Bosnia and Herzegovina - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The economy is among the least competitive in the region. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank in the Republika Srpska entity is a private...

Continue reading View Factbook for Bosnia and Herzegovina

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2017 5,759,628,600 5,882,689,000 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 28,800,864,800 27,953,486,100 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 5,281,451,100 5,188,524,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 4,739,055,300 4,689,426,200 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 31,283 29,900 Mil. BAM Annual
Private Consumption 2017 24,888,158,980 23,891,034,182 BAM Annual
Investment 2017 5,334,955,903 5,188,523,799 BAM Annual
Government Consumption 2015 6,160 6,083 Mil. BAD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Feb 2018 105.2 104.2 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Mar 2016 530,370 536,684 #, NSA Monthly
Labor Force Employment May 2015 712,353 709,995 #, NSA Monthly
Unemployment Rate Feb 2014 44.5 44.6 %, NSA Monthly
Labor Force Feb 2014 1,250,284 1,249,757 #, NSA Monthly
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods and Services Jul 2018 1,076,510 1,054,928 Ths. BAM, NSA Monthly
Imports of Goods and Services Jul 2018 1,746,585 1,665,506 Ths. BAM, NSA Monthly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 2,249 2,295 Mil. BAM, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 3,937 4,355 Mil. BAM, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -377.25 -549.4 Mil. BAM, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -1,060,930,510 -1,239,890,508 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 11,599,823,000 10,361,488,900 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 17,295,701,600 15,592,894,700 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2017 13,479 12,767 Mil. BAM Annual
Government Expenditures 2017 11,913 11,672 Mil. BAM Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Apr 2018 3.93 3.96 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate 2017 1.99 3.77 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 3,504 3,511 Ths. # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 9.16 9.12 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 11.04 10.89 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -161,371 # Annual
Births 2012 32,547 #, NSA Annual
Deaths 2012 35,817 #, NSA Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).
The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 51,197 sq km
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km
country comparison to the world: 129
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,543 km
border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km
Coastline:
20 km
Maritime claims:
NA
Climate:
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
mountains and valleys
Elevation:
mean elevation: 500 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 42.2%
arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%
forest: 42.8%
other: 15% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
30 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
air pollution; deforestation and illegal logging; inadequate wastewater treatment and flood management facilities; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; land mines left over from the 1992-95 civil strife are a hazard in some areas
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

People & Society

Population:
3,856,181 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groups:
Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1%
note: the methodology remains disputed and Republika Srspka authorities refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)
Languages:
Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
Religions:
Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.29% (male 264,718/female 247,587)
15-24 years: 11.58% (male 230,495/female 216,107)
25-54 years: 45.88% (male 889,686/female 879,514)
55-64 years: 14.83% (male 275,550/female 296,236)
65 years and over: 14.43% (male 218,823/female 337,465) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 43.3
youth dependency ratio: 20.7
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 42.1 years
male: 40.5 years
female: 43.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Population growth rate:
-0.16% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Birth rate:
8.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Net migration rate:
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Population distribution:
the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated
Urbanization:
urban population: 40.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
SARAJEVO (capital) 318,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
27 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.9 years
male: 73.9 years
female: 80.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Total fertility rate:
1.3 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
45.8% (2011/12)
Health expenditures:
9.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 30
Physicians density:
1.89 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density:
3.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 94.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
17.9% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 118
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.5% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 127
Education expenditures:
NA
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.5%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 62.3%
male: 43.5%
female: 62.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviation: BiH
etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," forming the combination denoting "dukedom"
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
3 first-order administrative divisions - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt) (ethnically mixed), the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), the Republic of Srpska (Republika Srpska) (predominantly Serb)
Independence:
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity; Victory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity
note: there is no national-level holiday
Constitution:
history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution
amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina
dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (chairman since 17 March 2018, presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak); Mladen IVANIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives
elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held on 7 October 2018); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC (PDP) 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC (HDZ-BiH) 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (SDA) 32.9% - Bosniak seat
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)
elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2019); state-level House of Representatives - election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held on 7 October 2018)
election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - Federation votes: SDA 27.9%, DF 15.3%, SBB BiH 14.4%, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 12.2%, SDP 9.5%, HDZ-1990 4.1%, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 3.7%, A-SDA 2.3%, other 10.6%; Republika Srpska votes: SNSD 38.5%, SDS 32.6%, PDP-NDP 7.8%, DNS 5.7%, SDA 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SNSD 6, SDS 5, DF 5, SBB BiH 4, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 4, SDP 3, PDP-NDP 1, HDZ-1990 1, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 1, DNS 1, A-SDA 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)
judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party-Sefer Halilovic or BPS-Sefer Halilovic [Sefer HALILOVIC]
Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]
Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Ilija CVITANOVIC]
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP BiH [Stanko PRIMORAC]
Croatian Party of Rights of Herceg-Bosne or HSP HB [Vesna PINJUH]
Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]
Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Vukota GOVEDARICA]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
International organization participation:
BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Haris HRLE (since 23 October 2015)
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen CORMACK (since 16 January 2015)
embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag description:
a wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National symbol(s):
golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white
National anthem:
name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC
note: music adopted 1999; lyrics accepted 2009 but not yet approved

