Gambia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

The government has invested in the agriculture sector because three-quarters of the population depends on the sector for its livelihood and agriculture provides for about one-third of GDP, making The Gambia largely reliant on sufficient rainfall. The agricultural sector has untapped potential - less than half of arable land is cultivated and agricultural productivity is low. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of cashews, groundnuts, fish, and hides. The Gambia's reexport trade accounts for almost 80% of goods exports and China has been its largest trade...

Continue reading View Factbook for Gambia

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2016 4,616,274,000 4,749,598,300 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 7,914,089,400 7,599,983,800 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 4,616,274,000 4,749,598,300 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 37,000,244,683 36,118,857,819 GMD Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 42,251,855,474 38,580,859,102 GMD Annual
Investment 2016 7,914,089,430 7,599,983,808 GMD Annual
Government Consumption 2013 2,395 2,201 Mil. GMD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2017 152.56 151.65 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 206,839 198,476 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 657,206 636,663 # Annual
Labor Force Employment 2012 544.32 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 5,914,580,100 5,955,774,500 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 10,327,298,400 12,157,062,600 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 17,705,006,923 19,453,165,456 GMD Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 10,139,891,104 9,529,332,008 GMD Annual
Balance of Goods 2016 Q4 -63,529,853 -42,206,450 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2016 Q4 87,915,238 69,469,445 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2016 Q4 -35,980,829 -21,274,571 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2016 Q4 24,385,384 27,262,994 USD, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance 2011 -458,989,816 -720,866,927 current LCU Annual
Government Revenues 2009 3,895,900,000 3,500,000,000 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate May 2017 20 23 % - End of period Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 2,038,501 1,977,590 # Annual
Death Rate 2015 8.2 8.35 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2015 39.99 40.47 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -13,476 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965. Geographically surrounded by Senegal, it formed a short-lived Confederation of Senegambia between 1982 and 1989. In 1991 the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty, but tensions have flared up intermittently since then. Yahya JAMMEH led a military coup in 1994 that overthrew the president and banned political activity. A new constitution and presidential election in 1996, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, completed a nominal return to civilian rule. JAMMEH was elected president in all subsequent elections including most recently in late 2011. After 22 years of increasingly authoritarian rule, President JAMMEH was defeated in free and fair elections in December 2016. Due to The Gambia’s poor human rights record under JAMMEH, international development partners had distanced themselves, and substantially reduced aid to the country. These channels may re-open under the administration of President

Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
Geographic coordinates:
13 28 N, 16 34 W
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 11,300 sq km
land: 10,120 sq km
water: 1,180 sq km
country comparison to the world: 166
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
total: 749 km
border countries (1): Senegal 749 km
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: extent not specified
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Terrain:
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Elevation:
mean elevation: 34 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 53 m
Natural resources:
fish, clay, silica sand, titanium (rutile and ilmenite), tin, zircon
Land use:
agricultural land: 56.1%
arable land 41%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 43.9%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
50 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
settlements are found scattered along the Gambia River; the largest communities, including the capital of Banjul, and the country's largest city, Serekunda, are found at the mouth of the Gambia River along the Atlantic coast
Natural hazards:
droughts
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the African mainland

