United Kingdom - Economic Indicators

Europe Weekly Highlights and Preview, 16 November, 2018

Nov 16, 2018

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2018 Q3 334,876 331,834 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q3 530,604 524,731 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Government Consumption 2018 Q3 92,514 91,937 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Gross Domestic Product 2018 Q3 509,120 506,031 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2018 Q3 96,957 94,734 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q3 90,266 88,771 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Private Consumption 2018 Q3 320,830 319,088 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2018 Q3 85,936 85,224 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Producer Price Index (PPI) Oct 2018 115.1 114.7 Index 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Oct 2018 106.7 106.6 Index 2015=100, NSA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index 2016 107.04 106.6 Index 2010 = 100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force Employment Sep 2018 32,409 32,394 Ths. # 3-mo. MA, SAAR Monthly
Unemployment Sep 2018 1,381 1,363 Ths. # 3-mo. MA, SA Monthly
Labor Force Sep 2018 53,119 53,094 Ths. # 3-mo. MA, NSAAR Monthly
Unemployment Rate Sep 2018 4.1 4 % 3-mo. MA, SA Monthly
Wage & Salaries 2018 Q2 -11 31 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Agriculture Employment 2017 376,298 378,714 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q3 150,312 146,299 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q3 151,967 151,958 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Net Exports 2018 Q3 -1,655 -5,659 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Balance of Goods Sep 2018 -9,731 -11,724 Mil. GBP, SA Monthly
Exports of Goods Sep 2018 30,607 30,095 Mil. GBP, SA Monthly
Imports of Goods Sep 2018 40,338 41,819 Mil. GBP, SA Monthly
Exports of Goods and Services 2018 Q2 157,542 157,758 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 -20,317 -15,692 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Net Exports 2018 Q2 -6,106 -3,272 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2018 Q2 163,648 161,030 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Outstanding Public Debt 2014 6,201,000,000 -3,705,000,000 GBP Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Monetary Policy Rate 16 Nov 2018 0.75 0.75 %, NSA Business Daily
Lending Rate 16 Nov 2018 0.75 0.75 %, NSA Business Daily
Money Market Rate 16 Nov 2018 0.68 0.68 % p.a., NSA Business Daily
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Jun 2018 0.5 0.5 % Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Apr 2017 -2.06 -1.95 % Monthly
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
House Price Index Oct 2018 427.72 427.72 1993Q1=100, SA Monthly
House Price Value Oct 2018 214,534 214,921 GBP, NSA Monthly
House Price Value for New Homes 2018 Q3 184,814 184,026 GBP, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for Existing Homes 2018 Q3 431.98 428.12 1993Q1=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Index for New Homes 2018 Q3 468.97 466.97 1993Q1=100, NSA Quarterly
House Price Value for Existing Homes 2018 Q3 252,145 249,890 GBP, NSA Quarterly
Residential Building Completions 2017 Q4 55,060 43,900 #, NSA Quarterly
Housing Starts 2017 Q4 43,510 48,550 #, NSA Quarterly
Building Completions 2017 Q4 55,060 43,900 #, NSA Quarterly
Vacancy 2016 22,635 22,456 Thousands Annual
Dwelling Stocks 31 Mar 2014 28,073 27,914 Ths. # 365 days
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Retail Sales Oct 2018 110.6 111.2 Index 2016=100, SA Monthly
Real Retail Sales Oct 2018 110.6 111.2 Index 2016=100, SA Monthly
Consumer Confidence Oct 2018 -5.2 -5.8 SA Monthly
Personal Income 2015 22,400 21,900 GBP Annual
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2018 Q4 80.1 82.2 %, SA Quarterly
Business Confidence Oct 2018 3.1 5.4 Bal. of Op., SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2018 Q3 -1,426 672 Mil. GBP, SA Quarterly
Real Change in Inventories 2018 Q3 -854 1,195 Mil. Ch. 2016 GBP, SA Quarterly
Industrial Production Sep 2018 103 103.1 Ch. Vol. Index 2016=100, SA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 900,000 # Annual
Population 30 Jun 2017 64,169,400 63,785,900 # 365 days
Birth Rate 2016 11.8 11.9 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Births 2016 774,835 777,165 #, NSA Annual
Death Rate 2016 9.1 9.3 % Annual
Deaths 2016 597,206 602,782 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith in the 19th century, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two world wars and the Irish Republic's withdrawal from the union. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of NATO and the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1998.
The UK has been an active member of the EU since its accession in 1973, although it chose to remain outside the Economic and Monetary Union. However, motivated in part by frustration at a remote bureaucracy in Brussels and massive migration into the country, UK citizens on 23 June 2016 narrowly voted to leave the EU. The UK and the EU are currently negotiating the terms of the UK's withdrawal and will discuss a framework for their future relationship ahead of the UK's scheduled departure from the bloc on 29 March 2019.

