and judicial] capital)
geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence:
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitution:
many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2015)
Legal system:
civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - a presidential candidate wins an election one of 3 ways
election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (MAS) 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana (UN) 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA Ramirez (POC) 9.1%; other 5.4%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges or ministros organized into civil, penal, social, and administrative chambers); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members and 6 alternates); National Agro-Environment Court (consists of 5 primary and 5 alternate judges; Council of the Judiciary (consists of 3 primary and 3 alternate judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal, National Agro-Environmental Court, and Council of the Judiciary candidates pre-selected by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly and elected by direct popular vote; judges elected for 6-year terms; Plurinational Electoral Organ judges appointed - 6 by the Legislative Assembly and 1 by the president of the republic; members serve single 6-year terms
subordinate courts: National Electoral Court; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments); Agro-Environmental lower courts
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB
Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE-El Alto
Landless Movement or MST
National Confederation of Native Rural Indigenous Women of Bolivia or Bartolina Sisa
National Coordination for Change or CONALCAM
National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Jacinto HERRARA]
other: Cocalero unions
Interculturales union or CSCIB
various federations of neighborhood councils or FEJUVEs (including the national organization)
International organization participation:
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rafael Pablo CANEDO Daroca (since July 2017)
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4155
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
note: in September 2008, the US expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US in reciprocity for Bolivia expelling the US ambassador to Bolivia
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter BRENNAN (since June 2014)
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: 3220 La Paz Place, Dulles, VA, 20189-3220
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, Philip GOLDBERG, and both countries have yet to reinstate their ambassadors
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land
note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag
National symbol(s):
llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
National anthem:
name: "Cancion Patriotica" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI
note: adopted 1852

Economy

Economy - overview:
Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports to Brazil and Argentina. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth.
Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2014 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses with GDP growing 6.8% in 2013 and 5.4% in 2014. The global decline in oil prices that began in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates - 4.9% in 2015 and 4.3% in 2016 - and losses in government revenue as well as fiscal and trade deficits.
A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity. MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve the investment climate. In early 2016, the Government of Bolivia approved the 2016-20 National Economic and Social Development Plan aimed at maintaining growth of 5% and reducing poverty.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$78.77 billion (2016 est.)
$74.59 billion (2015 est.)
$70.37 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 93
GDP (official exchange rate):
$34.05 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.3% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5.5% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$7,200 (2016 est.)
$7,000 (2015 est.)
$6,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 155
Gross national saving:
15.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 69.1%
government consumption: 17.5%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 24.6%
imports of goods and services: -32% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 13.4%
industry: 38.5%
services: 53.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca
Industries:
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate:
4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Labor force:
4.992 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 29.4%
industry: 22%
services: 48.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4% (2016 est.)
7.4% (2015 est.)
note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
country comparison to the world: 95
Population below poverty line:
38.6%
note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
47 (2016 est.)
57.9 (1999)
country comparison to the world: 28
Budget:
revenues: $14.58 billion
expenditures: $16.81 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
41.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Public debt:
44.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
39.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
country comparison to the world: 116
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Central bank discount rate:
1.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7.95% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.07% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Stock of narrow money:
$9.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.946 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Stock of broad money:
$14.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Stock of domestic credit:
$22.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.833 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Current account balance:
$-1.928 billion (2016 est.)
$-1.879 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Exports:
$7 billion (2016 est.)
$8.673 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Exports - commodities:
natural gas, silver, zinc, lead, tin, gold, quinoa, soybeans and soy products
Exports - partners:
Brazil 19.3%, US 13.6%, Argentina 11.4%, Colombia 8.8%, China 6.8%, Japan 5.9%, South Korea 5.4%, Peru 4.8%, Belgium 4.6% (2016)
Imports:
$7.888 billion (2016 est.)
$9.004 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Imports - commodities:
machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
Imports - partners:
China 19.9%, Brazil 17.5%, Argentina 10.5%, US 9.8%, Peru 6.9%, Japan 4.9%, Chile 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$10.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Debt - external:
$11.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.849 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.084 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$0 (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Exchange rates:
bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -
6.91 (2016 est.)
6.91 (2015 est.)
6.91 (2014 est.)
6.91 (2013 est.)
6.94 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 90%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
Electricity - production:
8.147 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Electricity - consumption:
7.332 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
2.362 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
71.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
21% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Crude oil - production:
59,330 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Crude oil - proved reserves:
211.5 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 57
Refined petroleum products - production:
59,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
86,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Refined petroleum products - exports:
8,642 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Refined petroleum products - imports:
22,340 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Natural gas - production:
21.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Natural gas - consumption:
5.366 billion cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Natural gas - exports:
15.73 billion cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Natural gas - proved reserves:
295.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 41
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
16 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 867,302
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 10,165,308
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 93 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Telephone system:
general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved
domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2016, teledensity stood at 93 per 100 persons
international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)
Internet country code:
.bo
Internet users:
total: 4,354,678
percent of population: 39.7% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 7
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 39
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,578,959
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 9,456,548 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
CP (2016)
Airports:
855 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 7
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 834
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m: 631 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 3,504 km
narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 51
Roadways:
total: 90,568 km
paved: 9,792 km
unpaved: 80,776 km (2017)
country comparison to the world: 61
Waterways:
10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 13
Merchant marine:
total: 18
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
country comparison to the world: 98
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)
note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.68% of GDP (2016)
1.74% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.84% of GDP (2013)
1.85% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 64
Military branches:
Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB, includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
16-49 years of age for 12-month voluntary male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; minimum age of combat is 18; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian products; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Bolivia is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking domestically and abroad; indigenous children are particularly vulnerable; Bolivia is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking domestically and abroad; rural and poor Bolivians, most of whom are indigenous, and LGBT youth are particularly vulnerable; Bolivians perform forced labor domestically in mining, ranching, agriculture, and domestic service, and a significant number are in forced labor abroad in sweatshops, agriculture, domestic service, and the informal sector; women and girls are sex trafficked within Bolivia and in neighboring countries, such as Argentina, Peru, and Chile; a limited number of women from nearby countries are sex trafficked in Bolivia
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Bolivia does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government did not demonstrate overall increasing anti-trafficking efforts, and poor data collection made it difficult to assess the number of investigations, prosecutions, and victim identifications and referrals to care services; authorities did not adequately differentiate between human trafficking and other crimes, such as domestic violence and child abuse; law enforcement failed to implement an early detection protocol for identifying trafficking cases and lacked a formal process for identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable populations; specialized victim services were inadequately funded and virtually non-existent for adult women and male victims (2015)
Illicit drugs:
world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 36,500 hectares under cultivation in 2015, a 3 percent increase over 2014; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 255 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2015; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption

Economic Indicators for Bolivia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Bolivia economy.