People & Society

Population:
2,051,363 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Nationality:
noun: Gambian(s)
adjective: Gambian
Ethnic groups:
Mandinka/Jahanka 34%, Fulani/Tukulur/Lorobo 22.4%, Wolof 12.6%, Jola/Karoninka 10.7%, Serahuleh 6.6%, Serer 3.2%, Manjago 2.1%, Bambara 1%, Creole/Aku Marabout 0.7%, other 0.9%, non-Gambian 5.2%, no answer 0.6% (2013 est.)
Languages:
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Religions:
Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no answer 0.1% (2013 est.)
Demographic profile:
The Gambia’s youthful age structure – almost 60% of the population is under the age of 25 – is likely to persist because the country’s total fertility rate remains strong at nearly 4 children per woman. The overall literacy rate is around 55%, and is significantly lower for women than for men. At least 70% of the populace are farmers who are reliant on rain-fed agriculture and cannot afford improved seeds and fertilizers. Crop failures caused by droughts between 2011 and 2013 have increased poverty, food shortages, and malnutrition.
The Gambia is a source country for migrants and a transit and destination country for migrants and refugees. Since the 1980s, economic deterioration, drought, and high unemployment, especially among youths, have driven both domestic migration (largely urban) and migration abroad (legal and illegal). Emigrants are largely skilled workers, including doctors and nurses, and provide a significant amount of remittances. The top receiving countries for Gambian emigrants are Spain, the US, Nigeria, Senegal, and the UK. While the Gambia and Spain do not share historic, cultural, or trade ties, rural Gambians have migrated to Spain in large numbers because of its proximity and the availability of jobs in its underground economy (this flow slowed following the onset of Spain’s late 2007 economic crisis).
The Gambia’s role as a host country to refugees is a result of wars in several of its neighboring West African countries. Since 2006, refugees from the Casamance conflict in Senegal have replaced their pattern of flight and return with permanent settlement in The Gambia, often moving in with relatives along the Senegal-Gambia border. The strain of providing for about 7,400 Casamance refugees has increased poverty among Gambian villagers.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 37.44% (male 385,646/female 382,328)
15-24 years: 20.47% (male 207,611/female 212,366)
25-54 years: 34.4% (male 345,788/female 359,976)
55-64 years: 4.2% (male 41,295/female 44,865)
65 years and over: 3.48% (male 33,153/female 38,335) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 92.3
youth dependency ratio: 87.8
elderly dependency ratio: 4.5
potential support ratio: 22.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 21 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Population growth rate:
2.05% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Birth rate:
29.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Net migration rate:
-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Population distribution:
settlements are found scattered along the Gambia River; the largest communities, including the capital of Banjul, and the country's largest city, Serekunda, are found at the mouth of the Gambia River along the Atlantic coast
Urbanization:
urban population: 60.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
BANJUL (capital) 504,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
706 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Infant mortality rate:
total: 60.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.1 years
male: 62.8 years
female: 67.5 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Total fertility rate:
3.52 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
9% (2013)
Health expenditures:
7.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 73
Physicians density:
0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 84.4% of population
total: 90.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 15.6% of population
total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 61.5% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 58.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 38.5% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 41.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
20,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,100 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
10.3% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 138