Economy

Economy - overview:
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The economy is among the least competitive in the region. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank in the Republika Srpska entity is a private domestic one. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro through a currency board arrangement, which has maintained confidence in the currency and has facilitated reliable trade links with European partners. In 2016, Bosnia began a three-year IMF loan program, but it has struggled to meet the economic reform benchmarks required to receive all funding installments.
Interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar, but the economy made progress until 2008, when the global economic crisis caused a downturn. Since 2013, Bosnia and Herzegovina has posted positive economic growth, though severe flooding hampered recovery in 2014. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment dropped sharply after 2007 and remains low. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity, though public perceptions of government corruption and misuse of taxpayer money has encouraged a large informal economy to persist. National-level statistics have improved over time, but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$43.85 billion (2017 est.)
$42.78 billion (2016 est.)
$41.94 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 113
GDP (official exchange rate):
$17.46 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.5% (2017 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$11,400 (2017 est.)
$11,100 (2016 est.)
$10,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 134
Gross national saving:
12.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 78.8%
government consumption: 19.5%
investment in fixed capital: 17%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 36.3%
imports of goods and services: -53.2% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 7.8%
industry: 26.8%
services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Industries:
steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Labor force:
1.51 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 30%
services: 51% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20.5% (2017 est.)
25.4% (2016 est.)
note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy
country comparison to the world: 187
Population below poverty line:
17.2% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.3% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.8 (2011 est.)
33.1 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Budget:
revenues: $7.798 billion
expenditures: $7.996 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
44.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Public debt:
43.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
44.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
country comparison to the world: 125
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (2017 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Stock of narrow money:
$6.424 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.013 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Stock of broad money:
$13.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Stock of domestic credit:
$10.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.271 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-752 million (2017 est.)
$-741 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Exports:
$4.803 billion (2017 est.)
$4.288 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Exports - commodities:
metals, clothing, wood products
Exports - partners:
Germany 16.6%, Italy 12.7%, Croatia 11%, Serbia 9.2%, Slovenia 9.1%, Austria 8.2%, Turkey 4.5% (2016)
Imports:
$9.113 billion (2017 est.)
$8.361 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Germany 12.3%, Italy 11.7%, Serbia 11.2%, Croatia 9.9%, China 6.8%, Slovenia 5%, Russia 4.4%, Turkey 4.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Debt - external:
$10.45 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$7.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.721 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$0 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Exchange rates:
konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -
1.73 (2017 est.)
1.77 (2016 est.)
1.77 (2015 est.)
1.76 (2014 est.)
1.47 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
14.97 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Electricity - consumption:
11.44 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Electricity - exports:
6.007 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Electricity - imports:
3.872 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
4.243 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
41.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
48.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Crude oil - imports:
18,940 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Refined petroleum products - production:
20,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
31,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Refined petroleum products - exports:
5,910 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Refined petroleum products - imports:
15,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Natural gas - consumption:
881 million cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Natural gas - imports:
200 million cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
17 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 744,991
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 3,404,043
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 88 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Telephone system:
general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2016)
Broadcast media:
3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV broadcasting stations; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)
Internet country code:
.ba
Internet users:
total: 2,677,502
percent of population: 69.3% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,070
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 87 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
T9 (2016)
Airports:
24 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 130
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Heliports:
6 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 147 km; oil 9 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 965 km
standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 92
Roadways:
total: 22,926 km
paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)
unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 102
Waterways:
(Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.99% of GDP (2016)
1% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1.09% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 115
Military branches:
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,164 (Croatia) (2016)
IDPs: 99,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-95 war) (2017)
stateless persons: 49 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption

Economic Indicators for Bosnia and Herzegovina including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Bosnia and Herzegovina economy.