Guatemala - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America with a GDP per capita roughly half the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. The agricultural sector accounts for 13.5% of GDP and 31% of the labor force; key agricultural exports include sugar, coffee, bananas, and vegetables. Guatemala is the top remittance recipient in Central America as a result of Guatemala's large expatriate community in the US. These inflows are a primary source of foreign income, equivalent to over one-half of the country's exports and one-tenth of its GDP. The 1996 peace accords, which...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 522,593,869,000 488,128,203,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 37,370,182,300 36,359,757,100 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 36,425,207,300 35,589,027,100 NCU Annual
Investment 2016 67,405,267,700 66,505,944,300 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 65,242,352,000 64,875,394,000 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 248,067,778,000 240,686,596,000 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Feb 2018 135.77 136.04 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Tertiary Industries Employment 2017 3,365,390 3,253,632 # Annual
Secondary Industries Employment 2017 1,260,318 1,223,418 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 2.6 2.7 % of total labor force Annual
Agriculture Employment 2017 2,180,009 2,136,023 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 6,613,075 6,370,645 # Annual
Unemployment 2016 176.37 164.75 Ths. Annual
Labor Force Employment 2016 6,474 6,240 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 4,662,700,000 4,261,500,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 2,656,000,000 2,667,700,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -238,000,000 194,900,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -2,006,700,000 -1,593,800,000 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 102,045,560,000 103,290,109,000 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 142,642,651,000 147,150,234,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 98,933,395,000 95,771,341,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 66,404,894,000 65,277,892,000 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2017 Q3 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate May 2017 3 3 % Monthly
Money Market Rate Apr 2006 6.64 6.51 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Average Long-term Government Bond Dec 1991 8 8 % Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 16,582,469 16,252,429 # Annual
Death Rate 2015 4.86 4.9 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2015 25.63 26 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -50,131 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the internal conflict, which had left more than 200,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, about 1 million refugees.

Geography

Location:
Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Geographic coordinates:
15 30 N, 90 15 W
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total: 108,889 sq km
land: 107,159 sq km
water: 1,730 sq km
country comparison to the world: 108
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,667 km
border countries (4): Belize 266 km, El Salvador 199 km, Honduras 244 km, Mexico 958 km
Coastline:
400 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
two east-west trending mountain chains divide the country into three regions: the mountainous highlands, the Pacific coast south of mountains, and the vast northern Peten lowlands
Elevation:
mean elevation: 759 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,220 m (highest point in Central America)
Natural resources:
petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 41.2%
arable land 14.2%; permanent crops 8.8%; permanent pasture 18.2%
forest: 33.6%
other: 25.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
3,375 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the vast majority of the populace resides in the southern half of the country, particularly in the mountainous regions; more than half of the population lives in rural areas
Natural hazards:
numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
volcanism: significant volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (3,772 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana
Environment - current issues:
deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
there are no natural harbors on the west coast

