Oman - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Oman is heavily dependent on oil and gas resources, which can generate between and 68% and 85% of government revenue, depending on fluctuations in commodity prices. In 2016, low global oil prices drove Oman’s budget deficit to $13.8 billion, or approximately 20% of GDP, but the budget deficit is estimated to have reduced to 12% of GDP in 2017 as Oman reduced government subsidies. As of January 2018, Oman has sufficient foreign assets to support its currency’s fixed exchange rates. It is issuing debt to cover its deficit. Oman is using enhanced oil recovery techniques...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2016 9,686,108,600 9,081,400,000 OMR Annual
Private Consumption 2016 8,180,264,651 9,243,489,226 OMR Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 25,489,759,474 26,850,300,000 OMR Annual
Real Government Consumption 2015 6,714,488,600 6,661,199,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2015 9,081,000,000 8,973,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2015 9,738,301,000 7,325,401,100 NCU Annual
Government Consumption 2015 7,368 7,702 Mil. OMR Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 122.26 115.72 Index 2005=100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Labor Force 2017 2,544,134 2,409,267 # Annual
Agriculture Employment 2017 166,106 150,988 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Exports 2016 1,446,400,000 2,309,300,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 11,976,000,000 15,059,400,000 OMR Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 12,009,000,000 14,098,000,000 OMR Annual
Current Account Balance 2016 -12,319,042,695 -10,969,045,831 USD Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2015 13,533,660,800 13,986,715,500 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate Feb 2018 1.36 1.2 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Feb 2013 0.11 0.11 % - End of period Monthly
Stock Market Index Jan 2012 94.42 92.34 Index Jan2010=100, NSA Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production Aug 2016 1,480,000,000 1,470,000,000 2010 USD, SA Monthly
Change in Inventories 2015 552,398,600 -1,259,347,800 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2012 817,500 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered from Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, the nascent sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, although the Sultanate never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew his father, and has since ruled as sultan, but he has not designated a successor. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world, while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK and US. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with its neighbors and to avoid external entanglements.
Inspired by the popular uprisings that swept the Middle East and North Africa beginning in January 2011, some Omanis staged demonstrations, calling for more jobs and economic benefits and an end to corruption. In response to those protester demands, QABOOS in 2011 pledged to implement economic and political reforms, such as granting legislative and regulatory powers to the Majlis al-Shura and increasing unemployment benefits. Additionally, in August 2012, the Sultan announced a royal directive mandating the speedy implementation of a national job creation plan for thousands of public and private sector Omani jobs. This initiative took on new urgency in December 2017, when QABOOS instructed the government to create 25,000 new jobs in the public and private sectors for Omanis. As part of the government's efforts to decentralize authority and allow greater citizen participation in local governance, Oman successfully conducted its first municipal council elections in December 2012. Announced by the Sultan in 2011, the municipal councils have the power to advise the Royal Court on the needs of local districts across Oman's 11 governorates. The Sultan returned to Oman in March 2015 after eight months in Germany, where he received medical treatment.

Geography

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and the UAE
Geographic coordinates:
21 00 N, 57 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 309,500 sq km
land: 309,500 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 72
Area - comparative:
twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Kansas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,561 km
border countries (3): Saudi Arabia 658 km, UAE 609 km, Yemen 294 km
Coastline:
2,092 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain:
central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Elevation:
mean elevation: 310 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Shams 3,004 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Land use:
agricultural land: 4.7%
arable land 0.1%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 4.5%
forest: 0%
other: 95.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
590 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
the vast majority of the population is located in and around the Al Hagar Mountains in the north of the country; another smaller cluster is found around the city of Salalah in the far south; most of the country remains sparsely populated
Natural hazards:
summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; limited natural freshwater resources
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
consists of Oman proper and two northern exclaves, Musandam and Al Madhah; the former is a peninsula that occupies a strategic location adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

