Gabon - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most sub-Saharan African nations, but because of high income inequality, a large proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon relied on timber and manganese exports until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. From 2010 to 2016, oil accounted for approximately 80% of Gabon’s exports, 45% of its GDP, and 60% of its state budget revenues. Gabon faces fluctuating international prices for its oil, timber, and manganese exports. A rebound of oil prices from 2001 to 2013 helped growth, but declining production,...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 2,317,200,000,000 2,485,600,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 1,971,400,000,000 1,972,700,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 2,116,920,000,000 2,031,492,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 8,310,636,115,442 8,503,444,930,905 XAF Annual
Private Consumption 2016 3,918,027,691,122 3,709,040,899,502 XAF Annual
Investment 2016 2,843,711,433,091 2,964,123,748,639 XAF Annual
Government Consumption 2009 570.4 532.9 Bil. XAF Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Jan 2017 113.23 113.36 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Rate 2017 19.63 19.82 % of total labor force Annual
Agriculture Employment 2017 279,605 268,489 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 2,252,300,000,000 2,319,018,783,300 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 2,428,100,000,000 2,596,300,000,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 3,006,056,964,494 3,698,515,818,156 XAF Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 2,869,881,235,009 3,317,535,535,393 XAF Annual
Current Account Balance 2012 1,977,634,348 2,604,448,146 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2012 9,782,623,975 10,150,682,273 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 1978 Q2 260,534,407 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 1978 Q2 -260,534,407 USD, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance 2011 335,592,000,000 137,920,000,000 current LCU Annual
Government Revenues 2011 2,228,830,000,000 1,838,680,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Apr 2013 4 4 % Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 2,025,137 1,979,786 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 29.51 30.09 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 7.62 7.82 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 85,442 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Following, independence from France in 1960, El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba - one of the longest-ruling heads of state in the world - dominated the country's political scene for four decades (1967-2009). President BONGO introduced a nominal multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s. However, allegations of electoral fraud during local elections in December 2002 and the presidential election in 2005 exposed the weaknesses of formal political structures in Gabon. Following President BONGO's death in 2009, a new election brought his son, Ali BONGO Ondimba, to power. Despite constrained political conditions, Gabon's small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make it one of the more stable African countries.
President Ali BONGO Ondimba’s controversial August 2016 reelection sparked unprecedented opposition protests that resulted in the burning of the parliament building. The election was contested by the opposition after fraudulent results were flagged by international election observers. Gabon’s Constitutional Court reviewed the election results but ruled in favor of President BONGO, upholding his win and extending his mandate to 2023.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea
Geographic coordinates:
1 00 S, 11 45 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 267,667 sq km
land: 257,667 sq km
water: 10,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 78
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
total: 3,261 km
border countries (3): Cameroon 349 km, Republic of the Congo 2,567 km, Equatorial Guinea 345 km
Coastline:
885 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Elevation:
mean elevation: 377 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, diamond, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 19%
arable land 1.2%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 17.2%
forest: 81%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the relatively small population is spread in pockets throughout the country; the largest urban center is the capital of Libreville, located along the Atlantic coast in the northwest
Natural hazards:
none
Environment - current issues:
deforestation (the forests that cover three-quarters of the country are threatened by excessive logging); burgeoning population exacerbating disposal of solid waste; oil industry contributing to water pollution; wildlife poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
a small population and oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries; in general, these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity

