El Salvador - Economic Indicators

Cutting U.S. Aid to Central America Could Backfire

Oct 24, 2018

As a migrant caravan of more than 7,000 people from Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador advances to the northern Mexican border in hopes of entering the U.S., President Trump has threatened to not only send the military to the border but also to reduce financial aid to the three Central American countries. The consequences of an aid reduction could worsen migration to the north. U.S. financial aid to other countries has been reduced significantly...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 3,844,648,100 3,684,291,500 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2017 24,805,439,600 23,912,227,500 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 4,116,007,700 3,666,440,200 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 3,768,377,800 3,737,627,400 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2017 24,270,461,400 23,719,551,700 NCU Annual
Investment 2017 4,189,500,000 3,612,304,200 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 111.49 111.21 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Producer Price Index (PPI) Oct 2017 103.19 102.9 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Wholesale Price Index 2016 108.45 111.35 Index 2010 = 100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 535,534 522,978 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 2,799,821 2,779,517 # Annual
Labor Force Employment 2016 2,726 Ths. Annual
Unemployment 2016 204.64 Ths. Annual
Unemployment Rate 2009 7.33 5.9 % Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2018 Q2 -1,509,802,268 -1,195,920,385 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2018 Q2 -250,885,400 -156,426,044 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2018 Q2 1,238,221,482 1,178,957,952 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2018 Q2 2,748,023,750 2,374,878,338 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 6,972,061,200 6,824,316,400 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 6,855,687,100 6,663,150,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 11,011,122,300 10,798,974,000 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 11,140,135,100 10,544,090,000 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2018 Q2 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate Nov 2008 5.35 5.8 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2017 344,851,900 -71,987,300 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2017 333,918,800 -70,568,900 NCU Annual
Industrial Production Dec 2017 109.83 109.67 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -202,694 # Annual
Population 2017 6,377,853 6,344,722 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 18.54 18.69 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 6.72 6.69 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms. El Salvador is beset by one of the world’s highest homicide rates and pervasive criminal gangs.

Geography

Location:
Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Geographic coordinates:
13 50 N, 88 55 W
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total: 21,041 sq km
land: 20,721 sq km
water: 320 sq km
country comparison to the world: 153
Area - comparative:
about the same size as New Jersey
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 590 km
border countries (2): Guatemala 199 km, Honduras 391 km
Coastline:
307 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Elevation:
mean elevation: 442 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 74.7%
arable land 33.1%; permanent crops 10.9%; permanent pasture 30.7%
forest: 13.6%
other: 11.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
452 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards:
known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
volcanism: significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on the Caribbean Sea