Geography

Location:
Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France
Geographic coordinates:
54 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 243,610 sq km
land: 241,930 sq km
water: 1,680 sq km
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
country comparison to the world: 81
Area - comparative:
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 443 km
border countries (1): Ireland 443 km
Coastline:
12,429 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries
Climate:
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
Terrain:
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast
Elevation:
mean elevation: 162 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: The Fens -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Natural resources:
coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 71%
arable land 25.1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 45.7%
forest: 11.9%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
950 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scottish lowlands between Edinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfast
Natural hazards:
winter windstorms; floods
Environment - current issues:
continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but air pollution remains a concern, particularly in the London region; soil pollution from pesticides and heavy metals; decline in marine and coastal habitats brought on by pressures from housing, tourism, and industry
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel (the Channel Tunnel or Chunnel); because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

People & Society

Population:
United Kingdom 65,648,100
constituent countries:
England 55,268,100
Scotland 5,404,700
Wales 3,113,200
Northern Ireland 1,862,100 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Nationality:
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British
Ethnic groups:
white 87.2%, black/African/Caribbean/black British 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)
Languages:
English
note: the following are recognized regional languages: Scots (about 30% of the population of Scotland), Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 people in Cornwall) (2012 est.)
Religions:
Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.53% (male 5,819,363/female 5,532,123)
15-24 years: 11.9% (male 3,938,643/female 3,770,511)
25-54 years: 40.55% (male 13,387,903/female 12,873,090)
55-64 years: 11.98% (male 3,843,268/female 3,918,244)
65 years and over: 18.04% (male 5,246,475/female 6,439,832) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 55.5
youth dependency ratio: 27.4
elderly dependency ratio: 28.2
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.5 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Population growth rate:
0.52% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Birth rate:
12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Death rate:
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Net migration rate:
2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Population distribution:
the core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scotish lowlands between Endinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfast
Urbanization:
urban population: 83.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.82% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
LONDON (capital) 10.313 million; Manchester 2.646 million; Birmingham 2.515 million; Glasgow 1.223 million; Southampton/Portsmouth 882,000; Liverpool 870,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
28.5 years
note: data represent England and Wales only (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.8 years
male: 78.6 years
female: 83.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Total fertility rate:
1.88 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
84%
note: percent of women aged 16-49 (2008/09)
Health expenditures:
9.1% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 38
Physicians density:
2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density:
2.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
27.8% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 36
Education expenditures:
5.6% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 36
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 14.6%
male: 16.2%
female: 12.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - the island of Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK
etymology: self-descriptive country name; the designation "Great Britain," in the sense of "Larger Britain," dates back to medieval times and was used to distinguish the island from "Little Britain," or Brittany in modern France; the name Ireland derives from the Gaelic "Eriu," the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land)
Government type:
parliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital:
name: London
geographic coordinates: 51 30 N, 0 05 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to the United Kingdom proper, not to its Crown dependencies or overseas territories
Administrative divisions:
England: 27 two-tier counties, 32 London boroughs and 1 City of London or Greater London, 36 metropolitan districts, 56 unitary authorities (including 4 single-tier counties*)
two-tier counties: Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire
London boroughs and City of London or Greater London: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, City of London, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminster
metropolitan districts: Barnsley, Birmingham, Bolton, Bradford, Bury, Calderdale, Coventry, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Kirklees, Knowlsey, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Oldham, Rochdale, Rotherham, Salford, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield, Solihull, South Tyneside, St. Helens, Stockport, Sunderland, Tameside, Trafford, Wakefield, Walsall, Wigan, Wirral, Wolverhampton
unitary authorities: Bath and North East Somerset, Blackburn with Darwen, Bedford, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Brighton and Hove, City of Bristol, Central Bedfordshire, Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Cornwall, Darlington, Derby, Durham County*, East Riding of Yorkshire, Halton, Hartlepool, Herefordshire*, Isle of Wight*, Isles of Scilly, City of Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, Luton, Medway, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Northumberland*, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Poole, Portsmouth, Reading, Redcar and Cleveland, Rutland, Shropshire, Slough, South Gloucestershire, Southampton, Southend-on-Sea, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon, Telford and Wrekin, Thurrock, Torbay, Warrington, West Berkshire, Wiltshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, Wokingham, York
Northern Ireland: 5 borough councils, 4 district councils, 2 city councils