People & Society

Population:
15,460,732 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Nationality:
noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 60.1%, Maya 39.3% (K'iche 11.3%, Q'eqchi 7.6%, Kaqchikel 7.4%, Mam 5.5%, other 7.5%), non-Maya, non-mestizo 0.15% (Xinca (indigenous, non-Maya), Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak)), other 0.5% (2001 est.)
Languages:
Spanish (official) 68.9%, Maya languages 30.9% (K'iche 8.7%, Q'eqchi 7%, Mam 4.6%, Kaqchikel 4.3%, other 6.3%), other 0.3% (includes Xinca and Garifuna)
note: the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinka, and Garifuna (2001 est.)
Religions:
Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Demographic profile:
Guatemala is a predominantly poor country that struggles in several areas of health and development, including infant, child, and maternal mortality, malnutrition, literacy, and contraceptive awareness and use. The country's large indigenous population is disproportionately affected. Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America and has the highest fertility rate in Latin America. It also has the highest population growth rate in Latin America, which is likely to continue because of its large reproductive-age population and high birth rate. Almost half of Guatemala's population is under age 19, making it the youngest population in Latin America. Guatemala's total fertility rate has slowly declined during the last few decades due in part to limited government-funded health programs. However, the birth rate is still more close to three children per woman and is markedly higher among its rural and indigenous populations.
Guatemalans have a history of emigrating legally and illegally to Mexico, the United States, and Canada because of a lack of economic opportunity, political instability, and natural disasters. Emigration, primarily to the United States, escalated during the 1960 to 1996 civil war and accelerated after a peace agreement was signed. Thousands of Guatemalans who fled to Mexico returned after the war, but labor migration to southern Mexico continues.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.5% (male 2,719,027/female 2,614,720)
15-24 years: 21.58% (male 1,677,634/female 1,658,941)
25-54 years: 34.12% (male 2,516,456/female 2,759,393)
55-64 years: 5.26% (male 384,967/female 428,198)
65 years and over: 4.54% (male 324,492/female 376,904) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 68.7
youth dependency ratio: 61.1
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.1 years
male: 21.4 years
female: 22.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Population growth rate:
1.75% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Birth rate:
24.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Death rate:
4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Net migration rate:
-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
Population distribution:
the vast majority of the populace resides in the southern half of the country, particularly in the mountainous regions; more than half of the population lives in rural areas
Urbanization:
urban population: 52.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
GUATEMALA CITY (capital) 2.918 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
88 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Infant mortality rate:
total: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.6 years
male: 70.6 years
female: 74.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Total fertility rate:
2.77 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
60.6% (2014/15)
Health expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 101
Physicians density:
0.9 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 92.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 77.5% of population
rural: 49.3% of population
total: 63.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.5% of population
rural: 50.7% of population
total: 36.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
46,000
country comparison to the world: 59
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,600 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
21.2% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 93
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
12.6% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 57
Education expenditures:
3% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 139
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 4.8%
male: 3.6%
female: 7.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
etymology: name derives from the Maya word meaning "Land of Trees"
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Guatemala City
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended, reinstated, and amended in 1994 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years with no absences of six consecutive months or longer or absences totaling more than a year