People & Society

Population:
6,172,011 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Nationality:
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
Ethnic groups:
mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
Languages:
Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)
Demographic profile:
El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.
Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador's population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.92% (male 820,255/female 779,306)
15-24 years: 20.23% (male 628,535/female 620,230)
25-54 years: 39.23% (male 1,120,705/female 1,300,771)
55-64 years: 7.14% (male 194,360/female 246,164)
65 years and over: 7.48% (male 203,320/female 258,365) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 56.8
youth dependency ratio: 44.4
elderly dependency ratio: 12.4
potential support ratio: 8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.1 years
male: 25.6 years
female: 28.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Population growth rate:
0.25% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Birth rate:
16.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Death rate:
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Net migration rate:
-8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Population distribution:
athough it is the smallest country in land area in Central America, El Salvador has a population that is 18 times larger than Belize; at least 20% of the population lives abroad; high population density country-wide, with particular concentration around the capital of San Salvador
Urbanization:
urban population: 67.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
SAN SALVADOR (capital) 1.098 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
54 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Infant mortality rate:
total: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.9 years
male: 71.6 years
female: 78.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Total fertility rate:
1.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
72% (2014)
Health expenditures:
6.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 86
Physicians density:
1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 86.5% of population
total: 93.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 13.5% of population
total: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 82.4% of population
rural: 60% of population
total: 75% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.6% of population
rural: 40% of population
total: 25% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
24,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<1000 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 57
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
5% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 78
Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 129
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88%
male: 90%
female: 86.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 12.4%
male: 11.8%
female: 13.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador
etymology: name is an abbreviation of the original Spanish conquistador designation for the area "Provincia de Nuestro Senor Jesus Cristo, el Salvador del Mundo" (Province of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the World), which became simply "El Salvador" (The Savior)
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: San Salvador
geographic coordinates: 13 42 N, 89 12 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
many previous; latest drafted 16 December 1983, enacted 23 December 1983; amended many times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system:
civil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (since 1 June 2014); Vice President Salvador Oscar ORTIZ (since 1 June 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (since 1 June 2014); Vice President Salvador Oscar ORTIZ (since 1 June 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 5-year term; election last held on 2 February 2014 with a runoff on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in early 2019)
election results: Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (FMLN) 48.9%, Norman QUIJANO (ARENA) 39%, Antonio SACA (CN) 11.4%, other 0.7%; percent of vote in second round - Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN 50.1%, Norman QUIJANO 49.9%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 3-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 42.3%, FMLN 24.4%, GANA 11.5%, PCN 10.8%, PDC 3.2%, CD 0.9%, Independent 0.7%, other 6.2%; seats by party - ARENA 37, FMLN 23, GANA 11, PCN 8, PDC 3, CD 1, Independent 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 15 judges assigned to constitutional, civil, penal, and administrative conflict divisions)
judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of both the National Council of the Judicature, an independent body elected by the Legislative Assembly and the Bar Association; judges elected for 9-year terms, with renewal of one-third of membership every 3 years; consecutive reelection is allowed
subordinate courts: Appellate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Courts of Peace
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto]
Democratic Change (Cambio Democratico) or CD [Douglas AVILES] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU)
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]
Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Jose Andres ROVIRA Caneles]
National Coalition Party or PCN [Manuel RODRIGUEZ]
Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Mauricio INTERIANO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
labor organizations:
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES
Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport, and other activities or FESINCONTRANS
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS
National Trade Union Federation of Salvadoran Workers or FENASTRAS
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS
Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES
Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS
San Salvador Municipality Union or ASTRAM
Teachers Union of the Ministry of Education or ANDES 21 de junio
Union of Employees of the National Rosales Hospital
Union of Judiciary Workers or SITTOJ
Union of Workers of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare or STIMSPAS
Union of Workers of the Ministry of the Treasury or SITRAMI
Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL
business organizations:
American Chamber of Commerce in El Salvador
National Association of Private Enterprise or ANEP
Salvadoran Chamber of Commerce or SACOC
Salvadoran Chamber of the Construction Industry or CASALCO
Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
International organization participation:
BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia Ivette CANJURA de Centeno (since 17 June 2016)
chancery: 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 595-7500
FAX: [1] (202) 232-1928
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Brentwood (NY), Chicago, Dallas, Doral (FL), Houston, Las Vegas (NV), Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), New York, Nogales (AZ), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ), Washington, DC, Woodbridge (VA), Woodstock (GA)
consulate(s): Elizabeth (NJ), Newark (NJ), Seattle, Woodbridge (VA)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Elizabeth MANES (since 29 March 2016)
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3450, APO AA 34023; 3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450
telephone: [503] 2501-2999
FAX: [503] 2501-2150
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of cobalt blue (top), white, and cobalt blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water, as well as peace and prosperity
note: similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
National symbol(s):
turquoise-browed motmot (bird); national colors: blue, white
National anthem:
name: "Himno Nacional de El Salvador" (National Anthem of El Salvador)
lyrics/music: Juan Jose CANAS/Juan ABERLE
note: officially adopted 1953, in use since 1879; at 4:20 minutes the anthem of El Salvador is one of the world's longest