borough councils: Antrim and Newtownabbey; Ards and North Down; Armagh, Banbridge, and Craigavon; Causeway Coast and Glens; Mid and East Antrim
district councils: Derry and Strabane; Fermanagh and Omagh; Mid Ulster; Newry, Murne, and Down
city councils: Belfast; Lisburn and Castlereagh
Scotland: 32 council areas
council areas: Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, The Scottish Borders, West Dunbartonshire, West Lothian
Wales: 22 unitary authorities
unitary authorities: Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd, Isle of Anglesey, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire, Powys, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea, The Vale of Glamorgan, Torfaen, Wrexham
Dependent areas:
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
Independence:
12 April 1927 (Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act establishes current name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland); notable earlier dates: 927 (minor English kingdoms united); 3 March 1284 (enactment of the Statute of Rhuddlan uniting England and Wales); 1536 (Act of Union formally incorporates England and Wales); 1 May 1707 (Acts of Union formally unite England, Scotland, and Wales as Great Britain); 1 January 1801 (Acts of Union formally unite Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland); 6 December 1921 (Anglo-Irish Treaty formalizes partition of Ireland; six counties remain part of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland)
National holiday:
the UK does not celebrate one particular national holiday
Constitution:
history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
amendments: proposed as a “bill” for an “Act of Parliament” by the government, by the House of Commons, or by the House of Lords; passage requires agreement by both houses and by the monarch (Royal Assent); note - recent additions include the Human Rights Act of 1998, the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010, the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, and the House of Lords (Expulsion and Suspension) Act 2015 (2016)
Legal system:
common law system; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the United Kingdom
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES, son of the queen (born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Theresa MAY (Conservative) (since 13 July 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister; election last held on 8 June 2017 (next to be held by 5 May 2022)
note: in addition to serving as the UK head of state, the British sovereign is the constitutional monarch for 15 additional Commonwealth countries (these 16 states are each referred to as a Commonwealth realm)
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Lords (membership not fixed; as of May 2018, 780 lords were eligible to participate in the work of the House of Lords - 664 life peers, 90 hereditary peers, and 26 clergy; members are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister and non-party political members recommended by the House of Lords Appointments Commission), and the House of Commons (650 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve 5-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier); note - the House of Lords total does not include ineligible members or members on leave of absence
elections: House of Lords - no elections; note - in 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held in the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain; elections held only as vacancies in the hereditary peerage arise); House of Commons - last held on 8 June 2017 (next to be held by 5 May 2022)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative 42.3%, Labor 40.0%, SNP 43.0%, Lib Dems 7.4%, DUP 0.9%, Sinn Fein 0.7%, Plaid Cymru 0.5%,other 0.6%; seats by party - Conservative 317, Labor 262, SNP 35, Lib Dems 12, DUP 10, Sinn Fein 7, Plaid Cymru 4, other 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 12 justices including the court president and deputy president); note - the Supreme Court was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and implemented in October 2009, replacing the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the highest court in the United Kingdom
judge selection and term of office: judge candidates selected by an independent committee of several judicial commissions, followed by their recommendations to the prime minister, and appointed by the monarch; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts: England and Wales - Court of Appeal (civil and criminal divisions); High Court; Crown Court; County Courts; Magistrates' Courts; Scotland - Court of Sessions; Sheriff Courts; High Court of Justiciary; tribunals; Northern Ireland - Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland; High Court; county courts; magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance Party (Northern Ireland) [Naomi LONG]
Conservative and Unionist Party [Theresa MAY]
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Arlene FOSTER]
Green Party of England and Wales or Greens [Caroline LUCAS and Jonathan BARTLEY]
Labor (Labour) Party [Jeremy CORBYN]
Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Sir Vince CABLE]
Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Leanne WOOD]
Scottish National Party or SNP [Nicola STURGEON]
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]
Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Colum EASTWOOD]
Ulster Unionist Party or UUP (Northern Ireland) [Robin SWANN]
UK Independence Party or UKIP [Gerard BATTEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Confederation of British Industry
National Farmers' Union
Trades Union Congress
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, C, CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Nigel Kim DARROCH (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): Orlando (FL), San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Wood (Woody) JOHNSON IV (since 29 August 2017)
embassy: 24 Grosvenor Square, London, W1K 6AH; note - a new embassy is scheduled to open in early 2018 in the Nine Elms area of Wandsworth
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: [44] (0) 20 7499-9000
FAX: [44] (0) 20 7629-9124
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh
Flag description:
blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories
National symbol(s):
lion (Britain in general); lion, Tudor rose, oak (England); lion, unicorn, thistle (Scotland); dragon, daffodil, leek (Wales); shamrock, flax (Northern Ireland); national colors: red, white, blue (Britain in general); red, white (England); blue, white (Scotland); red, white, green (Wales)
National anthem:
name: "God Save the Queen"
lyrics/music: unknown
note: in use since 1745; by tradition, the song serves as both the national and royal anthem of the UK; it is known as either "God Save the Queen" or "God Save the King," depending on the gender of the reigning monarch; it also serves as the royal anthem of many Commonwealth nations