People & Society

Population:
4,613,241 (July 2017 est.)
note: immigrants make up approximately 45% of the total population (2017)
country comparison to the world: 132
Nationality:
noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani
Ethnic groups:
Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Languages:
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Religions:
Muslim 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish <0.1%, other 1%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2010 est.)
note: Omani citizens represent approximately 60% of the population and are overwhelming Muslim (Ibadhi and Sunni sects each constitute about 45% and Shia about 5%); Christians, Hindus, and Buddhists accounting for roughly 5% of Omani citizens
religious affiliation:
Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.1% (male 528,554/female 502,272)
15-24 years: 18.69% (male 335,764/female 304,207)
25-54 years: 43.8% (male 864,858/female 635,006)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 71,477/female 62,793)
65 years and over: 3.49% (male 58,561/female 60,894) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 32.4
youth dependency ratio: 29.4
elderly dependency ratio: 3.1
potential support ratio: 32.6 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 25.6 years
male: 26.6 years
female: 24.2 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Population growth rate:
2.03% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Birth rate:
24 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Death rate:
3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 220
Net migration rate:
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Population distribution:
the vast majority of the population is located in and around the Al Hagar Mountains in the north of the country; another smaller cluster is found around the city of Salalah in the far south; most of the country remains sparsely poplulated
Urbanization:
urban population: 78.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
MUSCAT (capital) 838,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.38 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.19 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Infant mortality rate:
total: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.7 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 77.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Total fertility rate:
2.82 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
29.7% (2014)
Health expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 172
Physicians density:
1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density:
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 86.1% of population
total: 93.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 13.9% of population
total: 6.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 97.3% of population
rural: 94.7% of population
total: 96.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.7% of population
rural: 5.3% of population
total: 3.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
27% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 39
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
9.7% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 73
Education expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 100
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 96.6%
female: 86% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2015)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman
former: Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it apparently dates back at least 2,000 years since an "Omana" is mentioned by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.) and an "Omanon" by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)
Government type:
absolute monarchy
Capital:
name: Muscat
geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
11 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafaza); Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Buraymi, Al Wusta, Az Zahirah, Janub al Batinah (Al Batinah South), Janub ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah South), Masqat (Muscat), Musandam, Shamal al Batinah (Al Batinah North), Shamal ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah North), Zufar (Dhofar)
Independence:
1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
National holiday:
National Day, 18 November; note - coincides with the birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Constitution:
history: promulgated by royal decree 6 November 1996 (the Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman serves as the constitution); amended by royal decree in 2011
amendments: promulgated by the sultan or proposed by the Council of Oman and drafted by a technical committee as stipulated by royal decree and then promulgated through royal decree; amended 2011 (2016)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Anglo-Saxon law and Islamic law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Oman
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces by law cannot vote
Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: members of the Ruling Family Council determine a successor from the sultan's extended family; if the Council cannot form a consensus within 3 days of the sultan's death or incapacitation, the Defense Council will relay a predetermined heir as chosen by the sultan
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Council of Oman or Majlis Oman consists of the Council of State or Majlis al-Dawla (85 seats including the chairman; members appointed by the sultan from among former government officials and prominent educators, businessmen, and citizens) and the Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (85 seats; members directly elected in single- and 2-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms); note - since political reforms in 2011, legislation from the Consultative Council is submitted to the Council of State for review by the Royal Court
elections: Consultative Assembly - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - organized political parties in Oman are legally banned
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the 9-member Supreme Judicial Council (chaired by the monarch) and appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; magistrates' courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders:
none; note - organized political parties are legally banned in Oman, and loyalties tend to form around tribal affiliations
Political pressure groups and leaders:
none
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI (since 2 December 2005)
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc J. SIEVERS (since 15 December 2016)
embassy: Jamait Ad Duwal Al Arabiyya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: P.O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Al Sultan Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 24-643-400
FAX: [968] 24-643-740
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band; white represents peace and prosperity, red recalls battles against foreign invaders, and green symbolizes the Jebel al Akhdar (Green Mountains) and fertility
National symbol(s):
khanjar dagger superimposed on two crossed swords; national colors: red, white, green
National anthem:
name: "Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani" (The Sultan's Anthem)
lyrics/music: Rashid bin Uzayyiz al KHUSAIDI/James Frederick MILLS, arranged by Bernard EBBINGHAUS
note: adopted 1932; new lyrics written after QABOOS bin Said al Said gained power in 1970; first performed by the band of a British ship as a salute to the Sultan during a 1932 visit to Muscat; the bandmaster of the HMS Hawkins was asked to write a salutation to the Sultan on the occasion of his ship visit