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
16.4% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 38
Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 109
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 55.5%
male: 63.9%
female: 47.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 44.3%
male: 38.1%
female: 49.5% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form: The Gambia
etymology: named for the Gambia River that flows through the heart of the country
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Banjul
geographic coordinates: 13 27 N, 16 34 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
5 regions, 1 city*, and 1 municipality**; Banjul*, Central River, Kanifing**, Lower River, North Bank, Upper River, West Coast
Independence:
18 February 1965 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Constitution:
history: previous 1965 (independence act), 1970; latest adopted 8 April 1996, approved by referendum 8 August 1996, effective 16 January 1997
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly membership in each of several readings and approval by the president of the republic; a referendum is required for amendments affecting national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, government structures and authorities, taxation, and public funding; passage by referendum requires participation of at least 50% of eligible voters and approval by at least 75% of votes cast; amended 2001, 2004, 2010 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 November 2011 (next to be held on 1 December 2016); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Adama BARROW elected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (Coalition 2016) 43.3%, Yahya JAMMEH (APRC)39.6%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC) 17.1%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly (58 seats; 53 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - UDP 37.5%, GDC 17.4%, APRC 16%, PDOIS 9%, NRP 6.3%, PPP 2.5%, independent 9.6%; seats by party - UDP 31, APRC 5, GDC 5, NRP 5, PDOIS 4, PPP 2, independent 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of The Gambia (consists of the chief justice and 6 justices; court sessions held with 5 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, a 6-member independent body of high-level judicial officials, a presidential appointee, and a National Assembly appointee; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement age
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Special Criminal Court; Khadis or Muslim courts; district tribunals; magistrates courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Fabakary JATTA]
Coalition 2016 [collective leadership] (electoral coalition including UDP, PDOIS, NRP, GMC, GDC, PPP, GPDP)
Gambia Democratic Congress or GDC [Mama KANDEH]
Gambia Moral Congress or GMC [Mai FATTY]
Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress or GPDP [Henry GOMEZ]
National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Samba JALLOW]
National Convention Party or NCP [Ebrima Janko SANYANG]
People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]
People's Progressive Party or PPP [Yaya CEESAY)]
United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
The Association of Non-Governmental Organizations or TANGO
Female Lawyers Association of Gambia or FLAG
Gambia Committee on Traditional Practices or GAMCOTRAP
Gambia Press Union or GPU
West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA
Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia
other: special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Manneh HAMBA (since 3 May 2017)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Georgetown Plaza, Suite 240, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1379, 1399, 1425
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0240
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador C. Patricia ALSUP (since 11 January 2016)
embassy: Kairaba Avenue, Fajara, Banjul
mailing address: P.M.B. 19, Banjul
telephone: [220] 439-2856
FAX: [220] 439-2475
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green; red stands for the sun and the savannah, blue represents the Gambia River, and green symbolizes forests and agriculture; the white stripes denote unity and peace
National symbol(s):
lion; national colors: red, blue, green, white
National anthem:
name: "For The Gambia, Our Homeland"
lyrics/music: Virginia Julie HOWE/adapted by Jeremy Frederick HOWE
note: adopted 1965; the music is an adaptation of the traditional Mandinka song "Foday Kaba Dumbuya"

