Israel - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows. Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2017 Q4 172,057 183,694 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 Q4 322,098 317,051 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 Q4 66,128 65,180 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Investment 2017 Q4 70,170 66,587 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Government Consumption 2017 Q3 70,926 72,610 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 226,171,820,500 202,138,195,100 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 227,949,424,800 210,888,827,300 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Apr 2018 100.8 100.6 Index 2016=100, SA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index Apr 2018 93.9 93 Index 2012=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Primary Industries Employment 2018 Q1 36.65 41.19 Ths. #, SA Quarterly
Total Employment Mar 2018 3,875 3,901 Ths. #, SA Monthly
Labor Force Employment Mar 2018 3,876 3,893 Ths. #, NSA Monthly
Unemployment Rate Mar 2018 3.57 3.82 %, SA Monthly
Labor Force Mar 2018 4,007 4,044 Ths. #, NSA Monthly
Unemployment Mar 2018 130.92 150.76 Ths. #, NSA Monthly
Agriculture Employment 2017 40,175 43,534 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2017 Q1 119.69 118.86 Index 2005=100 Quarterly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods Feb 2018 6,213 5,682 Mil. USD, SA Monthly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 4,225 112.9 Mil. USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods Dec 2017 3,810 3,832 Mil. USD, SA Monthly
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 96,719 88,236 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 Q4 89,319 92,210 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Net Exports 2017 Q4 7,400 -3,974 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 344,869,514,200 336,309,389,300 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 369,835,287,700 338,042,716,800 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance Jan 2018 4,796 -21,483 Mil. ILS, NSA Monthly
Government Revenues Jan 2018 30,367 23,276 Mil. ILS, NSA Monthly
Government Expenditures Jan 2018 25,571 44,759 Mil. ILS, NSA Monthly
Outstanding Public Debt - Domestic 2017 Q4 649,049 654,683 Mil. ISL, NSA Quarterly
Outstanding Public Debt - Foreign 2017 Q4 96,910 98,134 Mil. ISL, NSA Quarterly
Outstanding Public Debt 2017 Q4 745,959 752,817 Mil. ISL, NSA Quarterly
Gross External Debt 2017 Q3 31,614,000,000 30,921,000,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Stock Market Index 24 May 2018 1,362 1,359 Index, NSA Daily
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Mar 2018 0.13 0.13 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Aug 2017 1.74 1.97 %, NSA Monthly
Lending Rate 2016 3.48 3.45 % Annual
Real Estate Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
House Price Index Feb 2018 404.6 405.3 Index 1993=100, NSA Monthly
Building Completions 2017 Q4 10,975 12,381 #, SA Quarterly
House Price Value for Existing Homes 2017 Q4 1,442 1,495 Ths. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Consumer Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Retail Sales Mar 2018 132 129.4 Index 2008=100, SA Monthly
Personal Income 2014 18,329 17,711 ISL Annual
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production Feb 2018 111.3 115.1 Index 2011=100, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2017 Q4 4,041 1,406 Mil. ILS, NSA Quarterly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population Mar 2018 8,834 8,821 Ths., NSA Monthly
Births Feb 2018 13,597 15,834 #, NSA Monthly
Deaths Feb 2018 3,862 4,472 #, NSA Monthly
Birth Rate 2015 21.3 21.5 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 5.3 5.2 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 19,497 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Following World War II, Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine, and the UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Nonetheless, an Israeli state was declared in 1948, and Israel subsequently defeated the Arab armies in a series of wars that did not end deep tensions between the two sides. (The territories Israel has occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted.) On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, Israel conducted bilateral negotiations with Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement with each. Israel and Palestinian officials on 13 September 1993 signed a Declaration of Principles (also known as the "Oslo Accords"), enshrining the idea of a two-state solution to their conflict and guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. The parties achieved six additional significant interim agreements between 1994 and 1999 aimed at creating the conditions for a two-state solution, but most were never fully realized. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty.
Progress toward a final status agreement with the Palestinians was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between 2001 and February 2005. Israel in 2005 unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council in 2006 temporarily froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Israel engaged in a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon from July-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip from December 2008-January 2009. In November 2012, Israel engaged in a seven-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip. Direct talks with the Palestinians most recently launched in July 2013 but were suspended in April 2014. The talks represented the fourth concerted effort to resolve final status issues between the sides since they were first discussed at Camp David in 2000. Three months later HAMAS and other militant groups launched rockets into Israel, which led to a 51-day conflict between Israel and militants in Gaza.

Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Geographic coordinates:
31 30 N, 34 45 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km
country comparison to the world: 154
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than New Jersey
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,068 km
border countries (6): Egypt 208 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 307 km, Lebanon 81 km, Syria 83 km, West Bank 330 km
Coastline:
273 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climate:
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain:
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Elevation:
mean elevation: 508 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Natural resources:
timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land use:
agricultural land: 23.8%
arable land 13.7%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 6.3%
forest: 7.1%
other: 69.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,250 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
population concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
Natural hazards:
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
limited arable land and restricted natural freshwater resources; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti); in 2017, there were 422 settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories - 42 settlements in the Golan Heights, 380 sites in the occupied Palestinian territories to include 213 settlements and 132 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, as all were evacuated in 2005 (2017)

People & Society

Population:
8,299,706 (includes populations of the Golan Heights of Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2016 est.)
note: approximately 22,000 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2016); approximately 201,000 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014) (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Nationality:
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
Ethnic groups:
Jewish 74.8% (of which Israel-born 75.6%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 16.6%, Africa-born 4.9%, Asia-born 2.9%), non-Jewish 25.2% (mostly Arab) (2015 est.)
Languages:
Hebrew (official), Arabic (used officially for Arab minority), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Religions:
Jewish 74.8%, Muslim 17.6%, Christian 2%, Druze 1.6%, other 4% (2015 est.)
religious affiliation:
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.51% (male 1,168,351/female 1,114,902)
15-24 years: 15.53% (male 658,572/female 630,675)
25-54 years: 37.17% (male 1,577,187/female 1,507,793)
55-64 years: 8.46% (male 344,922/female 357,301)
65 years and over: 11.33% (male 421,660/female 518,343) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 64.2
youth dependency ratio: 45.7
elderly dependency ratio: 18.4
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 29.9 years
male: 29.3 years
female: 30.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Population growth rate:
1.51% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Birth rate:
18.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Death rate:
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Net migration rate:
2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Population distribution:
population concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
Urbanization:
urban population: 92.3% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Tel Aviv-Yafo 3.608 million; Haifa 1.097 million; JERUSALEM (proclaimed capital) 839,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
27.6 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 82.5 years
male: 80.7 years
female: 84.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Total fertility rate:
2.64 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Health expenditures:
7.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 59
Physicians density:
3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density:
3.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
26.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 45
Education expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 57
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.7%
female: 96.8% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 8.6%
male: 8.2%
female: 9.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name "Israel" ("He who struggles with God") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
name: Jerusalem: note - while Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, the international community does not recognize it as such; the US, like all other countries, maintains its embassy in Tel Aviv-Yafo
geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence:
14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Constitution:
history: no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws, and the Law of Return (as amended)
amendments: proposed by Government of Israel ministers or by the Knesset; passage requires a majority vote of Knesset members and subject to Supreme Court judicial review; 11 of the 13 Basic Laws have been amended at least once, latest in 2014 (2016)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew acceptance of International Criminal Court jurisdiction in 2002
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization
note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew - defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; 17 years of age for municipal elections
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Reuven RIVLIN (since 27 July 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 31 March 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a 7-year term (limited to 1 term); election last held on 10 June 2014 (next to be held in 2021 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a government
election results: Reuven RIVLIN elected president in second round; Knesset vote - Reuven RIVLIN (Likud) 63, Meir SHEETRIT (The Movement) 53, other/invalid 4
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 March 2015 (next to be held by 5 November 2019 but can be called earlier)
election results: percent of vote by party - Likud 23.4%, Zionist Camp 18.7%, Joint List 10.5%, Yesh Atid 8.8%, Kulanu 7.5%, The Jewish Home 6.7%, Shas, 5.7%, Yisrael Beitenu 5.1%, UTJ 5.0%, Meretz 3.9%, Yachad 3.0%, other 1.7%; seats by party - Likud 30, Zionist Camp 24, Joint List 13, Yesh Atid 11, Kulanu 10, The Jewish Home 8, Shas 7, Yisrael Beitenu 6, UTJ 6, Meretz 5
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Judicial Selection Committee consisting of 3 Supreme Court judges, 2 Cabinet members including the Minister of Justice as chairman, 2 Knesset members, and 2 representatives from the Israel Bar Association; judges can serve up to mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court for Administrative Matters; district and magistrate courts; national and regional labor courts; special and religious courts
Political parties and leaders:
Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA]
Democratic Front for Peace and Equality or HADASH [Ayman ODEH]
Israeli Labor Party [Avi GABBAY]
Joint List [Ayman ODEH] (coalition includes Balad, HADASH, United Arab List, and Ta'al))
Kulanu [Moshe KAHLON]
Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]
Meretz [Zehava GALON]
SHAS [Arye DERI]
Ta'al (Arab Movement for Renewal) [Ahmad TIBI]
Tekumah/National Union (Ichud Leumi) [Uri ARIEL]
The Jewish Home (Habayit Hayehudi) [Naftali BENNETT]
The Movement (Hatnuah) [Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI]
United Arab List [Masud GANAIM]
United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN] (an alliance of three parties)
Yachad [Eli YISHAI]
Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]
Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Breaking the Silence or BtS [Yehuda SHAUL] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
B'Tselem [Hagai EL-AD] (monitors human rights abuses)
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER] (supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip)
YESHA Council [Avi ROEHD] (promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise)
International organization participation:
BIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ron DERMER (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David FRIEDMAN (since 23 May 2017)
embassy: 71 HaYarkon Street, Tel Aviv 6343229
telephone: [972] (3) 519-7475
FAX: [972] (3) 516-4390
consular agent: Haifa
Flag description:
white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Star of David or Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a traditional Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times
note: the Israeli flag proclamation states that the flag colors are sky blue and white, but the exact shade of blue has never been set and can vary from a light to a dark blue
National symbol(s):
Star of David (Magen David), menorah (seven-branched lampstand); national colors: blue, white
National anthem:
name: "Hatikvah" (The Hope)
lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN
note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Samuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song "Carul cu boi" (The Ox Driven Cart)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.
Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East insulated the economy from spillover effects.
Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.6% per year during the period 2014-16. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources.
Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of "tycoons" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact the well-being of younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2017 with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.
In the long term, Israel faces structural issues, including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$300.9 billion (2016 est.)
$285.8 billion (2015 est.)
$275.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 56
GDP (official exchange rate):
$317.7 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$35,200 (2016 est.)
$34,600 (2015 est.)
$34,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 54
Gross national saving:
24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 55.1%
government consumption: 22.3%
investment in fixed capital: 20.3%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 30.3%
imports of goods and services: -28.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 26.4%
services: 69.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Industries:
high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
Industrial production growth rate:
2.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Labor force:
3.925 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.8% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Population below poverty line:
22%
note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42.8 (2013)
39.2 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 47
Budget:
revenues: $83.66 billion
expenditures: $90.53 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Public debt:
60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
62.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Central bank discount rate:
0.1% (15 December 2015)
0.25% (31 December 2014)
country comparison to the world: 144
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.42% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.46% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Stock of narrow money:
$79.58 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Stock of broad money:
$189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$168.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Stock of domestic credit:
$257.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$245.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Current account balance:
$11.57 billion (2016 est.)
$15.19 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Exports:
$56.17 billion (2016 est.)
$56.68 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Exports - partners:
US 29.3%, Hong Kong 7.4%, UK 6.5%, China 5.5%, Belgium 4.2% (2016)
Imports:
$63.54 billion (2016 est.)
$59.99 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Imports - commodities:
raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
US 12.2%, China 8.9%, Switzerland 6.4%, Germany 6.1%, Belgium 5.9%, UK 5.5%, Netherlands 4.1%, Italy 4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$95.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$90.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Debt - external:
$87.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$107.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$99.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$98.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$84.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.8406 (2016 est.)
3.8406 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
3.86 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
60.44 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Electricity - consumption:
52.78 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Electricity - exports:
5.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
17.22 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
95.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
4.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Crude oil - production:
390 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Crude oil - imports:
215,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Crude oil - proved reserves:
12.73 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 90
Refined petroleum products - production:
278,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
199,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Refined petroleum products - exports:
115,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Refined petroleum products - imports:
98,020 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Natural gas - production:
8.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Natural gas - consumption:
13.61 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Natural gas - exports:
2.605 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Natural gas - imports:
160 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Natural gas - proved reserves:
176 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 47
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
62.5 million Mt (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 3,340,223
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 10.57 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Telephone system:
general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide
international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media:
state broadcasting network, operated by the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA), broadcasts on 2 channels, one in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; 5 commercial channels including a channel broadcasting in Russian, a channel broadcasting Knesset proceedings, and a music channel supervised by a public body; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; IBA broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2008)
Internet country code:
.il
Internet users:
total: 6,521,539
percent of population: 79.8% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,064,478
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 758,633,996 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
4X (2016)
Airports:
47 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 94
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Heliports:
3 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 763 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 1,250 km
standard gauge: 1,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 83
Roadways:
total: 18,566 km
paved: 18,566 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 115
Merchant marine:
total: 8
by type: cargo 1, container 7
registered in other countries: 48 (Bermuda 3, Georgia 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 34, Malta 3, Moldova 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 121
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa
container port(s) (TEUs): Ashdod (1,176,000), Haifa (1,238,000)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
5.64% of GDP (2016)
5.6% of GDP (2015)
5.86% of GDP (2014)
5.75% of GDP (2013)
5.72% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 5
Military branches:
Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Israel Naval Force (IN), Israel Air Force (IAF) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druze) military service; 17 years of age for voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 32 months for enlisted men and 24 months for enlisted women (varies based on military occupation), 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9-year service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), age 24 (women) (2015)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 27,812 (Eritrea) (2016)
stateless persons: 42 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
increasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center

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