Economy

Economy - overview:
Oman is heavily dependent on oil and gas resources, which can generate between and 68% and 85% of government revenue, depending on fluctuations in commodity prices. In 2016, low global oil prices drove Oman’s budget deficit to $13.8 billion, or approximately 20% of GDP, but the budget deficit is estimated to have reduced to 12% of GDP in 2017 as Oman reduced government subsidies. As of January 2018, Oman has sufficient foreign assets to support its currency’s fixed exchange rates. It is issuing debt to cover its deficit.
Oman is using enhanced oil recovery techniques to boost production, but it has simultaneously pursued a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP. The key components of the government's diversification strategy are tourism, shipping and logistics, mining, manufacturing, and aquaculture.
Muscat also has notably focused on creating more Omani jobs to employ the rising number of nationals entering the workforce. However, high social welfare benefits - that had increased in the wake of the 2011 Arab Spring - have made it impossible for the government to balance its budget in light of current oil prices. In response, Omani officials imposed austerity measures on its gasoline and diesel subsidies in 2016. These spending cuts have had only a moderate effect on the government’s budget, which is projected to again face a deficit of $7.8 billion in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$187.9 billion (2017 est.)
$187.9 billion (2016 est.)
$182.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 68
GDP (official exchange rate):
$71.93 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0% (2017 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$45,500 (2017 est.)
$46,900 (2016 est.)
$48,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 36
Gross national saving:
19.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 34.5%
government consumption: 24.6%
investment in fixed capital: 35.3%
investment in inventories: 2.1%
exports of goods and services: 51%
imports of goods and services: -47.4% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 45.2%
services: 53% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
Industrial production growth rate:
0.3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Labor force:
968,800
note: about 60% of the labor force is non-national (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
country comparison to the world: 172
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $22.68 billion
expenditures: $32.07 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
31.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-13% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Public debt:
41.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
31.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: excludes indebtedness of state-owned enterprises
country comparison to the world: 133
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Central bank discount rate:
2% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.05% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.08% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Stock of narrow money:
$12.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Stock of broad money:
$41.44 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$40.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Stock of domestic credit:
$48.24 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$46.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$41.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$37.83 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$36.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Current account balance:
$-10.3 billion (2017 est.)
$-12.32 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Exports:
$31.9 billion (2017 est.)
$27.54 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Exports - commodities:
petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports - partners:
China 47.8%, UAE 8.3%, India 4.1% (2016)
Imports:
$22.71 billion (2017 est.)
$21.29 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports - partners:
UAE 44.9%, China 4.8%, India 4.8% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$19.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Debt - external:
$39.17 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA
Exchange rates:
Omani rials (OMR) per US dollar -
0.38 (2017 est.)
0.38 (2016 est.)
0.38 (2015 est.)
0.38 (2014 est.)
0.38 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 93% (2013)
Electricity - production:
30.79 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Electricity - consumption:
27.62 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
7.869 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Crude oil - production:
1.007 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Crude oil - exports:
745,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Crude oil - imports:
6,970 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Crude oil - proved reserves:
5.373 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Refined petroleum products - production:
224,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
176,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Refined petroleum products - exports:
33,240 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Refined petroleum products - imports:
713.9 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Natural gas - production:
29.93 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Natural gas - consumption:
38.03 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Natural gas - exports:
1.99 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Natural gas - imports:
10 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Natural gas - proved reserves:
651.3 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
69 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 422,518
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 6,866,260
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 201 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing with fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems
international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2016)
Broadcast media:
1 state-run TV broadcaster; TV stations transmitting from Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Iran, and Yemen available via satellite TV; state-run radio operates multiple stations; first private radio station began operating in 2007 and several additional stations now operating (2018)
Internet country code:
.om
Internet users:
total: 2,342,483
percent of population: 69.8% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 45
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,365,784
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 412,234,008 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
A4O (2016)
Airports:
132 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 44
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 119
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
Heliports:
3 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 106 km; gas 4,224 km; oil 3,558 km; oil/gas/water 33 km; refined products 264 km (2013)
Roadways:
total: 60,230 km
paved: 29,685 km (includes 1,943 km of expressways)
unpaved: 30,545 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 70
Merchant marine:
total: 51
by type: general cargo 9, other 42 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 116
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Mina' Qabus, Salalah, Suhar
container port(s) (TEUs): Salalah (3,200,000)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Qalhat

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
13.73% of GDP (2016)
14.38% of GDP (2015)
13.51% of GDP (2014)
14.81% of GDP (2013)
16.08% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 1
Military branches:
Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Yemen) (2017)

Economic Indicators for Oman including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Oman economy.