Zambia - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 78,704,200,000 70,515,800,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 116,241,168,259 96,209,200,000 ZMK Annual
Investment 2016 83,591,724,728 70,490,800,000 ZMK Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 216,826,293,450 183,381,100,000 ZMK Annual
Government Consumption 2015 27.1 24.26 Bil. ZMK Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2013 122.09 114.6 Index 2005=100 Annual
Real Private Consumption 2010 53,071,900,000 NCU Annual
Real Government Consumption 2010 9,118,500,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2010 25,173,800,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2010 29,045,700,000 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 195.54 194.98 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index 1995 100 58.13 Index 2010 = 100 Annual
Producer Price Index (PPI) 1993 Q3 949.64 1,041 1990=100, NSA Quarterly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 3,762,259 3,635,694 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 7.79 7.78 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 6,818,495 6,590,858 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 18,639,766,000 16,372,004,000 NCU Annual
Labor Force Employment 1989 359.6 360.72 Ths. Annual
Total Employment 1989 359.6 360.72 Ths. Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2018 Q1 2,404,219,165 2,429,704,462 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q1 -302,739,800 -241,521,478 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q1 2,283,247,666 2,177,388,360 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 120,971,498 252,316,102 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 73,161,656,167 68,107,200,000 ZMK Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 92,492,753,244 86,511,600,000 ZMK Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2010 30,015,400,000 20,853,188,100 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2010 35,995,100,000 30,700,976,600 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Budget Balance 2011 -2,750,370,000,000 -2,469,280,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Aug 2018 17.13 13.88 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Feb 2013 8.46 9.29 % Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2016 3,858,700,000 7,980,700,000 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2010 3,871,900,000 NCU Annual
Industrial Production May 1987 86.51 84.2 1985=100, NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -40,000 # Annual
Population 2017 17,094,130 16,591,390 # Annual
Death Rate 2016 7.78 8 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Birth Rate 2016 38.13 38.44 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.

Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
country comparison to the world: 40
Area - comparative:
almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
1,560 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
Natural hazards:
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Environment - current issues:
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

People & Society

Population:
15.972 million
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Nationality:
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups:
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Languages:
Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Religions:
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Demographic profile:
Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 46.03% (male 3,693,255/female 3,657,890)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,595,628/female 1,598,065)
25-54 years: 28.72% (male 2,310,961/female 2,276,018)
55-64 years: 2.93% (male 217,954/female 250,134)
65 years and over: 2.33% (male 162,605/female 209,490) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 91.9
youth dependency ratio: 87.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 16.8 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 224
Population growth rate:
2.93% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Birth rate:
41.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
Death rate:
12.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Population distribution:
one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
Urbanization:
urban population: 41.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
LUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Infant mortality rate:
total: 61.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 55.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.7 years
male: 51.1 years
female: 54.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
Total fertility rate:
5.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
49% (2013/14)
Health expenditures:
5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 141
Physicians density:
0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density:
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
12.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.2 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
21,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 155
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
14.8% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 49
Education expenditures:
1.1% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 170
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one-half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts 3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Felix MUTATI]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU; Federation of Free Trade Unions in Zambia
other: other labor and trade unions
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ngosa SIMBYAKULA (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 2200 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. FOOTE (since December 2017)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: 260 (0) 211-357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
Flag description:
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
National symbol(s):
African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
National anthem:
name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer. GDP growth picked up in 2017 as mineral prices rose.
Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to more than 50% of GDP; the government has considered refinancing $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds to cut debt servicing costs.
Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2016, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit to over 8% in 2017 and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall if they can agree to austerity measures.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$68.9 billion (2017 est.)
$66.27 billion (2016 est.)
$64.08 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 102
GDP (official exchange rate):
$25.58 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2017 est.)
3.4% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,000 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$4,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 178
Gross national saving:
38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 53.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 27.8%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 45.3%
imports of goods and services: -49.2% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 5.4%
industry: 35.6%
services: 59% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Industries:
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate:
5.1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Labor force:
6.898 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Population below poverty line:
60.5% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
57.5 (2013 est.)
50.8 (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Budget:
revenues: $4.895 billion
expenditures: $7.05 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
19.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-8.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Public debt:
62.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.8% (2017 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Central bank discount rate:
9.1% (31 December 2012 est.)
19% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Stock of narrow money:
$1.816 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Stock of broad money:
$4.904 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.145 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Stock of domestic credit:
$5.207 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Current account balance:
$-918 million (2017 est.)
$-934 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Exports:
$8.106 billion (2017 est.)
$6.514 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Exports - commodities:
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 39.4%, China 18%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.7%, South Africa 6.4%, UAE 6%, Singapore 5.6% (2016)
Imports:
$7.336 billion (2017 est.)
$6.539 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Imports - commodities:
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
South Africa 31.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.3%, Kuwait 8.1%, China 7.6%, Mauritius 4.4%, UAE 4.2%, India 4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.426 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Debt - external:
$10.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
9.2 (2017 est.)
10.3 (2016 est.)
10.3 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
Electricity - production:
13.28 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Electricity - consumption:
11.62 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Electricity - exports:
1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Electricity - imports:
785 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
2.37 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
97.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Crude oil - imports:
11,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Refined petroleum products - production:
14,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Refined petroleum products - exports:
937.4 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Refined petroleum products - imports:
7,917 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 101,407
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 12,017,034
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Telephone system:
general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2015)
Broadcast media:
state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
Internet country code:
.zm
Internet users:
total: 3,956,252
percent of population: 25.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,796
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 79,092,826 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
9J (2016)
Airports:
88 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 63
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Pipelines:
oil 771 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 58
Roadways:
total: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
country comparison to the world: 87
Waterways:
2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 37
Merchant marine:
total: 1
by type: other 1 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 174
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.53% of GDP (2016)
1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 69
Military branches:
Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 42,468 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2018)
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis

Economic Indicators for Zambia including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Zambia economy.