People & Society

Population:
1,772,255
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Nationality:
noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective: Gabonese
Ethnic groups:
Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Bapounou, Nzebi, Obamba); other Africans and Europeans, 154,000, including 10,700 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality
Languages:
French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Religions:
Roman Catholic 42.3%, Protestant 12.3%, other Christian 27.4%, Muslim 9.8%, animist 0.6%, other 0.5%, none/no answer 7.1% (2012 est.)
Demographic profile:
Gabon’s oil revenues have given it one of the highest per capita income levels in sub-Saharan Africa, but the wealth is not evenly distributed and poverty is widespread. Unemployment is especially prevalent among the large youth population; more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. With a fertility rate still averaging more than 4 children per woman, the youth population will continue to grow and further strain the mismatch between Gabon’s supply of jobs and the skills of its labor force.
Gabon has been a magnet to migrants from neighboring countries since the 1960s because of the discovery of oil, as well as the country’s political stability and timber, mineral, and natural gas resources. Nonetheless, income inequality and high unemployment have created slums in Libreville full of migrant workers from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, and elsewhere in West Africa. In 2011, Gabon declared an end to refugee status for 9,500 remaining Congolese nationals to whom it had granted asylum during the Republic of the Congo’s civil war between 1997 and 2003. About 5,400 of these refugees received permits to reside in Gabon.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.9% (male 373,307/female 369,237)
15-24 years: 20.46% (male 181,823/female 180,837)
25-54 years: 29.52% (male 262,511/female 260,673)
55-64 years: 4.36% (male 37,178/female 40,014)
65 years and over: 3.76% (male 28,664/female 38,011) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 67.4
youth dependency ratio: 59.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Population growth rate:
1.92% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Birth rate:
34.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Net migration rate:
-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Population distribution:
the relatively small population is spread in pockets throughout the country; the largest urban center is the capital of Libreville, located along the Atlantic coast in the northwest
Urbanization:
urban population: 87.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
LIBREVILLE (capital) 707,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
291 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Infant mortality rate:
total: 44.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.1 years
male: 51.7 years
female: 52.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
Total fertility rate:
4.39 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
31.1% (2012)
Health expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 175
Physicians density:
0.41 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density:
6.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 43.4% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 41.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.6% of population
rural: 68.5% of population
total: 58.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
48,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,500 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
15% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 127
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
6.5% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 79
Education expenditures:
2.7% of GDP (2014)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.2%
male: 85.3%
female: 81% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 35.7%
male: 30.5%
female: 41.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Gabonese Republic
conventional short form: Gabon
local long form: Republique Gabonaise
local short form: Gabon
etymology: name originates from the Portuguese word "gabao" meaning "cloak," which is roughly the shape that the early explorers gave to the estuary of the Komo River by the capital of Libreville
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Libreville
geographic coordinates: 0 23 N, 9 27 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence:
17 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1960)
Constitution:
history: previous 1961; latest drafted May 1990, adopted 15 March 1991, promulgated 26 March 1991
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the Council of Ministers, or by one-third of either house of Parliament; passage requires Constitutional Court evaluation, at least two-thirds majority vote of two-thirds of the Parliament membership convened in joint session, and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on Gabon’s democratic form of government cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2011 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Gabon
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ali BONGO Ondimba (since 16 October 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister (vacant); note - Prime Minister Emmanuel ISSOZE-NGONDET (since 29 September 2016) resigned on 1 May 2018, after the constitutional court dissolved the National Assembly and ordered his resignation when elections failed to be held by 30 April 2018
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 27 August 2016 (next to be held in August 2023); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ali BONGO Ondimba reelected president; percent of vote - Ali BONGO Ondimba (PDG) 49.8%, Jean PING (UFC) 48.2%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (number of seats not fixed; members indirectly elected by municipal councils and departmental assemblies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 13 December 2014 (next to be held in January 2020); National Assembly - last held on 17 December 2011 (originally scheduled for 27 December 2016; the election has been delayed twice and was supposed to take place by the end of April 2018; the constitutional court dissolved the National Assembly when National Assembly elections were not held by 30 April 2018; no new election date has been set; the powers of the National Assembly transfer to the Senate until a new election takes place)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 81, CLR 7, PSD 2, ADERE-UPG 1, UPG 1, PGCI 1, independent 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 113, RPG 3, other 4
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 4 permanent specialized supreme courts - Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation, Administrative Supreme Court or Conseil d'Etat, Accounting Supreme Court or Cour des Comptes, Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle - and the non-permanent Court of State Security, initiated only for cases of high treason by the president and criminal activity by executive branch officials)
judge selection and term of office: appointment and tenure of Supreme, Administrative, Accounting, and State Security courts NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 3 by the national president, 3 by the president of the Senate, and 3 by the president of the National Assembly; judges serve 7-year, single renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; county courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders:
Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean-Boniface ASSELE]
Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [DIDJOB Divungui di Ndinge]
Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG [Ali BONGO Ondimba]
Independent Center Party of Gabon or PGCI [Luccheri GAHILA]
Rally for Gabon or RPG
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]
Union for the New Republic or UPRN [Louis Gaston MAYILA]
Union of Gabonese People or UPG [Richard MOULOMBA]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Jean PING]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Gabones Trade Union Confederation or GOSYGA [Martin ALLINI] (affiliated with the International Union Confederation)
National Convention of Trade Unions in the education sector or CONASYSED (banned by the governemnt in early 2017)
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael MOUSSA-ADAMO (since September 9, 2011)
chancery: 2034 20th Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000
FAX: [1] (301) 332-0668
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joel DANIES (since 22 MARCH 2018); note - also accredited to Sao Tome and Principe
embassy: Boulevard du Bord de Mer, Libreville
mailing address: Centre Ville, B. P. 4000, Libreville; pouch: 2270 Libreville Place, Washington, DC 20521-2270
telephone: [241] 01-45-71-00
FAX: [241] 01-74-55-07
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue; green represents the country's forests and natural resources, gold represents the equator (which transects Gabon) as well as the sun, blue represents the sea
National symbol(s):
black panther; national colors: green, yellow, blue
National anthem:
name: "La Concorde" (The Concorde)
lyrics/music: Georges Aleka DAMAS
note: adopted 1960

