France - Economic Indicators

Europe Daily Briefing: Manufacturing Momentum Shifts into Lower Gear

May 09, 2018

Download the full version of the Europe Daily Briefing The industrial performance of major euro zone countries hit a speed bump in March, with the data showing momentum eased and that industry ended the first quarter in lower gear. First, a sharp rebound in Germany did not materialize in March. True, a jump in capital goods sent the headline 1% above February, but production of intermediate goods prevented industry from making up for the steep 1.7%...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Private Consumption 2018 Q1 289,634 289,189 Mil. Ch. Prev. Yr. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Private Consumption 2018 Q1 307,654 305,354 Mil. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2018 Q1 135,897 135,410 Mil. EUR, SA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q1 123,063 122,323 Mil. Ch. Prev. Yr. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q1 582,503 579,140 Mil. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2018 Q1 132,030 131,596 Mil. Ch. 2010 EUR, SA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q1 131,973 130,849 Mil. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q1 547,289 545,905 Mil. Ch. prev. yr. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2018 102.73 102.62 Index 2015=100, SA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Mar 2018 102 101.7 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force 2018 Q1 29,056 29,104 Ths., SA Quarterly
Unemployment Rate 2018 Q1 9.2 9 %, SA Quarterly
Unemployment 2018 Q1 2,586 2,503 Ths. , SA Quarterly
Labor Force Employment 2018 Q1 26,470 26,601 Ths., SA Quarterly
Agriculture Employment 2017 819,933 819,080 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2017 Q4 115.6 115.5 Dec. 2008=100, NSA Quarterly
Total Employment 2017 Q4 27,985 27,922 Ths., SA Quarterly
Primary Industries Employment 2017 Q4 732.38 734.37 Ths., SA Quarterly
Total Employment Non-Ag 2017 Q1 16,227 16,174 Ths., SA Quarterly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 174,633 175,038 Mil. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 168,795 169,012 Mil. Ch. Prev. Yr. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 185,449 185,540 Mil. Ch. Prev. Yr. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Net Exports 2018 Q1 -13,410 -12,734 Mil. EUR, SA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q1 188,043 187,772 Mil. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Real Net Exports 2018 Q1 -16,654 -16,528 Mil. Ch. 2010 EUR, SA Quarterly
Exports of Goods Mar 2018 39,913 39,757 Mil. EUR, SA Monthly
Imports of Goods Mar 2018 45,171 44,805 Mil. EUR, SA Monthly
Balance of Goods Mar 2018 -5,258 -5,048 Mil. EUR, SA Monthly
Current Account Balance Mar 2018 -464 -6,292 Mil. EUR, NSA Monthly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues Mar 2018 62,483 39,425 Mil. EUR YTD, NSA Monthly
Government Expenditures Mar 2018 74,804 53,767 Mil. EUR YTD, NSA Monthly
Gross External Debt 2017 Q4 4,830,884 4,891,911 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Outstanding Public Debt 2017 Q4 4,830,884 4,891,911 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic 2017 Q4 1,276,552 1,294,222 Mil. EUR, NSA Quarterly
Government Budget Balance 2016 -75.89 -78.69 Bil. Euros, NSA Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate 25 May 2018 0 0 %, NSA Daily
Average Long-term Government Bond Apr 2018 0.78 0.84 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Stock Market Index 06 Nov 2017 5,507 5,517 December 31 1987 = 100, NSA Business Daily
Money Market Rate Mar 1999 2.93 3.09 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
House Price Value for New Homes 2018 Q1 263,945 269,096 EUR, NSA Quarterly
Non-residential Building Permits Mar 2018 3,594 2,960 Ths. sq. m, NSA Monthly
Non-residential Housing Starts Mar 2018 2,478 2,291 Ths. sq. m, NSA Monthly
House Price Index 2017 Q4 104.5 104.8 2010Q1=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for Existing Homes 2017 Q4 104.5 103.5 2010Q1=100, SA Quarterly
Dwelling Stocks 2017 35,720 35,435 Ths. # Annual
Vacancy 2017 2,995 2,913 Ths. # Annual
House Price Index for New Homes 2017 Q4 106.9 105.74 Index 2015=100, NSA Quarterly
Residential Housing Starts Oct 2017 32,394 31,434 Number, NSA Monthly
Building Permits Oct 2017 47,129 49,330 Number, NSA Monthly
Residential Building Permits Oct 2017 44,208 45,494 Number, NSA Monthly
Housing Starts Oct 2017 35,297 33,614 #, NSA Monthly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Confidence Apr 2018 101 100 Balance of opinion; SA Monthly
Retail Sales Feb 2018 108.38 107.91 Index 2015=100, WDASA Monthly
Real Retail Sales Dec 2017 124.39 125.93 Vol. Index 2010=100, WDASA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q2 85.8 86.2 %, SA Quarterly
Business Confidence May 2018 109.3 109.3 Bal. of opinion, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2018 Q1 8,149 8,075 Mil. EUR, WDASA Quarterly
Industrial Production Mar 2018 103.38 103.81 Index 2015=100, WDASA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population Apr 2018 65,039 65,034 Ths. #, NSA Monthly
Births Mar 2018 56,300 52,700 # Monthly
Deaths Mar 2018 58,500 51,000 #, NSA Monthly
Birth Rate 2015 12 12.4 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 9 8.5 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 361,722 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-7, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