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police by law cannot vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held in 2 rounds on 6 September and 25 October 2015 (next to be held in September 2019)
election results: Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (FNC) 23.9%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 19.8%, Manuel BALDIZON (LIDER) 19.6%, other 36.7%; percent of vote in second round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera 67.4%, Sandra TORRES 32.6%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; 127 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies within each of the country's 22 departments by simple majority vote and 31 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 September 2015 (next to be held in September 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - LIDER 19.1%, UNE 14.8%, TODOS 9.7%, PP 9.4%, FCN 8.8%, EG 6.2%, CREO-PU 5.7%, UCN 5.4%, Winaq-URNG-MAIZ 4.3%, Convergence 3.8%, VIVA 3.7%, PAN 3.4%, FUERZA 2.1%, other 3.5%; seats by party - LIDER 44, UNE 36, TODOS 18, PP 17, FCN 11, EG 7, UCN 6, CREO-PU 5, Winaq-URNG-MAIZ 3, Convergence 3, VIVA 3, PAN 3, FUERZA 2; note - seats by party as of 6 January 2016 - FCN 37, UNE 32, MR 20, TODOS 17, AC 12, EG 7, UCN 6, CREO 5, LIDER 5, VIVA 4, Convergence 3, PAN 3, PP 2, FUERZA 1, PU 1, URNG 1, Winaq 1, independent 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 13 magistrates including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Courts of Appeal; magistrates elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the (public) University of San Carlos, and 1 by the lawyers bar association; judges elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term
subordinate courts: numerous first instance and appellate courts
Political parties and leaders:
Citizen Alliance or AC
Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Richard LEE Abularach]
Convergence [Pablo MONSANTO]
Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO Cottom]
Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
FUERZA [Maurico REDFORD]
Grand National Alliance or GANA [Carlos Alberto MARTINEZ Castellanos]
Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or Winaq-URNG [Angel SANCHEZ Viesca]
Heart New Nation or CNN [Mario Roberto CHU Catalan]
My Country or Mi Pais [Alfredo RABBE]
National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ Strauss]
National Unity for Hope or UNE [Sandra TORRES]
National Convergence Front or FCN [Edgar Justino OVALLE Maldonado]
National Welfare or BIEN [Fidel REYES Lee]
Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]
Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias]
Political Movement Winaq or WINAQ [Amilcar de Jesus POP Ac]
Productivity and Labor Party or PPT [Edgar Alfredo RODRIGUEZ]
Progressive Liberating Party or PLP [Ana BERNAT]
Reform Movement or MR [Jose Raul VIGIL Arias]
Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON]
Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Escobar]
UNITED [Mario Rolando TORRES Marroquin]
Victoria (Victory) [Manuel de Jesus RIVERA]
Vision with Values or VIVA [Cromwell CUESTAS Paz]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Alliance Against Impunity or AI (includes Center for Legal Action on Human Rights or CALDH, Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala or FAMDEGUA)
Civic and Political Convergence of Women
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC
Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF
Foundation for the Development of Guatemala or FUNDESA
Guatemala Visible
Mutual Support Group or GAM
Movimiento PRO-Justicia
National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
International organization participation:
BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Manuel Alfredo ESPINA Pinto (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s): Del Rio (TX), San Bernardino (CA), Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ)
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Lake Worth (FL), Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), Miami, New York, Phoenix, Providence (RI), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis ARREAGA (since 4 October 2017)
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: DPO AA 34024
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue, with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) representing liberty and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles signifying Guatemala's willingness to defend itself and a pair of crossed swords representing honor and framed by a laurel wreath symbolizing victory; the blue bands represent the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea; the white band denotes peace and purity
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Mozambique
National symbol(s):
quetzal (bird); national colors: blue, white
National anthem:
name: "Himno Nacional de Guatemala" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
lyrics/music: Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE
note: adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911