Economy

Economy - overview:
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining; the UK has been a net importer of energy since 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, are key drivers of British GDP growth. Manufacturing, meanwhile, has declined in importance but still accounts for about 10% of economic output.
In 2008, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Falling home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded the UK’s economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the then CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated an austerity program, which has continued under the Conservative government. However, the deficit still remains one of the highest in the G7, standing at 3.6% of GDP as of 2017, and the UK has pledged to lower its corporation tax from 20% to 17% by 2020. The UK had a debt burden of 90.4% GDP at the end of 2017.
The UK’s economy has begun to slow since the referendum vote to leave the EU in June 2016. A sustained depreciation of the British pound has increased consumer and producer prices, weighing on consumer spending without spurring a meaningful increase in exports. The UK has an extensive trade relationship with other EU members through its single market membership and economic observers have warned the exit will jeopardize its position as the central location for European financial services. Prime Minister MAY is seeking a new “deep and special” trade relationship with the EU following the UK’s exit. However, economists doubt that the UK will be able to preserve the benefits of EU membership without the obligations.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.88 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.833 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.783 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 10
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.565 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.7% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$43,600 (2017 est.)
$43,200 (2016 est.)
$42,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 40
Gross national saving:
13.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
12.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
13% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 65.3%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 30.1%
imports of goods and services: -31.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.6%
industry: 19%
services: 80.4%
(2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Industries:
machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate:
0.7% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Labor force:
33.5 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 15.2%
services: 83.5% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Population below poverty line:
15% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.4 (2012 est.)
33.4 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Budget:
revenues: $984.4 billion
expenditures: $1.076 trillion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
38.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Public debt:
90.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
89.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 26
Fiscal year:
6 April - 5 April
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
0.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.44% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Stock of narrow money:
$104.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$96.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Stock of broad money:
$3.066 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.778 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Stock of domestic credit:
$3.042 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.785 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.019 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$2.903 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.107 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Current account balance:
$-91.42 billion (2017 est.)
$-114.5 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Exports:
$436.5 billion (2017 est.)
$407.3 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Exports - partners:
US 14.8%, Germany 10.7%, France 6.4%, Netherlands 6.2%, Ireland 5.6%, Switzerland 4.6%, China 4.4% (2016)
Imports:
$602.5 billion (2017 est.)
$588.4 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Imports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Germany 13.6%, US 9.3%, China 9.2%, Netherlands 7.4%, France 5.2%, Belgium 4.9%, Switzerland 4.5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$135 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$129.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Debt - external:
$8.126 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$8.642 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.027 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.858 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.634 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.611 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Exchange rates:
British pounds (GBP) per US dollar -
0.78 (2017 est.)
0.74 (2016 est.)
0.74 (2015 est.)
0.61 (2014 est.)
0.64 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
309.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Electricity - consumption:
301.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Electricity - exports:
2.153 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Electricity - imports:
19.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