Geography

Location:
metropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain
French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname
Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico
Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Geographic coordinates:
metropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E
French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W
Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W
Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W
Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E
Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E
Map references:
metropolitan France: Europe
French Guiana: South America
Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean
Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean
Mayotte: Africa
Reunion: World
Area:
total: 643,801 sq km; 551,500 sq km (metropolitan France)
land: 640,427 sq km; 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France)
water: 3,374 sq km; 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)
note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion
country comparison to the world: 44
Area - comparative:
slightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
metropolitan France - total: 2,751 km
border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km
French Guiana - total: 1,205 km
border countries (2): Brazil 649 km, Suriname 556 km
Coastline:
total: 4,853 km
metropolitan France: 3,427 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average
Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)
Terrain:
metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin
Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks
Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
Elevation:
mean elevation: 375 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,810 m
note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit
Natural resources:
metropolitan France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish
French Guiana: gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
Land use:
agricultural land: 52.7%
arable land 33.4%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 17.5%
forest: 29.2%
other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
total: 26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km
metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
much of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second
Natural hazards:
metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean
overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding
volcanism: Montagne Pelee (1,394 m) on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc, it last erupted in 1932; a catastrophic eruption in May 1902 destroyed the city of St. Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people; La Soufriere (1,467 m) on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean last erupted from July 1976 to March 1977; these volcanoes are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Environment - current issues:
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea

People & Society

Population:
67,106,161
note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups:
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
Languages:
French (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard)
overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)
Religions:
Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28%
note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state (2015 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.53% (male 6,360,218/female 6,076,598)
15-24 years: 11.79% (male 4,045,901/female 3,864,395)
25-54 years: 37.78% (male 12,773,900/female 12,578,256)
55-64 years: 12.42% (male 4,020,507/female 4,315,407)
65 years and over: 19.48% (male 5,648,888/female 7,422,091) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 59.2
youth dependency ratio: 29.1
elderly dependency ratio: 30.2
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.4 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 43.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Population growth rate:
0.39% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Birth rate:
12.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Death rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Net migration rate:
1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Population distribution:
much of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second
Urbanization:
urban population: 80% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
PARIS (capital) 10.843 million; Lyon 1.609 million; Marseille-Aix-en-Provence 1.605 million; Lille 1.027 million; Nice-Cannes 967,000; Toulouse 938,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
28.1 years (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.9 years
male: 78.8 years
female: 85.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Total fertility rate:
2.07 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
83% (2010/11)
Health expenditures:
11.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 8
Physicians density:
3.23 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 98.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
180,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<1000 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
21.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 87
Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 43
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 24.6%
male: 25%
female: 24% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique francaise
local short form: France
etymology: name derives from the Latin "Francia" meaning "Land of the Franks"; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
Government type:
semi-presidential republic
Capital:
name: Paris
geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to metropolitan France only, not to its overseas departments, collectivities, or territories
Administrative divisions:
18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion
note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)
Dependent areas:
Clipperton Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna
note: the US Government does not recognize claims to Antarctica; New Caledonia has been considered a "sui generis" collectivity of France since 1998, a unique status falling between that of an independent country and a French overseas department
Independence:
no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
National holiday:
Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
Constitution:
history: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard PHILIPPE (since 15 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April and 7 May 2017 (next to be held in April 2022); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24.0%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20.0%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; Emmanuel MACRON elected president in second round; percent of vote - MACRON 66.1%, LE PEN 33.9%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinque, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held on 24 September 2017); National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (next to be held in June 2022)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 187, PS 152, other 9
National Assembly - percent of vote by party first round - EM 28.2%, LR 15.8%. FN 13.2%, FI 11.0%, PS 7.4%, other 24.4%; percent of vote by party second round - EM 43.1%, LR 22.2%, FN 8.8%, MoDEM 6.1%, PS 5.7%. FI 4.9%, other 9.2%; seats by party - EM 308, LR 112, MoDEM 42, PS 29, UDI 18, FI 17, PCF 10, FN 8, other 33
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Movement or MoDEM [Francois BAYROU]
Europe Ecology - The Greens or EELV [David CORMAND]
Forward! (En Marche!) or EM [Catherine BARBAROUX, acting]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
La France insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Front Coalition or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Party or PG [collective leadership; main leaders Jean-Luc MELENCHON and Francois COCO, linked with the movement La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]]
Left Radical Party or PRG [Sylvia PINEL] (formerly Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG)
Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]
New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [collective leadership; main spokesperson Christine POUPIN; presidential candIdate Philippe POUTOU]
Rally for France or RPF [Igor KUREK]
Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
Socialist Party or PS [vacant]
Stand Up France (Debout La France) [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
The Centrists [Herve MORIN] (formerly new Center of NC)
The Republicans or LR (formerly Union for a Popular Movement or UMP) [vacant]
Union des Democrates et Independants or UDI [Jean-Christohe LAGARDE] and Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); together known as UDI-Modem; Radical Party [Laurent HENART] is a member of UDI
United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN]
Worker's Struggle (Lutte Ouvriere) or LO; also known as Communist Union; [collective leadership; spokespersons Nathalie ARTHAUD and Arlette LAGUILLER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC (Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres) [Francois HOMMERIL] (independent white-collar union with 140,000 members)
French Democratic Confederation of Labor or CFDT (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) [Laurent BERGER] (left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members)
French Confederation of Christian Workers or CFTC (Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens) [Philippe LOUIS] (independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Confederation generale du travail) [Philippe MARTINEZ] (historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members)
General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO (Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere) [Jean-Claude MAILLY] (independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members)
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF [Pierre GATTAZ] (employers' union with claimed 750,000 companies as members)
French Guiana:
conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups
Guadeloupe:
Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement
Martinique:
Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP
Reunion:
NA
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerard Roger ARAUD (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires D. Brent HARDT (since July 2017) note - also accredited to Monaco
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
consulate(s): Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas
note: the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands
National symbol(s):
Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
National anthem:
name: "La Marseillaise" (The Song of Marseille)
lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle
note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as "Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars

Economy

Economy - overview:
The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. Despite terrorist attacks, labor strikes, and bad weather, France is still the most visited country in the world with 83 million foreign tourists in 2016, including 530,000 who came for the 2016 Euro Cup. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality.
France's real GDP grew by 1.1% in 2016, down from 1.3% the year before. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2015, before slightly falling to 10% in 2016. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from 24.6% in the fourth quarter of 2014 to 24% in the fourth quarter of 2016.
Lower-than-expected growth and high spending have strained France's public finances. Despite measures to restore public finances since President Francois HOLLANDE took office in 2012, the budget deficit rose from 3.3% of GDP in 2008 to 7.5% of GDP in 2009 before improving to 3.4% of GDP in 2016. Meanwhile, France's public debt rose from 89.5% of GDP in 2012 to 96% in 2016.
President HOLLANDE’s policies aimed to enhance French industry’s competitiveness and to lower high jobless figures. The Competitiveness and Employment Tax Credit of 2012, the Responsibility and Solidarity Pact of 2014, the Investment Stimulus Plan, and the Emergency Jobs Plan represent more than $42.6 billion in support for businesses in 2017 by lowering French labor costs, but so far the results of these policies have been marginal on France’s competitiveness and job creation. In an effort to bolster social justice, the 2017 budget bill contained provisions to reduce income taxes for households and for small and medium sized enterprises.
During his mandate, President HOLLANDE oversaw two highly unpopular economic reforms that led to widespread protests. The “Macron Law” of 2015, enacted to boost economic growth, authorized businesses to open some Sundays of each month and allowed flexibility to negotiate pay and working hours. The “El Khomri law,” imposed by decree in 2016, aimed to make it easier for businesses to employ people and gave employers more leeway to negotiate hours, wages, and time off.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.735 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.669 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.612 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 11
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.466 trillion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.2% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$42,300 (2016 est.)
$42,000 (2015 est.)
$41,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 39
Gross national saving:
22% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 23.6%
investment in fixed capital: 21.9%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 29.3%
imports of goods and services: -31.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 19.6%
services: 78.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
Industries:
machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Labor force:
30.43 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79.3% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (2016 est.)
10% (2015 est.)
note: includes overseas territories
country comparison to the world: 130
Population below poverty line:
14% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29.2 (2015)
30.5 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 130
Budget:
revenues: $1.307 trillion
expenditures: $1.391 trillion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
53.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Public debt:
96.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
95.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 21
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.3% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Central bank discount rate:
0% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 158
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
1.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.93% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Stock of narrow money:
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.079 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
country comparison to the world: 6
Stock of broad money:
$1.982 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.945 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Stock of domestic credit:
$3.646 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.528 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.591 trillion (31 March 2017 est.)
$2.088 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.086 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Current account balance:
$-24.66 billion (2016 est.)
$-10.8 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Exports:
$507 billion (2016 est.)
$510.6 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Exports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Exports - partners:
Germany 16%, Spain 7.6%, US 7.3%, Italy 7.2%, UK 7%, Belgium 6.8% (2016)
Imports:
$536.7 billion (2016 est.)
$538.4 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Germany 19.3%, Belgium 10.6%, Netherlands 7.9%, Italy 7.8%, Spain 7%, US 5.8%, China 5.1%, UK 4.2% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$146.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Debt - external:
$5.36 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.25 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$807.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$772 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.379 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.314 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
536.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Electricity - consumption:
436.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Electricity - exports:
61.41 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Electricity - imports:
20.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
129.3 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
16.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
48.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
14% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
16.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Crude oil - production:
16,420 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Crude oil - imports:
1.096 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Crude oil - proved reserves:
72.35 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 77
Refined petroleum products - production:
1.27 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.661 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Refined petroleum products - exports:
433,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Refined petroleum products - imports:
854,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Natural gas - production:
28 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Natural gas - consumption:
42.51 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Natural gas - exports:
5.419 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Natural gas - imports:
44.38 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.608 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 85
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
385.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 39.006 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 67.571 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Mayotte - 262; Reunion - 262 (2015)
Broadcast media:
a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks (2008)
Internet country code:
metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
Internet users:
total: 57,226,585
percent of population: 85.6% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 30
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 65,039,503
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,098.31 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
F (2016)
Airports:
464 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 17
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 294
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 83
under 914 m: 75 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 170
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 105 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 15,322 km; oil 2,939 km; refined products 5,084 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 29,640 km
standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 9
Roadways:
total: 1,028,446 km (metropolitan France)
paved: 1,028,446 km (includes 11,416 km of expressways)
note: not included are 5,100 km of roadways in overseas departments (2010)
country comparison to the world: 8
Waterways:
metropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 169
by type: container 24, dry bulk 1, liquefied gas 6, passenger 67, roll on/roll off 21, tanker 34, other 16 (2016)
foreign-owned: 50 (Belgium 7, Bermuda 5, Denmark 11, French Polynesia 11, Germany 1, New Caledonia 3, Singapore 3, Sweden 4, Switzerland 5) (2010)
registered in other countries: 151 (Bahamas 15, Belgium 7, Bermuda 1, Canada 1, Cyprus 16, Egypt 1, Hong Kong 4, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Italy 2, Luxembourg 15, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 7, Mexico 1, Morocco 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 5, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 3, South Korea 2, Taiwan 2, UK 39, US 4, unknown 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 37
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine); Strasbourg (Rhine); Bordeaux (Garronne)
container port(s): Le Havre (2,215,262) (2011)
cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.26% of GDP (2016)
2.27% of GDP (2015)
2.23% of GDP (2014)
2.22% of GDP (2013)
2.24% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 47
Military branches:
Army (Armee de Terre; includes Marines, Foreign Legion, Army Light Aviation), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense) (2011)
Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 24,326 (Sri Lanka); 15,232 (Russia); 15,037 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 13,154 (Serbia and Kosovo); 11,566 (Cambodia); 10,615 (Turkey); 8,991 (Syria); 8,008 (Vietnam); 7,685 (Afghanistan); 7,049 (Sudan); 6,841 (Laos); 6,823 (Guinea); 6,043 (Iraq); 5,183 (Mauritania) (2016)
stateless persons: 1,370 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics
French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe
Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Economic Indicators for France including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the France economy.