Economy

Economy - overview:
Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most sub-Saharan African nations, but because of high income inequality, a large proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon relied on timber and manganese exports until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. From 2010 to 2016, oil accounted for approximately 80% of Gabon’s exports, 45% of its GDP, and 60% of its state budget revenues.
Gabon faces fluctuating international prices for its oil, timber, and manganese exports. A rebound of oil prices from 2001 to 2013 helped growth, but declining production, as some fields passed their peak production, has hampered Gabon from fully realizing potential gains. GDP grew nearly 6% per year over the 2010-14 period, but slowed significantly from 2014 to just 1% in 2017 as oil prices declined. Low oil prices also weakened government revenue and negatively affected the trade and current account balances. In the wake of lower revenue, Gabon signed a 3-year agreement with the IMF in June 2017.
Despite an abundance of natural wealth, poor fiscal management and over-reliance on oil has stifled the economy. Power cuts and water shortages are frequent. Gabon is reliant on imports and the government heavily subsidizes commodities, including food, but will be hard pressed to tamp down public frustration with unemployment and corruption.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$36.75 billion (2017 est.)
$36.4 billion (2016 est.)
$35.66 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 124
GDP (official exchange rate):
$14.47 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$19,300 (2017 est.)
$19,400 (2016 est.)
$19,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 91
Gross national saving:
24.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
24% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 39.9%
government consumption: 15.5%
investment in fixed capital: 28.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 45.2%
imports of goods and services: -28.9% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 4.5%
industry: 44%
services: 51.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber; cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fish
Industries:
petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, gold; chemicals, ship repair, food and beverages, textiles, lumbering and plywood, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Labor force:
557,800 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 64%
industry: 12%
services: 24% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
28% (2015 est.)
20.4% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Population below poverty line:
34.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 32.7% (2005 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42.2 (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Budget:
revenues: $3.122 billion
expenditures: $3.991 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
21.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Public debt:
42.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Central bank discount rate:
3% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Stock of narrow money:
$2.17 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.053 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Stock of broad money:
$3.372 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.207 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.915 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.097 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-1.348 billion (2017 est.)
$-1.432 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Exports:
$5.078 billion (2017 est.)
$4.364 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Exports - commodities:
crude oil, timber, manganese, uranium
Exports - partners:
US 45.7%, China 14.6%, South Korea 6.6%, Ireland 5.5%, Italy 5.1% (2016)
Imports:
$3.224 billion (2017 est.)
$3.19 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, construction materials
Imports - partners:
France 24.7%, Belgium 14.7%, China 12.8%, Australia 6.7% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$834.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$804.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Debt - external:
$5.599 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.321 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Exchange rates:
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 200,000
electrification - total population: 89%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 38% (2013)
Electricity - production:
2.045 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Electricity - consumption:
1.907 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Electricity - imports:
337 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
670,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
50.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
49.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Crude oil - production:
210,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Crude oil - exports:
202,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Crude oil - proved reserves:
2 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Refined petroleum products - production:
16,810 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
22,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Refined petroleum products - exports:
5,118 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Refined petroleum products - imports:
8,851 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Natural gas - production:
378 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Natural gas - consumption:
957 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Natural gas - proved reserves:
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 18,946
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 2,962,486
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 167 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: a growing mobile cellular network with multiple providers is making telephone service more widely available with mobile cellular teledensity approaching 150 per 100 persons
international: country code - 241; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state owns and operates 2 TV stations and 2 radio broadcast stations; a few private radio and TV stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible; satellite service subscriptions are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.ga
Internet users:
total: 835,408
percent of population: 48.1% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 137,331
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
TR (2016)
Airports:
44 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 99
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 807 km; oil 1,639 km; water 3 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 649 km
standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 107
Roadways:
total: 9,170 km
paved: 1,097 km
unpaved: 8,073 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 140
Waterways:
1,600 km (310 km on Ogooue River) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 49
Merchant marine:
total: 27
by type: general cargo 11, oil tanker 1, other 15 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 132
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Libreville, Owendo, Port-Gentil
oil terminal(s): Gamba, Lucina

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.43% of GDP (2016)
1.19% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)
1.6% of GDP (2013)
1.62% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 80
Military branches:
Gabonese Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Gabonaise): Land Force (Force Terrestre), Gabonese Navy (Marine Gabonaise), Gabonese Air Forces (Forces Aerienne Gabonaises, FAG) (2012)
Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and lesser islands and to establish a maritime boundary in hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Gabon is primarily a destination and transit country for adults and children from West and Central African countries subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; boys are forced to work as street vendors, mechanics, or in the fishing sector, while girls are subjected to domestic servitude or forced to work in markets or roadside restaurants; West African women are forced into domestic servitude or prostitution; men are reportedly forced to work on cattle farms; some foreign adults end up in forced labor in Gabon after initially seeking the help of human smugglers to help them migrate clandestinely; traffickers operate in loose, ethnic-based criminal networks, with female traffickers recruiting and facilitating the transport of victims from source countries; in some cases, families turn child victims over to traffickers, who promise paid jobs in Gabon
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Gabon does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Gabon’s existing laws do not prohibit all forms of trafficking, and the government failed to pass a legal amendment drafted in 2013 to criminalize the trafficking of adults; anti-trafficking law enforcement decreased in 2014, dropping from 50 investigations to 16, and the only defendant to face prosecution fled the country; government efforts to identify and refer victims to protective services declined from 50 child victims in 2013 to just 3 in 2014, none of whom was referred to a care facility; the government provided support to four centers offering services to orphans and vulnerable children – 14 child victims identified by an NGO received government assistance; no adult victims have been identified since 2009 (2015)

Economic Indicators for Gabon including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Gabon economy.