Economy

Economy - overview:
The government has invested in the agriculture sector because three-quarters of the population depends on the sector for its livelihood and agriculture provides for about one-third of GDP, making The Gambia largely reliant on sufficient rainfall. The agricultural sector has untapped potential - less than half of arable land is cultivated and agricultural productivity is low. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of cashews, groundnuts, fish, and hides. The Gambia's reexport trade accounts for almost 80% of goods exports and China has been its largest trade partner for both exports and imports for several years.
The Gambia has sparse natural resource deposits. It relies heavily on remittances from workers overseas and tourist receipts. Remittance inflows to The Gambia amount to about one-fifth of the country’s GDP. The Gambia's location on the ocean and proximity to Europe has made it one of the most frequented tourist destinations in West Africa, boosted by private sector investments in eco-tourism and facilities. Tourism normally brings in about 20% of GDP, but it suffered in 2014 from tourists’ fears of Ebola virus in neighboring West African countries. Unemployment and underemployment remain high.
Economic progress depends on sustained bilateral and multilateral aid, on responsible government economic management, and on continued technical assistance from multilateral and bilateral donors. International donors and lenders were concerned about the quality of fiscal management under the administration of former President Yahya JAMMEH, who reportedly stole hundreds of millions of dollars of the country’s funds during his 22 years in power, but anticipate significant improvements under the new administration of President Adama BARROW, who assumed power in early 2017. As of April 2017, the IMF, the World Bank, the European Union, and the African Development Bank were all negotiating with the new government of The Gambia to provide financial support in the coming months to ease the country’s financial crisis.
The country’s GDP contracted in 2016 largely as a result of the limited availability of foreign exchange, weak agricultural output, the border closure with Senegal during the first half of the year, and a slowdown in tourism during the political impasse that occurred at the height of the tourist season. The country faces a large fiscal deficit and a high domestic debt burden that has crowded out private sector investment and driven interest rates to new highs. The new government has committed to taking steps to reduce the deficit, including through expenditure caps, debt consolidation, and reform of state-owned enterprises.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.418 billion (2016 est.)
$3.302 billion (2015 est.)
$3.132 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 182
GDP (official exchange rate):
$965 million (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.2% (2016 est.)
4.3% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,700 (2016 est.)
$1,700 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 216
Gross national saving:
9.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
10.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 86.3%
government consumption: 10.4%
investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
investment in inventories: -7%
exports of goods and services: 19.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 13.8%
services: 65.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
rice, millet, sorghum, peanuts, corn, sesame, cassava (manioc, tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
peanuts, fish, hides, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Industrial production growth rate:
-6.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Labor force:
777,100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 75%
industry: 19%
services: 6% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Population below poverty line:
48.4% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 36.9% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
50.2 (1998)
country comparison to the world: 17
Budget:
revenues: $192.9 million
expenditures: $380.6 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
20% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-19.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Public debt:
116.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
110.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.2% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Central bank discount rate:
9% (31 December 2009)
11% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 34
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
30.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
30.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Stock of narrow money:
$279.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$261.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Stock of broad money:
$529.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$507.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Stock of domestic credit:
$496.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$475.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-86 million (2016 est.)
$-131.7 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Exports:
$106.6 million (2016 est.)
$108.3 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Exports - commodities:
peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
Exports - partners:
Mali 36.3%, Guinea 24.5%, Senegal 12.3%, China 11.7%, Guinea-Bissau 5.8% (2016)
Imports:
$326.7 million (2016 est.)
$370.2 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment
Imports - partners:
Cote dIvoire 13%, Brazil 12.3%, China 11%, Belgium 8.6%, India 5.7%, Spain 4.7%, Senegal 4.6% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$87.64 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$111 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Debt - external:
g: $571.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$526.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Exchange rates:
dalasis (GMD) per US dollar -
43.8846 (2016 est.)
43.8846 (2015 est.)
41.89 (2014 est.)
41.733 (2013 est.)
32.08 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 36%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)
Electricity - production:
240 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Electricity - consumption:
223.2 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
114,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 139
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Refined petroleum products - exports:
41.62 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Refined petroleum products - imports:
3,552 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
country comparison to the world: 143
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 37,969
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 2,838,127
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 141 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network; state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized in 2007
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, is over 140 per 100 persons
international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; a landing station for the Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) undersea fiber-optic cable completed in 2011 and launched in 2012; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-owned, single-channel TV service; state-owned radio station and 15 privately owned radio stations; 6 community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available, some via shortwave radio; cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable in some parts of the country (2015)
Internet country code:
.gm
Internet users:
total: 371,785
percent of population: 18.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Transportation

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
C5 (2016)
Airports:
1 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 218
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Roadways:
total: 3,740 km
paved: 711 km
unpaved: 3,029 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 159
Waterways:
390 km (on River Gambia; small oceangoing vessels can reach 190 km) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 88
Merchant marine:
total: 4
by type: passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 131
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Banjul

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.48% of GDP (2015)
1.72% of GDP (2014)
1.15% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)
Military branches:
Office of the Chief of Defense Staff: Gambian National Army (GNA), Gambian Navy (GN), Republican National Guard (RNG) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation 6 months (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts in other west African states
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 7,530 (Senegal) (2017)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: The Gambia is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Gambian women, girls, and, to a lesser extent, boys are exploited for prostitution and domestic servitude; women, girls, and boys from West African countries are trafficked to The Gambia for commercial sexual exploitation, particularly by European sex tourists; boys in some Koranic schools are forced into street vending or begging; some Gambian children have been identified as victims of forced labor in neighboring West African countries
tier rating: Tier 3 – The Gambia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government demonstrated minimal anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts, investigating one trafficking case but not prosecuting or convicting any offenders in 2014; authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any government employees complicit in trafficking, although corruption was a serious problem; the government identified and repatriated 19 Gambian girls subjected to domestic servitude in Lebanon but did not identify or provide protective services to any trafficking victims in The Gambia; a government program continued to provide resources and financial support to 12 Koranic schools on the condition that their students were not forced to beg (2015)

Economic Indicators for Gambia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Gambia economy.