Economy

Economy - overview:
The smallest country in Central America geographically, El Salvador has the fourth largest economy in the region. With the global recession, real GDP contracted in 2009 and economic growth has since remained low, averaging less than 2% from 2010 to 2014, but recovered somewhat in 2015-17 with an average annual growth rate of 2.4%. Remittances accounted for approximately 18% of GDP in 2017 and were received by about a third of all households.
In 2006, El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement, which has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the apparel sector amid increased Asian competition. In September 2015, El Salvador kicked off a five-year $277 million second compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation - a US Government agency aimed at stimulating economic growth and reducing poverty - to improve El Salvador's competitiveness and productivity in international markets.
The Salvadoran Government maintained fiscal discipline during post-war reconstruction and rebuilding following earthquakes in 2001 and hurricanes in 1998 and 2005, but El Salvador's public debt, estimated at 68.1% of GDP in 2017, has been growing over the last several years. Total external debt was about 60% of GDP in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$56.9 billion (2017 est.)
$55.62 billion (2016 est.)
$54.34 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 108
GDP (official exchange rate):
$27.41 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.3% (2017 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$8,900 (2017 est.)
$8,800 (2016 est.)
$8,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 144
Gross national saving:
13% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 88.5%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 13.7%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -39.4% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 10.6%
industry: 24.6%
services: 64.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products
Industries:
food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Industrial production growth rate:
2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Labor force:
2.774 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 20%
services: 58% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
note: data are official rates; but underemployment is high
country comparison to the world: 103
Population below poverty line:
34.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37 (2015 est.)
38 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Budget:
revenues: $5.756 billion
expenditures: $6.751 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
21% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Public debt:
68.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
65.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: El Salvador's total public debt includes non-financial public sector debt, financial public sector debt, and central bank debt
country comparison to the world: 54
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.8% (2017 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
6.37% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Stock of narrow money:
$3.311 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.129 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Stock of broad money:
$12.55 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Stock of domestic credit:
$15.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$4.4 billion (December 2016 est.)
$3.816 billion (December 2015 est.)
$3.535 billion (December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Current account balance:
$-266 million (2017 est.)
$-531 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Exports:
$4.25 billion (2017 est.)
$4.186 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Exports - commodities:
offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures
Exports - partners:
US 48.3%, Honduras 14.2%, Guatemala 13.5%, Nicaragua 6.5%, Costa Rica 4.7% (2016)
Imports:
$9.503 billion (2017 est.)
$8.823 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Imports - commodities:
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners:
US 37.9%, Guatemala 10.2%, China 8.8%, Mexico 7.6%, Honduras 6.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.067 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.238 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Debt - external:
$16.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$10.78 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.31 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$961.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.111 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Exchange rates:
note: the US dollar is used as a medium of exchange and circulates freely in the economy, 1 (2017 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 94%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 86% (2013)
Electricity - production:
5.482 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Electricity - consumption:
6.351 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Electricity - exports:
74.3 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Electricity - imports:
1.066 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.792 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
51.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
25.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
25.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Crude oil - exports:
220 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
46,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Refined petroleum products - exports:
224.8 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Refined petroleum products - imports:
45,540 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.318 million Mt (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 933,377
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 9,637,259
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Telephone system:
general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular began rolling out Long Term Evolution (LTE) data services in late-2016; growth in fixed-line services has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition; Internet usage grew almost 400% between 2007 and 2015
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2017)
Broadcast media:
multiple privately owned national terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by cable TV networks that carry international channels; hundreds of commercial radio broadcast stations and 1 government-owned radio broadcast station; transition to digital transmission to begin in 2018 along with adaptation of the Japanese-Brazilian Digital Standard (ISDB-T) (2017)
Internet country code:
.sv
Internet users:
total: 1,785,254
percent of population: 29.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 32
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,597,649
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 13,873,884 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
YS (2016)
Airports:
68 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 74
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 63
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 51 (2013)
Heliports:
2 (2013)
Railways:
total: 12.5 km
narrow gauge: 12.5 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 135
Roadways:
total: 6,979 km
paved: 4,414 km (includes 341 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,565 km (2016)
country comparison to the world: 147
Waterways:
(Rio Lempa River is partially navigable by small craft) (2011)
Merchant marine:
total: 2
by type: other 2 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 170
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Puerto Cutuco
oil terminal(s): Acajutla offshore terminal

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
0.87% of GDP (2016)
0.95% of GDP (2015)
0.93% of GDP (2014)
0.98% of GDP (2013)
0.94% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 126
Military branches:
Salvadoran Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada de El Salvador, FAES): Salvadoran Army (Ejercito de El Salvador, ES), Salvadoran Navy (Fuerza Naval de El Salvador, FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS) (2017)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation is 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 220,000 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; significant use of cocaine

Economic Indicators for El Salvador including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the El Salvador economy.