94.64 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
55.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
9.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
1.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
33.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Crude oil - production:
933,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Crude oil - exports:
636,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Crude oil - imports:
808,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Crude oil - proved reserves:
2.564 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Refined petroleum products - production:
1.28 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.586 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Refined petroleum products - exports:
632,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Refined petroleum products - imports:
941,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Natural gas - production:
41.34 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Natural gas - consumption:
186.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Natural gas - exports:
14.22 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Natural gas - imports:
44.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Natural gas - proved reserves:
207.2 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
568.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 33,513,212
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 78,931,386
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Telephone system:
general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems
international: country code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers (2016)
Broadcast media:
public service broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world; BBC operates multiple TV networks with regional and local TV service; a mixed system of public and commercial TV broadcasters along with satellite and cable systems provide access to hundreds of TV stations throughout the world; BBC operates multiple national, regional, and local radio networks with multiple transmission sites; a large number of commercial radio stations, as well as satellite radio services are available (2008)
Internet country code:
.uk
Internet users:
total: 61,064,454
percent of population: 94.8% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 28
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,242
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 131,449,680
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,466,504,676 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
G (2016)
Airports:
460 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 18
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 271
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 89
914 to 1,523 m: 80
under 914 m: 66 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 189
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 160 (2013)
Heliports:
9 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 502 km; condensate/gas 9 km; gas 28,603 km; liquid petroleum gas 59 km; oil 5,256 km; oil/gas/water 175 km; refined products 4,919 km; water 255 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 16,837 km
broad gauge: 303 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Ireland)
standard gauge: 16,534 km 1.435-m gauge (5,357 km electrified) (2015)
country comparison to the world: 16
Roadways:
total: 394,428 km
paved: 394,428 km (includes 3,519 km of expressways) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 18
Waterways:
3,200 km (620 km used for commerce) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 31
Merchant marine:
total: 1,551
by type: bulk carrier 117, container ship 112, general cargo 175, oil tanker 173, other 974 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 17
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Dover, Felixstowe, Immingham, Liverpool, London, Southampton, Teesport (England); Forth Ports (Scotland); Milford Haven (Wales)
oil terminal(s): Fawley Marine terminal, Liverpool Bay terminal (England); Braefoot Bay terminal, Finnart oil terminal, Hound Point terminal (Scotland)
container port(s) (TEUs): Felixstowe (3,676,000), London (1,185,000), Southampton (2,349,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Isle of Grain, Milford Haven, Teesside

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.2% of GDP (2016)
2.05% of GDP (2015)
2.22% of GDP (2014)
2.25% of GDP (2013)
2.51% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 46
Military branches:
Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
16-33 years of age (officers 17-28) for voluntary military service (with parental consent under 18); no conscription; women serve in military services including ground combat roles; must be citizen of the UK, Commonwealth, or Republic of Ireland; reservists serve a minimum of 3 years, to age 45 or 55; 17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service by Nepalese citizens in the Brigade of Gurkhas; 16-34 years of age for voluntary military service by Papua New Guinean citizens (2016)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted UK citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 14,363 (Iran); 13,720 (Eritrea); 9,752 (Afghanistan); 8,790 (Zimbabwe); 8,269 (Syria); 7,326 (Sudan); 6,814 (Pakistan); 5,954 (Somalia); 5,809 (Sri Lanka) (2016)
stateless persons: 64 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center

Economic Indicators for United Kingdom including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the United Kingdom economy.