Economy

Economy - overview:
Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America with a GDP per capita roughly half the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. The agricultural sector accounts for 13.5% of GDP and 31% of the labor force; key agricultural exports include sugar, coffee, bananas, and vegetables. Guatemala is the top remittance recipient in Central America as a result of Guatemala's large expatriate community in the US. These inflows are a primary source of foreign income, equivalent to over one-half of the country's exports and one-tenth of its GDP.
The 1996 peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and Guatemala has since pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) entered into force in July 2006, spurring increased investment and diversification of exports, with the largest increases in ethanol and non-traditional agricultural exports. While CAFTA-DR has helped improve the investment climate, concerns over security, the lack of skilled workers, and poor infrastructure continue to hamper foreign direct investment.
The distribution of income remains highly unequal with the richest 20% of the population accounting for more than 51% of Guatemala's overall consumption. More than half of the population is below the national poverty line, and 23% of the population lives in extreme poverty. Poverty among indigenous groups, which make up more than 40% of the population, averages 79%, with 40% of the indigenous population living in extreme poverty. Nearly one-half of Guatemala's children under age five are chronically malnourished, one of the highest malnutrition rates in the world.
Guatemala is facing growing fiscal pressures, exacerbated by multiple corruption scandals that led to the resignation of the president, vice president, and numerous high-level economic officials in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$131.7 billion (2016 est.)
$126.2 billion (2015 est.)
$119.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 79
GDP (official exchange rate):
$67.5 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.1% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
4.2% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$7,900 (2016 est.)
$7,900 (2015 est.)
$7,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 152
Gross national saving:
13.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 85.1%
government consumption: 9.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.5%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 19.5%
imports of goods and services: -27.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 23.6%
services: 62.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Industries:
sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Labor force:
6.53 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 30.5%
industry: 13.7%
services: 55.8% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.4% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Population below poverty line:
59.3% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
53 (2014 est.)
56 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 11
Budget:
revenues: $7.567 billion
expenditures: $8.3 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
11.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Public debt:
29.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Central bank discount rate:
7.53% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 42
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.23% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Stock of narrow money:
$10.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Stock of broad money:
$25.35 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Stock of domestic credit:
$30.44 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$644 million (2016 est.)
$-96.5 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Exports:
$10.58 billion (2016 est.)
$10.82 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Exports - commodities:
sugar, coffee, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, manufacturing products, precious stones and metals, electricity
Exports - partners:
US 34%, El Salvador 11.5%, Honduras 7.1%, Nicaragua 6%, Costa Rica 4.5%, Mexico 4.3% (2016)
Imports:
$16.76 billion (2016 est.)
$17.64 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Imports - commodities:
fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity, mineral products, chemical products, plastic materials and products
Imports - partners:
US 38.1%, Mexico 11%, China 9.9%, El Salvador 5%, Panama 4.2% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$9.156 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.746 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Debt - external:
$21.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$13.19 billion (2015 est.)
$11.98 billion (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Exchange rates:
quetzales (GTQ) per US dollar -
7.5999 (2016 est.)
7.5999 (2015 est.)
7.6548 (2014 est.)
7.7322 (2013 est.)
7.83 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 78%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
Electricity - production:
10.88 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Electricity - consumption:
9.833 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Electricity - exports:
1.335 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Electricity - imports:
746.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
4.139 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
42.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
28.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
34.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Crude oil - production:
8,977 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Crude oil - exports:
7,407 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Crude oil - imports:
17,220 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Crude oil - proved reserves:
83.07 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 75
Refined petroleum products - production:
1,069 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
91,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Refined petroleum products - exports:
11,780 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Refined petroleum products - imports:
104,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 es)
country comparison to the world: 98
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
13.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 1.675 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 19,208,673
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Telephone system:
general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala
domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opened the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity roughly 10 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity about 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that, together, provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Broadcast media:
4 privately owned national terrestrial TV channels dominate TV broadcasting; multi-channel satellite and cable services are available; 1 government-owned radio station and hundreds of privately owned radio stations (2007)
Internet country code:
.gt
Internet users:
total: 5,241,952
percent of population: 34.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 93,129
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 455,520 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
TG (2016)
Airports:
291 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 23
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 275
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 77
under 914 m: 195 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Pipelines:
oil 480 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 800 km
narrow gauge: 800 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 96
Roadways:
total: 17,621 km
paved: 7,489 km
unpaved: 10,132 km (includes 4,960 km of rural roads) (2016)
country comparison to the world: 118
Waterways:
990 km (260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 65
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.39% of GDP (2016)
0.43% of GDP (2015)
0.45% of GDP (2014)
0.46% of GDP (2013)
0.45% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 129
Military branches:
National Army of Guatemala (Ejercito Nacional de Guatemala, ENG, includes Guatemalan Navy (Fuerza de Mar, including Marines) and Guatemalan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Guatemalteca, FAG)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are eligible for military service; in practice, most of the force is volunteer, however, a selective draft system is employed, resulting in a small portion of 17-21 year-olds conscripted; conscript service obligation varies from 1 to 2 years; women can serve as officers (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
annual ministerial meetings under the Organization of American States-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to half of Belize, but agrees to Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution, but this vote was suspended indefinitely; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 257,000 (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2016)
Illicit drugs:
major transit country for cocaine and heroin; it is estimated that 1,000 mt of cocaine are smuggled through the country each year, primarily destined for the US market; in 2016, the Guatamalan government estimated that an average of 4,500 hectares of opium poppy were being cultivated; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem

Economic Indicators for Guatemala including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Guatemala economy.